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Uses of the Other: “The East” in European Identity Formation

Series: Borderlines
Volume: 9
Copyright Date: 1999
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 304
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  • Book Info
    Uses of the Other
    Book Description:

    The field of international relations has recently witnessed a tremendous growth of interest in the theme of identity and its formation, construction, and deconstruction. In Uses of the Other, Iver B. Neumann demonstrates how thinking about identity in terms of the self and other may prove highly useful in the study of world politics.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-8881-4
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-x)
  3. Preface
    (pp. xi-xvi)
  4. 1 Uses of the Other in World Politics
    (pp. 1-38)

    The discipline of international relations (IR) is witnessing a surge of interest in identity and identity formation.¹ This development has definitely been permitted and facilitated by the general uncertainty of a discipline that feels itself to have spent the 1980s barking up the wrong trees. A lack of faith in the old has made it easier for the new to break through. And yet because identity formation has been foremost among the common concerns of social theory for years and years, it is hardly coincidental that “the new” happened to take the study of identity formation as one of its...

  5. 2 Making Europe: The Turkish Other
    (pp. 39-64)

    A variety of others have been and are instrumental in the process of forging European identity. From the confrontations with Islam and the Spanish conquest of the “New World” to the scramble for colonial possessions at the end of the nineteenth century and beyond, European historians and philosophers have grappled with the clash between “infidels” or “barbarians” and “civilized” peoples (Harbsmeier 1985). Ethnically and culturally peripheral minorities also serve as internal others. Outstanding historical examples include Jews and Freemasons. The most important contemporary candidates for otherness, arguably, are the postcolonial immigrants from Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent....

  6. 3 Making Europe: The Russian Other
    (pp. 65-112)

    Whereas one of the main reasons for devoting the previous chapter to European representations of “the Turk” had to do with the historical centrality of such representations for European identity formation, one of the main reasons why this chapter discusses representations of “Russia” has to do with its sweeping contemporary salience. In addition to its centrality for overall discourse on European identity formation, the question of where Russia fits in is a central component of ongoing discourse on the European security order, and is frequently its focus. It is the central part of most day-to-day deliberations over institutional particulars, such...

  7. 4 Making Regions: Northern Europe
    (pp. 113-142)

    For reasons that probably have more to do with quantity than with quality, in the international relations literature on regions, and particularly in the noneconomic literature, "Europe" is often not included as a region. Thus the two readings of how the self/other perspective may be brought to the study of identity formation at the Europewide level that were presented in Chapters z and 3 played themselves out in a "heterologue," with texts written mainly by historians. Once one turns to regions or, granting that Europe may just as well be treated as a region, subregions in addition to such texts...

  8. 5 Making Regions: Central Europe
    (pp. 143-160)

    Since 1992 one of the starting points of discourse on enlargement of the EU and also of NATO has been the need to privilege a region now referred to as Central Europe. The term “Central Europe” has not only become firmly entrenched as a term, but it has also contributed to propelling the states that ostensibly make it up to the forefront of the queue of EU applicant states. In its present incarnation, the discourse on Central Europe dates back to the 1950s, when intellectuals like Czesław Miłosz reopened the question of whether there existed a supranational identity in this...

  9. 6 Making Nations: Russia
    (pp. 161-182)

    Whereas Chapters 2 and 3 dealt with the uses of the other in the collective identity formation of Europe and Chapters 4 and 5 with the uses of the other in the making of (other) regions, this chapter and the next will deal with the uses of the other in national identity formation. Recall that Chapter 4 took as its starting point the fact that a number of key theoretical insights have evolved out of the study of nation building and then proceeded to discuss the making of regions in terms of those insights. Since the making of regions has...

  10. 7 Making Nations: Bashkortostan
    (pp. 183-206)

    In Chapter 3, I showed how Peter the Great launched a successful campaign to re-present the eastern geographical border of Europe from the Don River to the Ural Mountains. Two nations whose lands thus became part of Europe are the Bashkirs and the Tatars. Bashkortostan is one of six republics of the Russian federation. It occupies an area of 3,214,000 square kilometers in the middle Volga and South Ural, usually labeled the Volga-Ural region.¹ Tatarstan, which neighbors Bashkortostan to the west, is another. Of the 4 million people living in Bashkortostan at the time of the last census in 1989,...

  11. 8 Conclusion: Self and Other after the Death of the Sovereign Subject
    (pp. 207-228)

    The conclusion to Chapter 7, that “the East” has been cut loose from its geographical point of reference and has become a generalized social marker in European identity formation, is one that may also serve as an initial conclusion to the book as a whole. “The East” is indeed Europe’s other, and it is continuously being recycled in order to represent European identities. Since the “Eastern absence” is a defining trait of “European” identities, there is no use talking about the end of an East/West divide in European history after the end of the Cold War. The question is not...

  12. Notes
    (pp. 229-242)
  13. References
    (pp. 243-266)
  14. Index
    (pp. 267-282)
  15. Back Matter
    (pp. 283-283)