Stuttering in Children and Adults

Stuttering in Children and Adults: Thirty Years of Research at the University of Iowa

edited by WENDELL JOHNSON
assisted by RALPH R. LEUTENEGGER
Copyright Date: 1955
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 496
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttv49c
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  • Book Info
    Stuttering in Children and Adults
    Book Description:

    One of the largest groups of handicapped people in the world today is made up of the estimated fifteen million persons who stutter. Their predicament has been one of man’s most baffling problems ever since it was first recorded by the ancients, but not until the present century has the mystery of stuttering showed any signs of lifting. The studies collected in this volume represent a substantial step toward the solving of the mystery. The University of Iowa, a pioneer in research on the causes and treatment of stuttering, has carried on its work for many years. This book presents all previously unpublished papers and dissertations (a total of 43) that have resulted from this research program. Much of the work centers on the onset of stuttering in children and underlies the theory that stuttering begins with the hearer rather than the speaker. Interrelationships between personality and stuttering have been investigated, a search has been made for a possible physical basis for stuttering, conditions affecting severity of stuttering have been studied, and research on therapy has been attempted. This is an important book for psychologists, educators, social workers, physicians, parents, and others concerned with speech disorders. For those who devote their full effort to the problems discussed -- the specialists in speech pathology and therapy -- the book is essential.

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3684-0
    Subjects: Health Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Foreword
    (pp. vii-xiv)
    Wendell Johnson

    The problem of stuttering has been studied experimentally and clinically for the past thirty years at the University of Iowa. Throughout these years many individuals have come and gone—or stayed—and so it is that this volume is the creation of a large company. It is not possible to identify all its members or to acknowledge precisely and fully the part that each one has played, but certain individuals are to be singled out for major recognition.

    It is to be stressed especially that Professor Lee Edward Travis, the first director of the University of Iowa Speech Clinic, has...

  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. xv-xviii)
  4. PART I. GENERAL ORIENTATION
    • CHAPTER 1 The Time, the Place, and the Problem.
      (pp. 3-24)
      WENDELL JOHNSON

      Fifteen million of our fellows throughout the world, one million in our own land, speak with words whose wings are broken. As stutterers, they are one of the very largest contingents of the disadvantaged, and since first their predicament was recorded by the ancients it has been held to be among the more baffling of mankind’s many woes. Not until our own century did the mystery show any sign of lifting, and only in the laboratories of today are stutterers and their distinctive difficulties coming to be understood. This book reports some of the research upon which our current understanding...

    • CHAPTER 2 A Systematic Approach to the Psychology of Stuttering.
      (pp. 25-34)
      WENDELL JOHNSON and JOHN R. KNOTT

      In two previous articles (5 and 7) the moment of stuttering has been analyzed into its dynamic elements. In these two, as well as in this third article, we have dealt withthe moment of stuttering, believing that by so doing we could arrive at a more adequate understanding of the whole of the stuttering phenomenon. As we view the study of stuttering, the basic problem is that of accounting for the precipitation, the duration, and the termination of themoment of stuttering.

      Our conclusions from the previous papers are as follows:

      1. The moment of stuttering involves four configurations: a...

  5. PART II. THE ONSET OF STUTTERING
    • CHAPTER 3 A Study of the Onset and Development of Stuttering.
      (pp. 37-73)
      WENDELL JOHNSON

      This investigation was designed to yield information concerning the characteristics of stuttering at its onset, and to explore the problem of the changes that occur as stuttering develops through its early stages into its more advanced phases. We were concerned not only with the characteristics of early stuttering and the changes which these undergo, but also with conditions surrounding the onset, aggravation, alleviation, and disappearance of the disorder. Several of our cases had regained normal speech by the end of the investigation.

      Two groups of subjects were investigated, forty-six stuttering children and forty-six nonstuttering children. In the stuttering group there...

