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International Propaganda

International Propaganda: Its Legal and Diplomatic Control

Copyright Date: 1958
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 292
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  • Book Info
    International Propaganda
    Book Description:

    As the principal weapon of the cold war, international propaganda is a matter of grave importance to anyone concerned with international relations. Here, in the first study of its kind, Dr. Martin analyzes the efforts and trends toward the control of such propaganda by means of international law, domestic law, and diplomacy. As a background for his study, he traces the development of international propaganda, discusses its definitions, and describes the propaganda activities of the three giants in the field - the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union.

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3700-7
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-2)
  3. Introduction
    (pp. 3-4)

    Propaganda is a term that has become so commonplace, hardly a day passes that it is not mentioned in the newspapers or tossed about in conversation. Its meaning ranges from “something somebody is trying to ‘put across’ on a person” to “a systematic attempt to influence opinion or attitude in the interest of some cause.” It is in a sense closer to the latter definition that legislators tend to use the word. Yet even the legislator, as well as the social scientist, cannot avoid the connotations of the former definition. The politician has an uneasy feeling about using the word...

  4. 1 Historical Background
    (pp. 5-9)

    It doesn’t make much difference who first invented the term “propaganda.” Suffice it to say that it has long had bad connotations. Etymologists trace the term to Pope Gregory XV. It was he who founded theSacre Congregatio De Propaganda Fidein 1622 to do missionary work abroad. Already in the early nineteenth century the term had acquired its present-day derogatory connotations. W. T. Brande’sDictionary of Science,Literature and Art, published in 1842, says of propaganda: “Derived from this celebrated society, the name propaganda is applied in political language as a term of reproach to secret associations for the...

  5. 2 Definition of Propaganda
    (pp. 10-20)

    The term propaganda is susceptible of so many definitions that it is hard to make it the subject of a law. Yet in combating foreign propaganda, or propaganda of any kind, legislators have to decide exactly what it is that they are legislating about. Hence a definition of propaganda must be attempted before a study of laws relating to it can be profitably made.

    Not only lexicographers and lawyers, but also sociologists, psychologists, social psychologists, political scientists, and journalists have attempted to define propaganda at various times. Of twenty-six different definitions examined,¹ all agree that propaganda is the art of...

  6. 3 Propaganda Agencies
    (pp. 21-54)

    To understand the context in which international propaganda is being waged and controlled today, it is necessary to examine the facilities through which most countries in the world carry on propaganda programs. Private individuals, governments, and nongovernmental organizations carry on much “commercial propaganda,” but for the purposes of this book, only propaganda in the realm of public affairs will be discussed. It is in that area that most attempts to control propaganda have been made, and it is the area which is most likely to demand urgent attention in the future.

    Almost all states carry on a certain amount of...

  7. 4 The Teachings of the Publicists
    (pp. 55-61)

    It is fairly obvious from a brief examination of its history, definition, and agencies that international propaganda has become so broad in scope, intensive in action, and powerful in its potential that the feasibility of its control will have to be studied. No control of international propaganda has yet been effected by any particular rule of international law that may have crystallized over the years. Yet there are plenty of theelements that make up international lawon the topic. These elements or evidences must be examined for any possible rule of international law that is likely to develop.


  8. 5 Control by International Agreement
    (pp. 62-108)

    While custom is the oldest and what has often been referred to as the original source of international law, treaties, especially of late, have become the most important source. It is necessary for an understanding of the role of treaties in the control of international propaganda to examine their function in international law. Writers speak of “general” and “particular” international law, according to whether the treaties that create it are made by a large number of states or only a few. All treaties have lawmaking properties in that, as in a private contract, they prescribe the rules for the future...

  9. 6 Control by Municipal Law
    (pp. 109-163)

    The International Court of Justice and other international tribunals recognize “the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations” as a source of international law. Both public and private international law often need to be ascertained in the municipal courts of individual nations, and the resulting judicial decision is usually accepted as a general principle of international law, at least for that state.¹ It is not uncommon, however, for the decision of a court in one state, on a rule of international law, to influence courts in other countries.

    Since municipal courts are far more active than international tribunals, it...

  10. 7 Extraterritorial Control of Propaganda
    (pp. 164-171)

    The discussion in the previous chapter dealt with the municipal laws governing crimes committed in the state’s own jurisdiction. The crimes included those committed against foreign states, their rulers, or their subjects; but the situs of the crime was always taken to be where the crime was committed. How does a state react to propaganda activities from abroad against itself or its inhabitants? What of propaganda crimes committed abroad by its own citizens? In other words, what besides the territorial principle determines the jurisdiction a state will assume? Will the state assume jurisdiction over its nationals wherever they may be...

  11. 8 Control by Diplomacy
    (pp. 172-198)

    There are several popular definitions of diplomacy¹ and several technical definitions.² For purposes of this chapter, theOxford English Dictionarydefinition is adequate: “Diplomacy is the management of international relations by negotiation; the method by which these relations are adjusted and managed by ambassadors and envoys. . . .”

    If state A were to disseminate propaganda in or regarding state B, the latter could, if it objected to the propaganda, settle the resulting dispute through negotiation—diplomacy. If this failed, and state B still desired satisfaction, it could, if state A were willing, submit the dispute to an international claims...

  12. 9 International Propaganda in Retrospect and Prospect
    (pp. 199-208)

    Propaganda, it has been shown, is a term that is subject to many definitions. The definitions appear to be in agreement about one thing only: that propaganda attempts to influence the thinking of people. There is general agreement that propaganda is aimed at the minds of people, and that the attempt is to direct or strengthen their thinking along predetermined lines. While courts of law will accept the common definitions of words, they cannot pass judgment when the common definition is vague and uncertain. Occasionally, courts in the United States, for instance, have let the jury decide whether the activities...

  13. Notes
    (pp. 211-256)
  14. Index
    (pp. 257-284)