Class Size in High School English, Methods and Results

Class Size in High School English, Methods and Results

DORA V. SMITH
Copyright Date: 1931
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 324
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttwwq
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  • Book Info
    Class Size in High School English, Methods and Results
    Book Description:

    More than half this book consists of concrete description of methods found useful in teaching classes of fifty or more pupils in ninth grade English. Subjects dealt with include the care of individual differences, assignment and motivation of work, stimulating pupil participation, insuring activity and variety in class work, and arranging for individual and group competition. Dr. Smith shows how different methods may be adapted to classes of different sizes, and also presents new data on relative opportunity and relative achievement of upils in large and small classes, relative attitudes and character traits revealed by pupils, and comparative strain on the teacher in the different types of classes. The volume includes a complete account of all class size studies that appeared up to the middle of 1930, also an analysis of trends in class size in high schools as revealed through published reports and through the hitherto unpublished study made by Dr. Earl Hudelson in 1929. Dr. Smith is specialist in secondary school English under the National Survey of Secondary Education._x000B_ “It is rich in suggestion of methods of teaching to be used with large and small classes in English, and, by inference, in other fields of instruction,”--Leonard V. Koos, University of Chicago._x000B_ “Very useful and carefully work out techniques for handling large classes,”--Allan Abbott, Teachers College, Columbia University.

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3729-8
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-xiv)
  3. Chapter I THE PRESENT SITUATION IN CLASS SIZE
    (pp. 1-23)

    Among the most pressing problems that the increase in school population has forced upon the attention of administrators in the last two decades is the relation of class size to the efficiency of instruction. As expenditures inevitably rise from year to year, the difficulty of equitable apportionment of funds becomes increasingly serious. On the one hand, modern methods of teaching demand new and elaborate equipment. The adequate training of teachers requires augmented funds for study and sabbatical leave. These, in their turn, necessitate increases in salary proportionate to the ever soaring demands for better preparation for teaching. Finally, the need...

  4. Chapter II STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF CLASS SIZE UPON EFFICIENCY OF INSTRUCTION
    (pp. 24-82)

    The evidence presented in Chapter I points to several conclusions: (1) Available figures concerning changes in class size from 1915 to the present time indicate a trend toward larger classes. (2) Classes are largest in the elementary schools, next in size in junior high schools, and smallest in the senior high schools. (3) Certain administrators evince dissatisfaction with this order, which seems to them inversely proportionate to the pupil’s ability to take care of himself. If elementary school classes are the right size, they say, high school sections are too small. If high school classes are of a size to...

  5. Chapter III THE PROBLEM AND THE PROCEDURE OF THE PRESENT STUDY
    (pp. 83-91)

    The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to discover the effect of the size of the class upon the efficiency of instruction in ninth grade English; and (2) to devise techniques whereby a large group may be handled effectively with a minimum of waste of time and activity and a maximum of attention to and response from the individual.

    The investigation was carried on in ninth grade English in the University High School of the University of Minnesota during the years 1925–26 and 1926–27. Two classes were used each year, a control group composed of 20...

  6. Chapter IV ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA: AVERAGE ACHIEVEMENT IN LARGE AND SMALL CLASSES
    (pp. 92-108)

    Experiments concerning the effect of class size upon the efficiency of instruction in English have thus far concerned themselves primarily with English as a unit or with the language, spelling, and reading differentiations of the elementary school. It seemed advisable, therefore, in this study to consider separately the various aspects of the subject as it is taught in the ninth grade. As indicated in Tables 40–42, these are English form — including spelling, capitalization, and punctuation — grammar, letter writing, composition, the mechanics of reading, knowledge of literature, use of library tools, and extent and variety of reading activities....

  7. Chapter V ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA: COMPARATIVE PROGRESS OF INDIVIDUAL PUPILS
    (pp. 109-127)

    The central tendency of a group may be a very inadequate measure of the individuals within it. It seems wise, therefore, to check the results presented in Chapter IV by a more careful examination of the records of individual pairs mated at the beginning of the experiment. Actual scores are used for tests given once only and percentage of possible gain for those given at the beginning and the end of the year. This part of the study is based upon the combined results for the two years.

    In capitalization the members of the large classes did better than their...

  8. Chapter VI STUDENT TESTIMONY CONCERNING CLASS SIZE IN NINTH GRADE ENGLISH
    (pp. 128-144)

    Investigations in class size at the college level have commonly taken account of student opinion concerning the optimum size of classes for university instruction. While such reactions cannot replace experimental evidence in regard to the relative efficiency of instruction in large and small groups, they may furnish illuminating supplementary viewpoints from those whose welfare is intimately concerned with the problem.

    College students have, on the whole, shown a strong predilection for small classes.¹ In order to discover whether the younger, less sophisticated pupils of early adolescent years share this feeling, the boys and girls concerned in this experiment were asked...

  9. Chapter VII A STUDY OF TECHNIQUES OF INSTRUCTION ADAPTED TO LARGER GROUPS
    (pp. 145-195)

    Previous investigations of the effect of class size upon the efficiency of instruction have concerned themselves chiefly with comparative achievement in large and small groups and not very much with the methods producing these results. Dr. Hudelson has proved, moreover, that much of the dissatisfaction of teachers with classes above 30 in size comes from those who have made no attempt to adapt their methods to the larger groups.¹

    It is impossible to produce scientific evidence regarding the relative merits of various types of procedure unless there are mated against each other a number of large classes, in each of...

  10. Chapter VIII TESTIMONY OF TEACHERS AND OBSERVERS REGARDING FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT
    (pp. 196-210)

    During the two years of the experiment the teacher felt strongly the influence of two factors on the progress of the experiment. One was the character of the individual pupils within the groups and the other was the general spirit of teacher-pupil relationships in the University High School.

    In 1925–26 there were several problem pupils in the small class. Four boys in particular added to the burden of the teacher — two who were often indifferent and supercilious, one who was lazy and unresponsive, and a fourth who was a general trouble-maker in the school, so much so that...

  11. APPENDIX
    (pp. 213-282)
  12. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON CLASS SIZE
    (pp. 283-296)
  13. INDEX
    (pp. 297-309)