    • CHAPTER 4 The Relationship of Parental Attitudes and Adjustments to the Development of Stuttering.
      (pp. 74-154)
      FREDERIC L. DARLEY

      The purpose of this study was to explore and assess the presumably relevant attitudes and adjustments of the parents of stuttering children in an attempt to discover whether these attitudes and adjustments are quantitatively and qualitatively different from those of the parents of matched nonstuttering children. The study grew out of an increasing conviction that to understand a stuttering child one must understand something about those persons close to him who have helped him to become the child he now is.

      Workers in the areas of clinical psychology, child psychology, social work, psychiatry, medicine, and education have paid increasingly close...

  6. PART III. NONFLUENCY IN THE SPEECH OF EARLY CHILDHOOD
    • CHAPTER 5 Studies of Nonfluency in the Speech of Preschool Children.
      (pp. 157-180)
      MARGARET E. BRANSCOM, JEANNETTE HUGHES and ELOISE TUPPER OXTOBY

      Several, studies of children’s speech fluency completed prior to 1939 were concerned primarily with the growth and development of language ability. Detailed consideration of kinds of repetition in children’s speech was only of secondary concern. Some of the investigators mention repetitions and report quantitative data, but repetitions are not operationally defined in any considerable detail or broken down into discrete types.* It seems of interest, however, that so many authors who have studied the speech development of children have noticed repetitions and have commented that repetitious speech in young children seems frequent and ordinary.

      Between 1939 and 1943 four theses...

    • CHAPTER 6 Repetitions and Prolongations in the Speech of Stuttering and Nonstuttering Children.
      (pp. 181-188)
      GEORGE O. EGLAND

      This study was designed to investigate the nature and frequency of various types of repetitions, prolongations, unfinished words, and stallers, such as “ah’s,” in the speech of stuttering and nonstuttering children. The study also investigated the relationship between the incidence of the above speech reactions and the following: sex of subjects, the situations in which the speech reactions occurred, and the types of individual speech responses.

      The situations in which speech samples were obtained were structured by using puppet scenes involving specially created characters. The individual speech responses were arbitrarily classified as follows: (1) an answer to a question asked...

    • CHAPTER 7 Nonfluencies in the Oral Reading of Stutterers and Nonstutterers of Elementary School Age.
      (pp. 189-196)
      MARY BACHMAN MANN

      The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence of various types of objectively determined interruptions in the oral reading of stutterers and nonstutterers, and to ascertain the frequency of their occurrence in relation to designated phonetic elements.

      The subjects included twenty-nine stutterers, twenty male and nine female, and twenty-nine nonstutterers, sixteen male and thirteen female. Seven of the stutterers were in the third grade, twelve in the fourth, five in the fifth, two in the sixth, one in the seventh, and two in the ninth grade. Seven of the nonstutterers were in the third grade, twelve...

  7. PART IV. VARIATIONS IN AMOUNT OF STUTTERING
    • CHAPTER 8 The Quantitative Measurement of the Effect of Certain Situations on Stuttering.
      (pp. 199-206)
      CHARLES VAN RIPER and CATHERINE J. HULL

      The measurement of the severity of stuttering has generally been accomplished in terms of the duration of the stuttering block or spasm or in terms of the frequency of spasms. However, both the frequency and duration appear to vary widely from one speaking situation to another. If the speech pathologist is to have some index of the severity of the disorder as a whole rather than a vague estimate of momentary difficulty, other measurements must be provided. This research is an exploratory attempt to define some such measures.

      One of the most obvious phenomena related to stuttering is the effect...

    • CHAPTER 9 Factors Influencing the Variability of Stuttering.
      (pp. 207-217)
      EDWARD SHULMAN

      The present study was designed to determine the extent to which the adaptation and consistency phenomena in stuttering are functions of (1) audience factors in the reading situation (that is, “social complexity”), (2) extent of the time interval between successive readings of identical material, and (3) length of the reading passage. In addition, an exploratory study was made of the relationship between various other measures that might be connected with severity of stuttering and the adaptation and consistency effects.

