After High School - What?

After High School - What?

RALPH F. BERDIE
WILBER L. LAYTON
BEN WILLERMAN
Copyright Date: 1954
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 256
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttv9sq
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  • Book Info
    After High School - What?
    Book Description:

    Whether a high school graduate enters college, goes to work, takes vocational training, or follows any other path open to him is of concern not only to the youth himself but to the nation and its manpower needs. This study throws light on the question of what influences determine the decision for a college education. It is based on information obtained from 25,000 graduating high school seniors in Minnesota, interviews with a sampling of their parents, and a follow-up study to check on how closely the young people followed the plans they indicated in the original survey. The book, a volume in the Minnesota Library on Student Personnel Work, will be helpful to high school and college administrators and counselors.

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3674-1
    Subjects: Psychology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-xii)
  3. Part One Who Chooses College

    • 1 Manpower and Education
      (pp. 3-25)

      Manpoweris a term increasingly used during recent years. It implies that the potential of our civilization rests in the men for whom that civilization exists. It suggests that the driving force of that civilization is found in those men, that the action upon which our society rests is the action of those men.

      The connotations of the termmanpowerare dynamic in character. Manpower means action, energy, drive, performance, achievement, construction, development, social progress. As social organization becomes more complex, an increasing number of problems demands more manpower and better manpower. More men must work and the work they...

    • 2 The Cast of Characters
      (pp. 26-47)

      In 1949, before we actually began the work of designing this study, a series of open-ended interviews were held with high school students in order to help us formulate hypotheses and develop appropriate methods. Jane Wold, a University of Minnesota counselor, conducted the interviews with 139 graduating seniors from four Minneapolis schools. These 56 boys and 83 girls constituted a sample of students having either a high school percentile rank or a percentile score on the American Council on Education Psychological Examination, based on norms for college freshmen, of 80 or above. Of the boys, 44 were planning to enter...

    • 3 An Overview
      (pp. 48-73)

      The hypotheses explored by the Minnesota study of 1950 grew naturally out of the series of interviews with high school students reported in the last chapter. One can find easily, even in a quick reading of these case histories, recurring themes and patterns. Keeping these in mind, we framed four hypotheses.

      The information collected in this study allowed us to test these hypotheses. Rigorous tests of the hypotheses, of course, will be impossible until more exact methods of quantification are developed. Actually, one might well decide not to call these statements hypotheses but rather to call them impressions, and perhaps...

    • 4 Some Interpretations
      (pp. 74-86)

      One can interpret in a variety of ways the results that have been presented, depending upon the emphasis desired. The figures do reveal a startling waste of human ability following high school graduation. On the other hand, these same figures indicate that a much larger proportion of talented than of intellectually mediocre youth seek college training. Access to a college education is determined in large part by economic factors but at the same time a large proportion of our college students come from homes that in no sense of the term can be called economically privileged. These results can lead...

  4. Part Two Analysis of the Findings

    • 5 Evaluation of the Data
      (pp. 89-92)

      The data used in the analyses reported here must themselves be evaluated. Inasmuch as great weight is placed upon the information derived from the questionnaires, the reliability of that information should be considered carefully.

      Three methods were available for evaluating the questionnaire data. First, the information pertaining to after-high-school plans reported in the original questionnaire was compared with the actual behavior of the student reported, again by questionnaire, one year after graduation from high school. This in one sense provided a summary statement of the validity of expressed after-high-school plans. The results of this comparison are presented in Chapter 16....

    • 6 Plans of High School Seniors
      (pp. 93-97)

      After-high-school plans were available for 24,892 Minnesota high school seniors. Slightly over one third of this group were planning to work after graduating from high school and slightly over one third were planning to attend college. Less than 10 per cent of the total group planned on any one of these courses of action: working for parents, going to trade school, going to business school, going to some other school, doing postgraduate work in high school, entering military service, entering nurses’ training, or following other plans.

      The follow-up study reported in Chapter 16 revealed the extent to which students behaved...

    • 7 Relation of Plans of High School Seniors to College Aptitudes
      (pp. 98-111)

      A system of higher education designed to meet the needs of a large segment of our young population and to train people of many capacities for a variety of jobs should utilize a diversity of abilities and aptitudes. Instead of predicting a student’s probable success in college on the basis of a single measure of college aptitude, we should make differential predictions for several collegiate training programs, basing the predictions on a variety of measures of different college aptitudes.

      Unfortunately, our present system of higher education has not as yet achieved such a degree of differentiation, and predictions of success...

    • 8 Description of Those Who Planned to Go to College
      (pp. 112-124)

      An attempt will be made in this chapter and those following to describe groups of high school seniors who had differing plans.* By knowing more about the group planning on college, the group planning on working, and the groups with other plans, high school and personnel workers will be able to understand these young people better.

