Parent Education

Parent Education: A Survey of the Minnesota Program

EDITH A. DAVIS
ESTHER McGINNIS
Volume: 17
Copyright Date: 1939
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 164
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttv4w0
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  • Book Info
    Parent Education
    Book Description:

    Parent Education: A Survey of the Minnesota Program was first published in 1939. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. Institute of Child Welfare Monograph Series, Number 17 The University of Minnesota Child Welfare Institute surveys its program in this volume, which describes the organization and development of its study groups and makes a thoroughgoing analysis of the amount and type of information on child training acquired by 23,000 parents who attended classes in cities and rural communities throughout the state over a period of six years. The effect of attendance at the study groups was measured by tests administered before and after instruction, recording changes in the mothers’ attitudes toward various behavior traits – delinquent, neurotic, and personal-social – in boys and girls from five to fifteen years of age. From the group study records, and aided by their own long experience in parental education, the authors work out conclusions and suggestions that will be of value to psychologists and persons organizing or carrying on similar programs._x000B_

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3769-4
    Subjects: Psychology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-x)
  3. Part I. The Effect of Attending Child Study Groups upon Parental Attitudes toward Children’s Behavior
    • I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      (pp. 3-16)

      Sooner or later in this quantitative age every instructor pauses and looks about him for an instrument with which to measure the results of his efforts. If he has been teaching factual subjects he need not look far, since we have fairly satisfactory techniques for measuring the acquisition of knowledge and skills. In subjects dealing with matters of opinion, however, the problem is much more complicated, because in such subjects few, if any, basic facts can be labeledrightand taken as the standard of perfection. It is possible, of course, to assemble the opinions of experts in a specific...

    • II. THE TEST AND THE SUBJECTS
      (pp. 17-32)

      The project discussed in this monograph was begun in the years 1929–30 and 1930–31. With the assistance of Dr. F. L. Goodenough and Dr. E. A. Rundquist fifty common behavior situations were described so as to correspond as nearly as possible to Wickman’s schedule (59), in order that his mental hygienists’ and teachers’ ratings might be compared with the opinions of parents. The use of descriptive statements rather than single words or phrases made the problem much more specific and avoided terms like heterosexuality and masturbation, which are objectionable to some parents and unfamiliar to others. It was...

    • III. ATTITUDES TOWARD TRAITS BEFORE AND AFTER INSTRUCTION
      (pp. 33-52)

      The measure chosen to represent the degree of seriousness with which parents regarded problem behavior traits was the percentage of parents who rated a given trait as serious or very serious. These percentages when ranked were correlated by the Spearman rank-differences method to show the amount of agreement between parents taking the tests for the first and the second times, between city and rural groups, parents from upper and those from lower occupational classes, parents considering boys and those considering girls, and parents considering older and those considering younger children. The extremes of each distribution and the mean percentages were...

    • IV. ATTITUDES TOWARD DELINQUENT, NEUROTIC, AND PERSONAL-SOCIAL TRAITS
      (pp. 53-69)

      The present study was one of several undertaken by educators soon after the publication of Wickman’s (59) pioneer research. Most of these studies, which have been described in Chapter I, were mainly concerned with verifying Wickman’s findings by using other groups of teachers, and in some instances with measuring the agreement of teachers with Wickman’s experts before and after periods of training. Stogdill (48) compared the opinions of parents with those of another set of experts, and MacClenathon (27) compared teachers and parents. Our study, however, is the only one that was set up in such a way as to...

    • V. THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTION UPON ATTITUDES
      (pp. 70-83)

      Several attempts were made to evaluate the effect of instruction upon the attitudes of parents toward the individual behavior items. First of all, a correlation technique was worked out to show the amount of agreement between ratings on first and on second tests taken by the same individuals. Since the intervals between categories were unequal, scale values were computed according to the method described by Kelley (20). Thus 45.2 per cent of the mothers filling out Form A1 for the first time considered truancy (Item 26) very serious, 43.2 per cent rated it as serious, 9.8 per cent of little...

    • VI. GENERAL SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
      (pp. 84-86)

      In this investigation an attempt was made to determine the attitudes of mothers attending study groups toward the fifty behavior problems rated by Wickman’s teachers and clinicians. The effect of instruction was measured by giving the test at the beginning of the first and at the end of the last meeting. This is the first of the many studies inspired by Wickman’s report that has adequately controlled the age and sex of the child considered and the cultural background of the rater.

      The analysis of nearly five thousand forms obtained from a fairly representative sampling of the city and rural...