      The twenty-one stutterers who served as subjects, fourteen male and seven female, ranged in age from 11 to 38 years, with...

    • CHAPTER 10 Frequency of Stuttering in Relation to Induced Modifications Following Expectancy of Stuttering.
      (pp. 218-225)
      ELOISE TUPPER OXTOBY

      The present study was designed to determine what effect alteration of the stutterer’s response to his expectation of stuttering has upon his subsequent overt stuttering and upon his subsequent expectancy of stuttering.

      The following are the specific questions which the study was designed to answer:

      1. What is the effect of instructions to the subject to prevent, modify, or replace his customary pattern of reaction to expectancy of stuttering upon (a) the initial frequency of stuttering? (b) the progressive decrease of stuttering with successive rereadings of the same material? (c) the consistency of stuttering loci with successive rereadings of the same...

    • CHAPTER 11 Explorations of Experimental Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery in Stuttering.
      (pp. 226-231)
      E. LEROI JONES

      The purpose of this study was to determine whether and to what extent adaptation, or decrement in stuttering frequency (i.e., experimental extinction) is followed after a specified time interval by spontaneous recovery of the stuttering response.*

      The subjects were twenty-four stutterers, twenty-two male and two female, ranging in age from twelve years to twenty-five years, five months. They had undergone clinical instruction for periods varying from two weeks to two years.

      Five 250-word factual reading passages were used. They were designed to be of approximately equal reading difficulty. At each reading session the experimenter was the only listener present. Subjects...

    • CHAPTER 12 Stuttering Adaptation in Relation to Assumed Level of Anxiety.
      (pp. 232-236)
      CARMEN C. DIXON

      The purpose of this experiment was to study the amount and rate of stuttering adaptation as a function of the level of stuttering frequency.

      The subjects used were twenty-four stutterers (twenty-one male and three female) ranging in age from twelve to twenty-eight years with a median age of seventeen. Eleven of this group had received previous speech correction training, while thirteen had had no previous work.

      Each subject appeared in a different experimental situation on each of three different days. A different 180-word reading passage was used in each situation. Each passage was read five times in succession with ten-second...

    • CHAPTER 13 The Cumulative Effect of Constant and Varying Reading Material on Stuttering Adaptation.
      (pp. 237-244)
      ARNOLD GOLUB

      In 1937 Johnson and Knott (3) noted that the frequency of stuttering diminishes when subjects read the same passage a number of times in succession. This phenomenon has been termed the adaptation effect and has been the subject of much stuttering research. Some of the factors related to stuttering adaptation which have been studied by investigators are reading of constant verbal material versus changing material (2); number of successive readings (8); size of the listening audience (5, 6); the time interval between readings (6); and nature of the reading situation (1).

      The dimension having to do with the nature of...

    • CHAPTER 14 Spontaneous Recovery of the Stuttering Response as a Function of the Time Following Adaptation.
      (pp. 245-248)
      DOROTHY JANE JAMISON

      According to Pavlov (2, p. 59), “All those conditioned [responses] which have been fully established invariably and spontaneously return sooner or later to their full strength. This provides one way of determining the depth of extinction; it is measured, other conditions being equal, by the time taken for spontaneous restoration of the extinguished [response] to its original strength.” This granted, an aspect of possible similarity between a Pavlovian type of conditioned response and stuttering behavior may be investigated by first extinguishing the stuttering response to a predetermined criterion and then ascertaining the degrees of its spontaneous recovery after specified intervals...

    • CHAPTER 15 Spontaneous Recovery of the Stuttering Response as a Function of the Degree of Adaptation.
      (pp. 249-255)
      JAMES V. FRICK

      This study was designed to test the hypothesis that spontaneous recovery of stuttering behavior is a decreasing function of the degree of adaptation—that is, that spontaneous recovery decreases as the degree of adaptation increases.

