Certain Language Skills in Children

Certain Language Skills in Children: Their Development and Interrelationships

MILDRED C. TEMPLIN
Volume: 26
Copyright Date: 1957
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 208
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttv2st
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  • Book Info
    Certain Language Skills in Children
    Book Description:

    Certain Language Skills in Children was first published in 1957. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. No. 26 in the Institute of Child Welfare Monograph Series The data presented in this monograph have practical application for child psychologists, pediatricians, school nurses, and others dealing with young children in a clinical or remedial situation. The work provides norms on the development of articulation of speech sounds, sound discrimination, sentence structure, and vocabulary, as well as the interrelations of these language skills in children from ages three to eight. Since verbal expression is frequently the medium through which social interaction, cognition, and other behavior aspects are studied, knowledge of the probable verbal performance of children can often be vital in determining a design for an experimental study. _x000B_

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3841-7
    Subjects: Psychology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-2)
  3. I. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 3-5)

    The development of language in children has long been an area of interest. The early biographers of babies reported their observations on the development of speech sounds, the use of the sentence, and the size and content of the young child’s vocabulary. Since the beginnings of scientific study of child behavior, research studies have been concerned with many aspects of language. Evidence of the extent and variety of such interest is concretely provided in the 777 titles listed in the bibliography of a recent summary of language development in children (28). Many of these titles refer to investigations of children’s...

  4. II. THE EXPERIMENT
    (pp. 6-18)

    The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to describe the growth from 3 to 8 years of four aspects of language: articulation of speech sounds, speech sound discrimination, sentence structure, and vocabulary; and (2) to investigate the interrelations of these aspects of language over the age range studied.

    Since the results of this study will provide normative data on language skills, rigid criteria were maintained in the selection of the sample. An attempt was made to control factors known to be related to language skills, such as age, sex, intelligence, family constellation, language spoken at home, bilingualism, twinning, impaired...

  5. III. ARTICULATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS
    (pp. 19-60)

    Among the many investigations of language in children, only a few major ones study the development of the articulation of speech sounds. Until the last few decades much information has been based upon reports of observations of single children. These earlier reports contain various descriptions of the characteristics of the sounds produced by infants and young children. Particularly since the early 1930s the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) has been quite extensively used to transcribe and study speech sounds of substantial numbers of children. In recent years electronic devices have begun to be used in recording and analyzing infant speech sounds....

  6. IV. SPEECH SOUND DISCRIMINATION
    (pp. 61-73)

    By speech sound discrimination is meant the ability to make auditory distinctions among the different speech sounds. This is an auditory perceptual skill; and, unlike all other aspects of language considered in this study, is only indirectly observable in the language produced.

    The correct articulation of speech sounds is a matter of both motor and perceptual skill. The motor component probably makes the greater contribution to the production of sounds in the babbling and verbal play of the infant. At this time vocalizations recognizable as standard English sounds are produced long before they appear in meaningful words. When such words...

  7. V. VERBALIZATIONS
    (pp. 74-104)

    Various aspects of the verbalizations of children can serve as indicators of the level of maturity in language development. The length of the verbalization, the complexity of structure, the grammatical accuracy, and the parts of speech used are considered in the present investigation. Twenty-four thousand remarks, three thousand at each age level, enter into most of the analyses presented in this chapter. The verbalizations of children have been obtained in a controlled child-adult situation described in Chapter II.

    Many studies have been made of various aspects of the verbal utterances of young children. Since McCarthy has presented an extensive summary...

  8. VI. VOCABULARY
    (pp. 105-120)

    Vocabulary and its interrelations have long been a topic of interest. This chapter presents some of the problems associated with its measurement, the results of the investigation of the vocabularies of recognition and use, and their relationship to intelligence in children from 3 to 8 years.

    Great discrepancies in the estimated size of children’s vocabularies appear in the literature. These differences can be traced to such factors as the kind of vocabulary measured, the operational definition of “word” adopted, the criteria accepted for knowledge of a word, and the type of vocabulary test used.

    The estimated size of vocabulary varies...

  9. VII. INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG SEVERAL LANGUAGE SKILLS
    (pp. 121-141)

    Since measures of different language skills were obtained for the same children, the interrelationships among them have been explored at several age levels over a five-year span.

    Only a few studies of the interrelationships among language skills have been reported in the literature. Of these, several are concerned with the relationships that exist in the language of children with speech or reading disorders. To the author’s knowledge only two published studies make any extensive investigation of the interrelationships among these skills in children who are not speech defectives. Of these, the most extensive is the study by Williams and his...

  10. VIII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
    (pp. 142-152)

    This study was conducted to secure normative data on several language skills and to study the interrelationships among them. The sample included 480 children, 240 boys and 240 girls between the ages of 3 and 8, divided into eight subsamples by age. Because of the more rapid growth in language at the earlier ages, the subsamples were selected at half-year intervals between 3 and 5 years and at year intervals between 5 and 8 years. Each subsample, composed of 30 boys and 30 girls, was a discrete age group with the actual age range only one month older or younger...

  11. APPENDIX I. LIST OF SCHOOLS FROM WHICH SUBJECTS WERE SELECTED
    (pp. 155-155)
  12. APPENDIX II. PREVIOUSLY UNPUBLISHED TESTS USED IN STUDY
    (pp. 156-159)
  13. APPENDIX III. RULES FOLLOWED FOR CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS AND SENTENCES
    (pp. 160-161)
  14. APPENDIX IV. DATA ON ARTICULATION OF SPECIFIC SPEECH SOUNDS
    (pp. 162-169)
  15. APPENDIX V. MEDIAN OR MEAN SCORES ON MAJOR MEASURES NOT REPORTED IN TEXT
    (pp. 170-174)
  16. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 175-177)
  17. INDEX
    (pp. 178-183)