    • BIBLIOGRAPHY
      (pp. 87-90)
  4. Part II. The Organization and Development of a Parent Education Program
    • I. PARENT EDUCATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA FROM 1925 TO 1932
      (pp. 93-99)

      Parent education as an organized movement in Minnesota dates from the foundation of the Institute of Child Welfare at the University of Minnesota in July, 1925, “for the purpose of making scientific studies of the development of the young child, training future workers in the field, and bringing to parents through an extension program the information accumulated in its own and other research centers.” Since no organization had previously assembled data on clientele, methods, and results of parent education programs, a major objective of the Institute was the accumulation of such facts through the keeping of detailed records. Analysis of...

    • II. ORGANIZATION AND RECORDS OF STUDY GROUPS
      (pp. 100-106)

      It has not been possible hitherto to answer definitely from experience certain specific questions about parent education that are important in a beginning program. How often should a group meet? At what time of day? Do certain topics stimulate special interest and attendance? What are the differences in groups sponsored by different organizations? What variation in educational and occupational background is found within a single group? Are there differences in rural, suburban, and urban groups? Does the number of members affect attendance, interest, and amount of discussion? Does the personality of the leader affect attendance and discussion? What percentage of...

    • III. ENROLLMENT, BACKGROUND, AND ATTENDANCE
      (pp. 107-115)

      For purposes of intensive study the records of groups organized from the fall of 1926 through the spring of 1932 were analyzed. Only those persons for whom there were registration cards and those groups for which leaders had filled out the general information blank for each meeting were included. An analysis of the groups used in this study is given in Table 2. (This includes all groups except those sponsored by the Agricultural Extension Service.) The groups analyzed constitute 92.2 per cent of the total number conducted during the years 1926–32.

      The occupational classification* could be determined for 10,175...

    • IV. SPONSORSHIP OF GROUPS AND AGE PERIODS STUDIED
      (pp. 116-122)

      As we have stated, the policy of the Institute from the beginning was to supply leadership to any organization that requested it and that agreed to attend to all details of promotion and organization. Table 10 shows the distribution of groups sponsored by various organizations.

      Although, as Table 10 shows, the Parent-Teacher Association sponsored 67.7 per cent of all the groups, considerable interest was shown by other organizations, especially churches, college women’s clubs, and settlement houses. Others that have sponsored groups are the Y. W. C. A., social agencies dealing with boarding mothers, private schools, the Junior League, and the...

    • V. FREQUENCY, TIME, AND LENGTH OF MEETINGS
      (pp. 123-131)

      Members of the Institute staff have conducted study groups in homes, churches, schools, libraries, department stores, and club rooms, under a wide variety of conditions. Sometimes meetings have had to be closed literally on the dot, because of restrictions in regard to the electricity used or the insistence of the janitor that he should not be kept overtime. Some of the rooms available were ideal for the purpose, while others were poorly ventilated, heated, or lighted. Some were much too large or much too small. In some instances acoustics were extremely poor or there were disturbances from activities on the...

    • VI. ACCEPTABILITY OF LEADERS AND AMOUNT OF DISCUSSION
      (pp. 132-138)

      During the six years from 1926 through 1932 there were ten different professional leaders on the parent education staff, in addition to the Agricultural Extension specialist. The period of their connection with the Institute ranged from one to six years. Six of these leaders received part or all of their training in the special techniques of parent education at the University of Minnesota. They came from a wide variety of fields: for example, teaching Home Economics in a state university, psychiatric social work, public health nursing, kindergarten education, and grade and high school teaching. One very successful leader had had...

    • VII. LOCAL LEADER PROJECTS FOR RURAL GROUPS
      (pp. 139-143)

      One of the first organizations to request cooperation from the Institute of Child Welfare was the Home Economics Division of the Agricultural Extension Service. From 1926 to the fall of 1929 leaders from the Institute conducted both leadership training and community groups in cooperation with the Home Economics Extension Service, and in the fall of 1929 a full-time worker was appointed. From that time on she met with leaders who in turn went back to their own communities and led local groups.

      In that first year careful records were kept on blanks similar to those shown above, pages 102–05....

    • VIII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
      (pp. 144-148)

      A survey of the activities of the Minnesota parent education program from 1925 through 1932 shows a steady growth in the variety and extent of its services and in the number of persons interested. This fact is important because the work was kept on an impartial, scientific basis, and no promotional work was done. Almost every type of club and educational and social agency acted as sponsor for groups, although the P. T. A. sponsored 67.7 per cent of all groups.

      During the years when the services of the department were free to the people of the state, its growth...

  5. INDEX
    (pp. 149-153)