      Twenty stutterers, sixteen male and four female, served as subjects. The age range was from seventeen to twenty-nine years, with a median of twenty-two years, six months. Formal clinical experience ranged from a few weeks to thirty months.

      Each subject was present for two experimental conditions spaced forty-eight hours apart. In Condition I, a 200-word passage was read three consecutive times, while a different 200-word...

    • CHAPTER 16 The Role of Cues in Stuttering Adaptation.
      (pp. 256-263)
      ELLA YENSEN FIERMAN

      In previous stuttering adaptation studies, the number of readings has usually been limited to five. Although this number has been exceeded (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), there have never been more than ten readings when other variables were held constant; and only rarely has adaptation been studied without the introduction of variables other than number of trials. Therefore, while the rate of adaptation has been indicated to be in the form of a negatively accelerated positive growth curve, no definite evidence has been obtained regarding the course of adaptation after five or ten readings of the same material. The...

    • CHAPTER 17 Stuttering Adaptation during Three Hours of Continuous Oral Reading.
      (pp. 264-267)
      IRENE R. DONOHUE

      A number of previous studies are related to the present investigation. Johnson and Knott (5) observed the frequency of stuttering experienced by twenty-one adult stutterers during oral reading, and found that the percentage of words stuttered fell markedly between the first reading and the tenth or final reading of the same passage. Johnson and Inness (6) reported evidence that stutterers adapt to the word content of a reading passage more than to the reading situation, in the sense that they found a greater decrease in frequency of stuttered words from reading to reading of the same words than from segment...

    • CHAPTER 18 Experimentally Induced Changes in the Relative Frequency of Stuttering on a Specified Speech Sound.
      (pp. 268-274)
      MARIBEL HOPPER CONNETT

      This study represents an attempt to determine whether the frequency of stuttering on words beginning with a specified sound varies in relation to changes in the stutterer’s evaluation of the sound as easy or hard to produce.

      A reading passage was prepared that contained 500 words and was deemed to be non-disturbing in content and simple in vocabulary and syntax. The speech sound [t] was chosen as the experimental sound. It was used in fifty words in the initial position and in forty words in the medial position.

      Twenty-two stutterers in the University of Iowa Speech Clinic were used as...

    • CHAPTER 19 Stuttering in Response to Photographs of Selected Listeners.
      (pp. 275-277)
      NAOMI HUNT BERWICK

      The experimenter sought to obtain information relevant to the following specific questions:

      1. Is the frequency of stuttering during oral reading affected when the stutterer reads to the front-view photograph of an individual whom he has specified as a person difficult to talk to (hereafter referred to as the hard listener)?

      2. Is the frequency of stuttering during oral reading affected when the stutterer reads to the front-view photograph of an individual whom he has specified as a person easy to talk to (hereafter referred to as the easy listener)?

      3. Is the frequency of stuttering during oral reading affected when the stutterer...

    • CHAPTER 20 Covariation in Frequency of Types of Stuttering Reactions.
      (pp. 278-281)
      JOHN W. CHOTLOS

      The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of various frequencies of “voluntary” repetitive speech interruption on the speech fluency of stutterers and on the duration of inspiration and expiration.

      The subjects were twelve male stutterers, ranging in age from fourteen to twenty-four years, with a mean age of seventeen and a half years. Each was currently receiving remedial instruction in the University of Iowa Speech Clinic.

      The same 600-word reading passage was used for all subjects. The passage was divided into 100-word segments as follows: the first segment was typed in black ink; the second was...

    • CHAPTER 21 The Effect of Instructions Concerning Mode of Stuttering on the Breathing of Stutterers.
      (pp. 282-285)
      WILLIAM DOWNTON

      In previous studies of the symptomatology of stuttering no systematic attempt has been made to determine the degree to which psychological factors affect the nature and the amount of the recorded symptomatology, as represented in voice and breathing records.

