Confronting the "Enemy Within"

Confronting the "Enemy Within": Security Intelligence, the Police, and Counterterrorism in Four Democracies

Peter Chalk
William Rosenau
Copyright Date: 2004
Edition: 1
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 90
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  • Book Info
    Confronting the "Enemy Within"
    Book Description:

    Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, critics have charged that the Federal Bureau of Investigation, while qualified to investigate terrorist incidents after the fact, is not well equipped enough to adequately gather and assess information to prevent attacks. More intrinsically, many believe that given a predominant and deeply rooted law enforcement and prosecutorial culture, the bureau may not be able to change operational focus toward dedicated counterterrorism intelligence gathering and analysis. To better inform debate, researchers analyzed the domestic security structures of four allied countries--the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and Australia--weighing both their positive and negative aspects. (PW/PC)

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-3614-8
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. The RAND Corporation Quality Assurance Process
    (pp. v-vi)
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  5. Table
    (pp. ix-x)
  6. Summary
    (pp. xi-xvi)
  7. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
  8. Abbreviations
    (pp. xix-xxii)
  9. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-6)

    In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was widely criticized for failing to prevent the strikes on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. More broadly, the bureau, the nation’s primary agency for conducting counterterrorist intelligence operations within the United States, was faulted for failing to understand the nature, scope, and virulence of the threat posed by Osama bin Laden’s terror network. Critics charged that the FBI, while superbly qualified toinvestigateterrorist incidents after the fact, was grossly ill equipped topreventattacks, given its strong law enforcement and...

  10. CHAPTER TWO Security Intelligence in the United Kingdom
    (pp. 7-16)

    For much of the past 100 years, Irish terrorists have posed the most significant internal security threat to the United Kingdom. During the “Troubles” (1969–1996), more than 3,600 people died in terrorism-related violence connected to the Protestant-Catholic sectarian conflict in Northern Ireland. Although splinter organizations like the Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA) continue to operate—indeed, this group carried out one of the deadliest terrorist attacks ever perpetrated in the United Kingdom in Omagh in August 1998—Irish paramilitary organizations no longer pose the gravest threat. Today, British authorities consider international extremist groups linked to al Qaeda to be...

  11. CHAPTER THREE Security Intelligence in France
    (pp. 17-24)

    France currently faces no decisive domestic terrorist threat (with the exception of certain xenophobic right-wing groups connected with the National Front and regional separatists associated with Corsican and Basque extremism). The main danger confronting the country is that from international terrorist groups, especially those emanating from Islamist militants based in Algeria and other Maghreb countries. Such organizations as the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) and the Salafist Preaching and Combat Group (SPCG)—both of which act as associate entities of al Qaeda—are known to have established operational cells in France, benefiting from the country’s sizable Muslim population (5 million out...

  12. CHAPTER FOUR Security Intelligence in Canada
    (pp. 25-32)

    Canada has been largely free of indigenously based terrorism, with the main manifestations of current domestic political extremism restricted to sporadic and largely symbolic acts of environmental or animal-rights violence and protest.¹ However, the country has been decisively affected by the spillover effects of overseas conflicts and continues to act as a highly important hub of political, financial, and logistical support for Sikh and Islamic religious radicalism as well as ethno-nationalist separatist movements in Sri Lanka, Turkey, Ireland, and the Middle East. Over the past decade, terrorists linked to Hamas, Hizbollah, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the GIA, al Qaeda, PIRA, the...

  13. CHAPTER FIVE Security Intelligence in Australia
    (pp. 33-42)

    Australia has been largely free of domestic and imported terrorism¹ and still does not confront the same level of threat as do other states in North America and Western Europe. This being said, the country’s overall risk profile has been substantially heightened as a result of several developments over the past five years. Notably, these include Prime Minister John Howard’s close alliance with the United States (which represents a reversal from previous Prime Minister Paul Keating’s emphasis of engagement with Asia); his government’s hosting of such prominent international events as the 2000 Olympic Games and the 2002 Commonwealth Heads of...

  14. CHAPTER SIX Assessment and Observations
    (pp. 43-54)

    Several aspects of the British, French, Canadian, and Australian models are worthy of note in terms of both strengths and weaknesses. While the experience of MI5, the DST, CSIS, and ASIO has been necessarily shaped by the particular political and security environment in which each has had to operate, it is possible to extrapolate positive and negative themes that are common across the four services and that, accordingly, would seem to have relevance beyond specific national contexts.

    On the positive side, at least eight observations stand out. First, all four countries vest domestic counterterrorism intelligence into the hands of dedicated...

  15. CHAPTER SEVEN Conclusion
    (pp. 55-56)

    To be sure, significant differences exist between the United States on the one hand and the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and Australia on the other. From a historical standpoint, the French and British experience of subversion and terrorism has inured the publics in both states to an invasive intelligence and surveillance bureaucracy that would certainly be viewed as unacceptable in America—the events of September 11, 2001, notwithstanding. In addition, the case studies highlight the existence of administrative bureaucracies and police structures that are more centralized than those found in the United States (something that is particularly true in France...

  16. APPENDIX The Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Legislation Amendment (Terrorism) Act, 2003: Background Information
    (pp. 57-58)
  17. Bibliography
    (pp. 59-66)
  18. About the Authors
    (pp. 67-68)