Geographic Targeting in Urban Areas: A Social-Welfare Program for Older People in Mexico

Geographic Targeting in Urban Areas: A Social-Welfare Program for Older People in Mexico

Emma Aguila
Arie Kapteyn
Nelly Mejia
Rosalba Robles
Oscar Vargas
Beverly A. Weidmer
Copyright Date: 2014
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 38
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  • Book Info
    Geographic Targeting in Urban Areas: A Social-Welfare Program for Older People in Mexico
    Book Description:

    This report details a comparison of the results of a social-gap index based on local and social observations at the block level with other marginalization and social-gap rates used to target social-welfare programs in Mexico. It also assesses the feasibility of targeting delivery of noncontributory pensions for older people who live in urban areas.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-8914-4
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. ii-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  4. Figure and Tables
    (pp. vii-viii)
  5. Summary
    (pp. ix-x)
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xii)
  7. Abbreviations
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  8. CHAPTER ONE Goals of the Research and Overview of the Noncontributory Pension Program
    (pp. 1-4)

    This report describes the effort by researchers from the RAND Corporation and a team that included representatives from the government of Yucatan, Mexico, to measure characteristics of the population age 70 and older in the city of Merida, with the goal of targeting the delivery of a noncontributory pension of MXN $550 (about US$67 at 2011 purchasing power parity [PPP]) to older, impoverished adults.

    Targeting social programs helps provide benefits to those who need them most. It also helps to reduce or improve efficiency of government social expenditures by increasing benefits available to disadvantaged populations by not allocating resources to...

  9. CHAPTER TWO Using Characteristics of Geographic Areas to Target Social Programs
    (pp. 5-8)

    There are three main approaches for targeting antipoverty programs. These involve collecting information on (1) income or material wealth (income, savings, and assets); (2) household characteristics and assets, or (3) characteristics of small geographic areas (Bigman and Srinivasan, 2002). The first approach uses secondary sources of income data (e.g., administrative registries) to identify and determine program eligibility. The second approach presumes that it is possible to establish the wealth of individuals or households by “tagging” observable characteristics, such as demographics, material conditions of housing, and durable assets (Akerlof, 1978). The third approach, as noted earlier, focuses on small geographic areas...

  10. CHAPTER THREE Development of the Marginalization and Social-Gap Indexes
    (pp. 9-14)

    The social-gap index developed by CONEVAL condenses social-deprivation indexes on education, access to health care services, basic services at home, home quality and spaces, and household assets. It allows comparison of the severity of social deprivation by geography. CONEVAL, at our request, estimated this index for adults age 60 and over in the city of Merida by AGEB.

    CONEVAL estimated the social-gap index by using principal component analysis. This method constructs the index as a linear combination of the indicators, in which the social-gap index is the sum of its indicators weighted by the proportion of the variance of social...

  11. CHAPTER FOUR Findings
    (pp. 15-18)

    Our final step was to compare our block-level social-gap index with the AGEB-level marginalization and social-gap indexes produced by CONAPO and CONEVAL. Should CONAPO and CONEVAL provide good measures of poverty, then our social-gap index for individual blocks should not deviate greatly from them, particularly where the CONAPO and CONEVAL indexes were consistent.

    We grouped the blocks included in the neighborhood and social observation surveys by AGEB and compared them on a range of social-gap strata. We found large variation in the blocks within each AGEB. We also found, as Table 3.5 in Chapter Three shows, a very wide range...

  12. CHAPTER FIVE Conclusions
    (pp. 19-20)

    Public policy targeting remains important because resources to alleviate poverty are scarce. Targeting offers more-efficient means of delivering more resources to those most in need.

    There are various techniques and methods to targeting public policies. In this report, we describe a geographic-targeting experiment conducted in Merida, Yucatan. From the results of the project, we believe that it is necessary to further refine the georeference tools for determining block-level marginalization in large cities. Using better tools can help programs increase benefits and make benefit distribution reach those in greatest need.

    We found discrepancies in the official classifications of marginality levels by...

  13. References
    (pp. 21-24)