      Steer and Johnson (4) found that an increase in the frequency of stuttering was associated with an increase in intensity of certain psychological and emotional reactions on the part of the stutterer. Johnson has reported findings which indicate that the degree of embarrassment from stuttering varies from situation to situation (3) and that certain attitudes, including embarrassment, tend to aggravate stuttering...

    • CHAPTER 22 Effect on Stuttering of Alteration in Auditory Feedback.
      (pp. 286-297)
      MARY LOU STERNBERG SHANE

      Various surveys of oral schools for the deaf have yielded data concerning the incidence of stuttering among the deaf and hard of hearing, and have served to raise the question of a possible relationship between auditory factors and stuttering.

      Albright and Malone (1) surveyed by questionnaire 209 oral schools for the deaf and hard of hearing. Forty-two cases of stuttering were reported in a sample of 14,458 children. Thus, only 0.29 per cent of the children surveyed were regarded as stutterers; this compares with a reasonable estimate of 0.7 to 1.0 per cent for the general population, at least for...

    • CHAPTER 23 The Effect of Pentobarbital Sodium (Nembutal) and Amphetamine Sulphate (Benzedrine) on the Severity of Stuttering.
      (pp. 298-310)
      WILLIAM ROBERT LOVE

      There has been little scientific research to determine the effects of drugs on stuttering. There is some indication that drugs have been used for therapeutic purposes, but little use has been made of drugs in conducting controlled experimentation. Moreover, records that have been reported regarding the results of such therapy as has been carried out leave something to be desired in the way of thoroughness, precision, and demonstrated reliability and validity.

      A large number of studies have tended to show that stuttering constitutes in the main a form of learned behavior. Among the more important studies in this connection have...

  8. PART V. CERTAIN ASPECTS OF THE PERSONAL ADJUSTMENTS OF STUTTERERS
    • CHAPTER 24 Sense of Humor in Stutterers and Nonstutterers.
      (pp. 313-316)
      LORIN C. STAATS JR.

      The basic objective of this study was to compare, by means of ratings of the funniness of a series of cartoons, the sense of humor of stutterers and nonstutterers. The study was suggested by the clinical observation that individuals with personal difficulties seem to develop generalized anxieties and tendencies toward depression which cause them to experience some degree of difficulty in seeing the humor in many social situations, or in reacting to any aspect of their handicapping condition with a sense of humor.

      The experimenter selected eighty cartoons from past issues of theSaturday Evening Post, Collier’s, the New Yorker,...

    • CHAPTER 25 A Test of Attitude toward Stuttering.
      (pp. 317-324)
      GLADYS MILLER FRIEDMAN

      The purpose of this study was to devise a means of quantifying stutterers’ evaluations of stuttering and to compare these evaluations with those of nonstutterers. In addition, data were obtained with reference to the subjects’ hobbies, foremost wishes, self-evaluations of stuttering severity, characteristic affective states (shyness, depression-elation, and inclination to worry), educational levels, etc.

      Data were gathered from 326 stutterers and 100 nonstutterers. The 282 male and 44 female stutterers were drawn, for the most part, from cases passing through the University of Iowa Speech Clinic. They ranged in age from 11 to 53 years, the median age being 19.9...

    • CHAPTER 26 An Exploration of Stutterers’ Theories of Their Own Stuttering.
      (pp. 325-334)
      JEANNETTE FRASIER

      There would appear to be two main reasons for investigating statements made by stutterers about their own stuttering. First, the writings and the research of Bluemel (2), Fletcher (6), Solomon (17), Van Riper (19), S. F. Brown (3), Knott (10, 14), Johnson (7, 8), and other stuttering speech pathologists have shown the value of personal experience and self-investigation in the development of hypotheses and of practical remedial measures. Moreover, this proposition is supported by evidence from other fields. The writings of Helen Keller have increased understanding and interest in the study of the deaf-blind. The work of Cutsforth (5) on...

