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American Policy Toward Communist Eastern Europe

American Policy Toward Communist Eastern Europe: The Choices Ahead

JOHN C. CAMPBELL
Copyright Date: 1965
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 152
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttv3s7
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  • Book Info
    American Policy Toward Communist Eastern Europe
    Book Description:

    Perhaps no aspect of American foreign relations has been in greater need of clarification and understanding than our policy toward the Communist nations of Eastern Europe, both as to what has happened in the past and what is possible for the future. In this book a former State Department Official, now on the staff of the Council on Foreign Relations, provides objective information which will help students, professors, members of adult study groups, and others concerned with American foreign policy to understand and discuss this important subject._x000B_Mr. Campbell reminds us that the cold war began in Eastern Europe in the aftermath of the second World War. Since that time, the question of what to do about Eastern Europe has been in the forefront of American foreign policy. For some years, he contends, we have been uncertain of our objectives and ambivalent in our policies. Meanwhile, changes since the death of Stalin have created new situations both for the Soviet Union and for the West._x000B_In analyzing what has happened, the author emphasizes the forces which have shaken the unity of the Soviet bloc to create new perspectives and possibilities. He discusses the effects of the Soviet-Chinese split, the relationship of the German question to that of Eastern Europe, and the phenomenon of national Communism as it has appeared in different forms in Yugoslavia, Poland, Rumania, and elsewhere. After presenting the historical background, the author discusses American aims and current policies and outlines the choices he sees ahead. He does not plead for any one of the alternative lines of action, presenting them, rather, as a basis for reasoned consideration and debate._x000B_

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-6177-0
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. FACTS AND FIGURES
    (pp. ix-xii)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. xiii-1)
  4. I HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
    (pp. 3-24)

    The fate of the captive nations of Eastern Europe has been an important concern of American foreign policy ever since those nations came under the sway of the Soviet Union in the aftermath of the Second World War. It has also been something of a football of American domestic politics, kicked most vigorously at four-year intervals when presidential elections occur. For many years, regardless of the volume of American oratory, the lines of the cold war were so rigidly drawn that there was little we could do about Eastern Europe. More recently, changes within the Soviet empire itself, some of...

  5. II UNITY AND DIVERSITY: RECENT POLITICAL TRENDS
    (pp. 25-39)

    The emphasis in this analysis of political trends will be on the forces of division, diversity, and nationalism that have so changed the face of Eastern Europe from the monolithic empire of Stalin’s day. It is necessary therefore, in order to avoid any misunderstanding, to call attention to the continuing factors in the background that have set limits on how far those centrifugal forces could affect the basic situation which has prevailed since most of Eastern Europe came under Soviet and Communist control at the close of the Second World War.

    Five nominally independent Eastern European states are still part...

  6. III ECONOMIC FACTORS
    (pp. 40-57)

    Prior to the Second World War the countries of Eastern Europe, while varying considerably among themselves, generally had less well developed economies and lower standards of living than those of Western Europe. Only the western parts of Czechoslovakia, and to a lesser extent Poland and Hungary, had shown any substantial industrial growth. All were basically peasant countries with a heavy proportion of the population engaged in an agriculture that was not very efficient either where the system was one of large estates or where small peasant holdings prevailed.

    Eastern Europe’s trade was largely with Western Europe, to which it supplied...

  7. IV POLAND: A SPECIAL CASE WITHIN THE BLOC
    (pp. 58-66)

    Poland’s position in the Soviet bloc and its relations with the West are determined more by geography than by ideology. A small nation located between the German and Russian giants and with no natural defenses, the Poles throughout history have had to wage fierce struggles to maintain their national existence. Although their nation was wiped off the map of Europe for a century and a quarter, they and the cause of Polish independence survived by virtue of their intense nationalism and the world’s awareness of it. The restored Poland of the interwar period essayed a role beyond its powers and...

  8. V YUGOSLAVIA: A SPECIAL CASE OUTSIDE THE BLOC
    (pp. 67-82)

    In the past few years Yugoslavia has had ample reason to be reminded that while it may be a prominent leader of the nonaligned group, it is also a small Balkan country whose fate depends in large measure on what happens beyond its borders and beyond its control. In Washington, the United States Congress has on occasion singled out Yugoslavia as a special target of its displeasure. The Trade Expansion Act of 1962 withdrew mostfavored-nation treatment from Yugoslav goods, and only the efforts of the administration and a slim majority in the Senate kept in the foreign aid bill the...

  9. VI ALTERNATIVES FOR AMERICAN POLICY
    (pp. 83-108)

    United States objectives for Eastern Europe were set forth in the great documents of the wartime period: the Atlantic Charter, the United Nations Declaration, and the Yalta agreements. The nations liberated from Nazi Germany were to have their independence restored under governments of their own choosing. They were to have broadly representative provisional governments and then free elections. From the standpoint of the United States, this was a matter of principle. The nations of Eastern Europe had a right to self-determination, and the United States wished to see their independence restored to them. But was it also a matter of...

  10. A YALTA DECLARATION ON LIBERATED EUROPE (February 11,1945)
    (pp. 111-112)
  11. B EXCERPT FROM SPEECH BY DEAN ACHESON, Berkeley, California, March 16,1950
    (pp. 113-113)
  12. C EXCERPT FROM SPEECH BY JOHN FOSTER DULLES, Dallas, Texas, October 27,1956
    (pp. 114-115)
  13. D THE CAPTIVE NATIONS RESOLUTION (July 1959)
    (pp. 116-117)
  14. E EXCERPT FROM SPEECH BY DEAN RUSK, Washington, D.C., February 25,1964
    (pp. 118-122)
  15. F THE RAPACKI PLAN (Warsaw,February 14, 1958)
    (pp. 123-126)
  16. G THE MODIFIED RAPACKI PLAN (Gomulka Plan), February 1964
    (pp. 127-130)
  17. INDEX
    (pp. 133-136)