Chasing the Dragon

Chasing the Dragon: Assessing China's System of Export Controls for WMD-Related Goods and Technologies

Evan S. Medeiros
Copyright Date: 2005
Edition: 1
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 134
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/mg353
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  • Book Info
    Chasing the Dragon
    Book Description:

    China's export controls on equipment, materials, and technologies used to produce weapons of mass destruction (WMD) have evolved significantly since the early 1980s. This monograph examines the structure and operation of the Chinese government's system of controls on exports that could be used in the production of WMD and WMD-related delivery systems. The author identifies the key organizations involved in export control decisionmaking, relevant laws and regulations, and the interactions among government organizations involved in vetting sensitive exports.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-4085-5
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  4. Figures
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Summary
    (pp. xi-xviii)
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xix-xx)
  7. Acronyms
    (pp. xxi-xxii)
  8. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-4)

    As China becomes more integrated into the prevailing systems of rules, norms, and institutions on international security affairs, its ability (and willingness) to comply with its nonproliferation commitments will be an important indicator of the type of global actor that China will become in the future. This report addresses the broad issue of the Chinese government’s institutional and administrative capacity to fulfill its international security commitments. Two broad questions motivated this research: Does the government possess the institutional structures and incentives to implement effectively its various economic and security commitments and, where deficiencies exist, does the government have the capacity...

  9. CHAPTER TWO History of Chinese Export Controls
    (pp. 5-20)

    China’s sales and transfers of sensitive goods used in the production of WMD and their delivery systems have long been issues of concern to the United States and the international community. In past decades, Chinese transfers of nuclear weapons–related and ballistic missile–related equipment, materials, and technologies have significantly aided the development of weapons programs in unstable regions of the world such as South Asia and the Middle East. While such assistance from China was extensive in the 1980s and early 1990s, it has narrowed since the mid-1990s. The Chinese government began to expand its formal participation in and...

  10. CHAPTER THREE Key Organizations in China’s Export Control System
    (pp. 21-42)

    Several government organizations are involved in vetting exports of WMD-related goods and technologies. The various bureaucratic actors and their respective roles and responsibilities are delineated in this chapter and are summarized and diagrammed in Figure 3.1. Understanding the bureaucratic “playing field” in China and the relative distribution of authority among these organizations is central to evaluating how the system functions and its future evolution.

    China’s Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM, 商务部) is the lead organization in the Chinese bureaucracy tasked with export control administration for controlled WMD goods and technologies. As Chinese leaders have placed more emphasis on WMD nonproliferation in...

  11. CHAPTER FOUR Chinese Export Control Decisionmaking: Registration and Licensing Processes
    (pp. 43-74)

    This chapter outlines the multiple steps involved in China’s license application and review process for exports of conventional military goods and WMD-related goods and technologies. It begins with a general overview of China’s export control system, including a discussion of the laws, regulations, and measures that guide export control decisionmaking. The chapter then addresses in detail the following five export control processes:

    1. Certification of an entity as an authorized exporter of controlled sensitive goods and technologies

    2. Nuclear export licensing (including nuclear dual-use items)

    3. Chemical export licensing (including chemical dual-use items)

    4. Conventional military equipment export licensing

    5. Missile goods and technology export...

  12. CHAPTER FIVE Challenges in Implementation and Enforcement of Export Controls
    (pp. 75-92)

    This chapter addresses the Chinese government’s efforts to implement and enforce its export controls. Chinese implementation and enforcement of nonproliferation regulations are perhaps the most important aspects of export control administration (Figure 5.1 illustrates the government organizations involved in export control enforcement). The Chinese government’s actions on these issues serve as an indicator of how great a priority it places on WMD nonproliferation. Moreover, the government’s efforts in this area also offer a tangible indicator of the government’s ability to live up to its nonproliferation commitments. The government’s capacity to implement and enforce export controls also informs broader debates about...

  13. CHAPTER SIX Future Challenges for China’s Export Control System
    (pp. 93-96)

    China’s export controls on sensitive goods and technologies have come a long way since the first regulations on exports of such items were adopted in the mid-1990s. Yet, the export control system still has a long way to go to reach the level of a fully functioning system that regularly monitors and polices the activities of exporters involved in selling WMD-related goods and technologies. The system currently faces several challenges in achieving this goal; in the future, new challenges will further tax the current system. Those new challenges include the following:

    Regularizing Implementation. Improving the government’s ability to implement and...

  14. APPENDIX A Application for Registration as an Authorized Exporter of Sensitive Goods and Technology
    (pp. 97-98)
  15. APPENDIX B Application for a License to Export Sensitive Goods and Technology
    (pp. 99-102)
  16. APPENDIX C End-User and End-Use Certificates
    (pp. 103-106)
  17. APPENDIX D End-User Certificate for Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macao
    (pp. 107-108)
  18. Bibliography
    (pp. 109-112)