    • CHAPTER 27 A Study of the Role of Inhibition in the Moment of Stuttering.
      (pp. 335-340)
      M. CLAYTON TANBERG

      A definite expectation of stuttering has been formally hypothesized by Johnson and Knott (3) to cause an impulse to inhibit expected stuttering, resulting in an overt partial inhibition of speech.

      Luria (5), using a word association test, presented evidence to show that inhibition (i.e., partial or complete arrest) of a verbal response is accompanied by characteristic changes in the form of heightened voluntary and involuntary manual activity. He further demonstrated that disturbances with this technique are increased above “normal” (1) in subjects awaiting their turn to be examined in the very severe “purgation” examinations in Russian higher schools (upon the...

    • CHAPTER 28 A Speech Situation Rating Sheet for Stutterers.
      (pp. 341-347)
      IRENE CHERHAVY SHUMAK

      This study was an attempt to evaluate the Iowa Speech Clinic Stutterer’s Speech Situation Rating Sheet. This rating sheet, which provides for various modes of rating forty common speech situations, was prepared by Wendell Johnson in 1943. There are four modes of response, a 5-point scale being used by the stutterer to rate (1) his tendency to avoid each situation, (2) his reaction as to enjoyment of speaking in each situation, (3) the relative amount of stuttering he does in each situation, and (4) the frequency with which he meets each situation.

      Specifically, the purposes of the study were as...

    • CHAPTER 29 A Study of Educational Adjustments of Stuttering and Nonstuttering Children.
      (pp. 348-358)
      MARY DUPONT SCHINDLER

      This study was primarily concerned with these questions:

      1. Do stuttering children differ from nonstuttering children in intelligence?

      2. How do stuttering children compare with nonstuttering children in school achievement? Are there appreciable differences in any particular subjects?

      3. Do stuttering children tend to be more or less retarded in grade placement than nonstuttering children?

      4. Are speech difficulties other than stuttering more or less prevalent among stuttering than among nonstuttering children?

      5. Are marked physical abnormalities present more or less frequently among stuttering than among nonstuttering children?

      Data were obtained from Part I (Survey of Remedial Education Needs) of the Iowa Remedial Education Demonstration...

  9. PART VI. EXPLORATIONS OF CERTAIN PHYSICAL APPROACHES TO STUTTERING
    • CHAPTER 30 A Comparative Study of Stutterers and Nonstutterers on a Psychomotor Discrimination Task.
      (pp. 361-366)
      FRANCIE L. ROSS

      Having discerned, in certain speech problems, failures of process in the absence of demonstrable structural deviations, Simon hypothesized that “. . . each human being has a ‘level of integration,’ an ability to handle situations of a certain degree of complexity” (1). He cites the need for a test to establish “. . . whether there is actually a level of integration for each individual and particularly whether that level tends to be consistently low for people exhibiting certain atypical behaviors.”

      As criteria for such a test he lists:

      “1. The response should be simple and uniform, involving repetitive and...

    • CHAPTER 31 A Study of the Motor Integration of Stutterers and Nonstutterers.
      (pp. 367-376)
      JULIAN B. ROTTER

      The problem of the etiology of stuttering has been approached, mainly, by two types of research: that seeking predisposing or hereditary factors and that seeking training or environmental factors. Conclusions drawn from studies of the symptomatology of stutterers who have stuttered for some time have often been criticized on the grounds that the symptoms found may have been indicative of results rather than causes of stuttering.

      Data showing maladjustment and emotionality as causes of stuttering have also been criticized since they may as well be results also. On the other hand, conclusions from studies of neuromuscular disturbances may be criticized...

    • CHAPTER 32 Tension and Facial Appearance in Stuttering.
      (pp. 377-380)
      JOHN C. SNIDECOR

      The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions about tension relative to the moment of stuttering:

      1. Is tension subjectively perceived by the majority of a representative group of relatively severe adult stutterers?

      2. If perceivable, in what parts of the bodily mechanism may tension be found?

      3. If perceivable, are the centers of tension consistent from moment of stuttering to moment of stuttering when like sounds and subjects are compared?