      Of the 24,898 high school seniors who expressed some plan for the year following graduation, 8993 were planning on going to college. It is perhaps safe to generalize that of all high school seniors graduating in Minnesota in 1950, 36 per cent were seriously...

    • 9 Description of Those Who Planned to Get Jobs
      (pp. 125-134)

      Of the 24,898 students who expressed post-high-school plans, 36 per cent, or the same percentage as that planning on college, indicated they were intending to get jobs after graduating from high school. This group did not include the 1648 students who were planning to work for their parents after graduation.

      Relatively more girls than boys were planning on getting jobs, 38 per cent as against 32 per cent. This sex difference appeared in each of the geographic groups, as shown in the tabulation. (However, one should note that when the farm boys planning to work for their parents were added...

    • 10 High-Ability Students: Those Who Planned to Go to College and Those Who Planned to Get Jobs
      (pp. 135-148)

      In previous chapters rather complete descriptions were presented of groups of students having differing after-high-school plans, those who planned on attending college and those who planned on getting jobs. In these descriptions some comparisons were made within the different groups; the purpose of the descriptions was to provide a comprehensive picture of each group with specific plans. In the present chapter the purpose is somewhat different. Here we shall compare two small groups of students, those with relatively high ability who planned to attend college and those with similar ability who planned to work.

      In the entire group of 24,898...

    • 11 High-Ability Students from Workmen’s Homes
      (pp. 149-159)

      Social, economic, cultural, and intellectual factors related to college attendance are so complex that the interrelationships among these factors are difficult to identify. Of various methods that can be used to estimate the relative importance of some of these factors, one promising method consists of holding one or more factors relatively constant and observing conditions related to variations in the remaining factors. Essentially, that is the method used in this part of the study.

      Of the 17,366 boys and girls coming from metropolitan and nonfarm areas, between 20 and 25 per cent came from the homes of skilled tradesmen and...

    • 12 Girls Who Planned to Enter Nursing
      (pp. 160-166)

      Of the 13,513 girls who reported after-high-school plans, 857 (6 per cent) indicated they were planning to enter nurses’ training. Unfortunately, the questionnaire provided no means of distinguishing between the girls who planned to enter directly into nurses’ training and those who planned to enter college before specializing in nursing. It might be assumed that the latter group would indicate on the questionnaire their intention to go to college, and here we will make this somewhat questionable assumption, and view the girls who checked “enter nursing” as girls who planned to enter nursing with no college preparation. By geographical group,...

    • 13 Girls Who Planned to Attend Business School
      (pp. 167-172)

      Of the 13,513 girls reporting plans for after high school, 1015 (8 per cent) indicated they planned to attend business school after graduation. Six per cent of the metropolitan girls and 8 per cent of the farm and nonfarm girls planned on business school. Since only 2 per cent of the boys planned to attend business school, no detailed description of the characteristics of these boys will be provided here.

      The median age of the girls planning on going to business school was 17 years. Approximately 10 per cent were 16 years old and another 10 per cent were 18...

    • 14 Parental Attitudes toward College
      (pp. 173-177)
      BEN WILLERMAN

      The exact degree to which parental attitudes influence students’ decisions to attend college is unknown. In light of the complexity of this relationship, we perhaps will never have a precise description of how parents influence their children as they are planning their post-high-school career. Certainly such a relationship exists over a long period of time and any study that does not consider the developing parent-child attitudes will provide an incomplete picture of these phenomena.

      In order to obtain information that would throw light upon the reliability of the questionnaires completed by the high school seniors in this study, interviews with...

    • 15 Socioeconomic Status and After-High-School Plans
      (pp. 178-192)
      WILBUR L. LAYTON

      Are the after-high-school plans of a high school senior related to his socio-cultural environment? When the economic status of a student is held constant, is his socio-cultural status related to his plans to attend college?

      Sixty-one items obviously related to socioeconomic status were included in the questionnaire. Some of these items, such as “Source of family income,” measured predominantly economic status. Some items, such as “Number of books in the home,” measured predominantly socio-cultural status. Other items, such as “Organizations father or mother belong to,” measured both factors to some degree.

      An adaptation of Mosier’s method* of “scaling by reciprocal...

    • 16 The Follow-up
      (pp. 193-232)

      The sample drawn for the follow-up study consisted of 2735 persons, of whom 1283 were from the metropolitan areas and 1452 were from the nonmetropolitan areas of the state. As Table 20 shows, the sample was almost equally divided between boys and girls, with 1329 boys and 1367 girls in the sample, not including the 39 cases to whom questionnaires were not delivered because of wrong addresses.

      Of the 2735 questionnaires mailed, 77 per cent were returned. Table 21 shows the returns from metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas and the type of return. Slightly more questionnaires were returned by mail from...

  5. Index
    (pp. 233-240)