      4. Do stutterers report a desire to stutter or to avoid stuttering during stuttering?

      5. How do the findings of this study compare with the opinions

      6. If the stutterer experiences tension...

    • CHAPTER 33 Incidence of Stuttering among Twins.
      (pp. 381-386)
      ODNY INGEBORG GRAF

      A review of studies on stuttering in twins seems to suggest that there are relatively more stutterers among twins than in the general population. However, there is a lack of agreement on the extent of the possible difference. In other respects, also, there is a relative lack of agreement among studies of stuttering in twins. Berry (1, 2) reported that in stuttering families containing both twins and single siblings, stuttering is more frequent among the twins than among the single siblings, and that “lefthandedness, twinning and stuttering tend to occur together.” Nelson, Hunter, and Walter (9) reported that stuttering occurred...

  10. PART VII. “FOR THE RECORD”
    • CHAPTER 34 A Comparison of the Free Associations of Stutterers and Nonstutterers.
      (pp. 389-390)
      MARION McKENZIE FONT

      The purpose of this study was to compare stutterers and nonstutterers on the basis of the Kent-Rosanoff free-association test.

      The subjects were forty-nine nonstuttering students and nine stutterers enrolled in the University of Iowa. Written directions were given each subject.

      The 100 words of the Kent-Rosanoff list were presented one at a time through an aperture in a tachistoscope. The experimenter, hidden from the subject’s view, yet able himself to observe all movements of the subject, exposed each word by means of an electric key. Pressing of this key also simultaneously started a stop watch. Each subject was instructed to...

    • CHAPTER 35 The Effect of Negative Instruction on the Motor Control of Stutterers.
      (pp. 391-392)
      MARION BREHM HEBENSTREIT

      One of the purposes of this study was to discover whether, in the case of a group of stutterers, negative instruction has the same inhibiting effect in other aspects of motor coordination that fear is assumed to have in relation to speech.

      With reference to the additional question of whether or not stutterers are psychoneurotic, an additional purpose was to ascertain whether the stutterers present general motor hyper-suggestibility.

      Twelve college students served as subjects, six of these being stutterers and the other six nonstutterers.

      A tracing board similar to that described by Whipple (1) was used. The subjects were given...

    • CHAPTER 36 A Study of the Speech Difficulties of Thirteen Stutterers.
      (pp. 393-395)
      BRYNG BRYNGELSON

      The purpose of this study was to record the sounds on which stuttering occurred during oral reading and in conversation, and to observe the position in the word of these sounds, as well as their neighboring phonetic elements.

      The subjects were twelve undergraduate students enrolled in the University of Iowa, plus one eighth-grade public school student. All subjects except one of the university students were male.

      Speech samples, obtained over a period of eight months, were secured from each subject during separate appointments varying from twelve to twenty in number. Observations were made with respect to a variety of reading...

    • CHAPTER 37 A Study of Tonal Intensity and Duration in the Nonstuttered Speech of Stutterers and Nonstutterers.
      (pp. 396-397)
      S. SPENCER SHAW

      A kymoghaphic technique was employed to study the tonal durations of selected nonstuttered consonants and vowels in the speech of stutterers and nonstutterers (Part I). Intensity, as well as tonal duration, was also studied by means of the phonophotographic technique (Part II).

      The kymographic apparatus, essentially of the type described by Scripture (1), yielded graphical representation of the speech waves on smoked paper. The sentence analyzed, “Put a top on the keg, said Daddy Boss,” was designed as a nonemotional stimulus. It involves a relatively high occurrence of plosives as well as certain fricatives. Sound durations were computed in hundredths...

    • CHAPTER 38 A Comparison of Certain Sound Wave Characteristics of Stutterers and Nonstutterers.
      (pp. 398-402)

      This study was designed to determine experimentally the nature and extent of certain characteristics that might be found in stutterers’ voices, distinguishing them from those of nonstutterers.

      The experimental group consisted of twenty male stutterers in the Speech Clinic of the University of Iowa. For certain comparisons use was made of a group of twenty-five male nonstutterers composed largely of graduate students in the university, chosen without reference to their speaking ability.

      By means of the strobophotograph described by Tiffin (3), a film was obtained graphically portraying pitch inflections on the lower half of the record, and an intensity curve,...

  11. PART VIII. APPROACHES TO STUTTERING THERAPY
    • CHAPTER 39 Intensive Clinical Case Studies of Stuttering Therapy.
      (pp. 405-414)
      DEAN E. WILLIAMS

      The main objective of the present study was to record in essential detail the retraining procedures used with four cases of stuttering and to measure or estimate, so far as possible, the results achieved.

      The literature on stuttering reveals an impressive variety of proposed theories and clinical methods. It contains, however, a dearth of adequately detailed case studies or comprehensive investigations dealing with remedial procedures and their therapeutic effects. Most of the published reports of therapy are relatively sketchy and theoretically unsystematic. A particularly significant characteristic of most of these reports is their lack of quantitative statements concerning therapeutic results....

    • CHAPTER 40 Bibliotherapy for Stutterers.
      (pp. 415-423)
      ELIZABETH McKEE LYNCH

      The objectives of the present investigation were to cull from the literature methods, uses, and evaluations of bibliotherapy (the use of reading for therapeutic purposes) which might feasibly be of value in planning a systematic application of this technique in the treatment of stutterers; to suggest means by which reading materials might best be adapted to stutterers’ problems and to the related clinical techniques and purposes; and to provide a list of readings that might be particularly appropriate for stutterers.

      In psychotherapy and psychological counseling, bibliotherapy is used to aid in the changing of evaluations, attitudes, and misconceptions, and to...

    • CHAPTER 41 A Stutterer’s Experiences in Using an Electrolarynx.
      (pp. 424-429)
      FREDERICK A. McKENZIE

      In order to make a subjective and personal evaluation of the effect on my speech of a distraction device, I volunteered to use an electrolarynx for all speech for a period of one month. The electrolarynx is a battery-operated instrument designed for post-laryngectomy cases. When held against the throat, the vibrating noise it produces can be formed into intelligible though monotonous speech by movement of the articulators.

      During and for a time after the experiment, I kept a daily log of my observations. A stuttering adaptation test was made each week while I was using the electrolarynx. A different 200-word...

    • CHAPTER 42 Courses in Speech Pathology in the College Transcripts of Fifty Teachers.
      (pp. 430-431)
      FREDERICK A. McKENZIE

      This study was designed to estimate the degree of contact the public school teacher has had with college courses pertaining to the speech-defective child in the classroom. An investigation was made of the college courses taken by fifty students who received either a Limited or an Advanced Elementary Teaching Certificate from the Iowa State Board of Educational Examiners between 1946 and 1950. Of this group, twenty-three had received Limited Certificates and twenty-seven had received Advanced Certificates. The fifty students were enrolled in the University of Iowa at the time of this study.

      From the college transcripts of these fifty teachers,...

    • CHAPTER 43 The Descriptional Principle and the Principle of Static Analysis.
      (pp. 432-444)
      WENDELL JOHNSON

      The descriptional principle and the principle of static analysis are important in relation to the problems of learning and problem-solving generally. While they have been stated previously in one form or another by a great many writers, there would appear to be a need for a more explicit formulation of the principles with special reference to certain clinical problems. It is this that has been attempted in the present paper. Partly because of the background against which this particular statement of these principles has been formulated, and partly in the interest of clarity, they are discussed here in terms of...

  12. APPENDIX. A Bibliography of University of Iowa Studies of Stuttering through 1954
    (pp. 447-463)
  13. Index
    (pp. 464-472)