Securing Tyrants or Fostering Reform? U.S. Internal Security Assistance to Repressive and Transitioning Regimes

Securing Tyrants or Fostering Reform? U.S. Internal Security Assistance to Repressive and Transitioning Regimes

Seth G. Jones
Olga Oliker
Peter Chalk
C. Christine Fair
Rollie Lal
James Dobbins
Copyright Date: 2006
Edition: 1
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 232
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  • Book Info
    Securing Tyrants or Fostering Reform? U.S. Internal Security Assistance to Repressive and Transitioning Regimes
    Book Description:

    This study examines the results of U.S. assistance to the internal security forces of four repressive states: El Salvador, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Efforts to improve the security, human rights, and accountability of security forces appear more likely to succeed in states transitioning from repressive to democratic systems. In addition, several factors are critical for success: the duration of assistance, viability of the justice system, and support and buy-in from the local government (including key ministries).

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-4262-0
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  4. Figures
    (pp. vii-viii)
  5. Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  6. Summary
    (pp. xi-xxii)
  7. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xxiii-xxiv)
  8. Abbreviations
    (pp. xxv-xxviii)
  9. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-8)

    Throughout its history, the U.S. government has provided funding, equipment, training, and other assistance to the police and internal security agencies of foreign governments to help counter security threats, including terrorist organizations, drug trafficking, and hostile states. This report examines an important subset of U.S. internal security assistance; aid to repressive states. The United States has provided assistance to a number of countries that have not shared its political ideals. Their security forces were not accountable to the public, and their practices and approaches were not transparent. In some cases, the confluence of shared interests has led the United States...

  10. CHAPTER TWO Historical Context
    (pp. 9-22)

    This chapter presents a brief history of U.S. internal security assistance dating back to the Cold War. During the Cold War, for example, the United States provided assistance to a number of states with repressive internal security forces, including El Salvador, Iran, and the Philippines, in response to fears of Soviet expansion. More recently, after the September 11, 2001, attacks, the United States provided—or, in some cases, significantly increase—assistance to states whose internal security practices raised concerns, as part of its war on terrorism. Examples include Uzbekistan, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia. In most of these cases, the United...

  11. CHAPTER THREE El Salvador
    (pp. 23-48)

    In January 1992, representatives of El Salvador’s government and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) signed a peace settlement in Mexico City’s picturesque Chapultepec Castle. The settlement ended 12 years of civil war that left approximately 75,000 people dead.¹ It also provided an important opportunity to reform one of the most repressive internal security apparatuses in Central America. As had occurred elsewhere in Central America, the war in El Salvador had evolved into a proxy conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Reagan administration viewed El Salvador as a place to “draw the line” against communist...

  12. CHAPTER FOUR Uzbekistan
    (pp. 49-88)

    U.S. security cooperation with Uzbekistan has developed significantly since Uzbekistan became independent in 1991, following the breakup of the Soviet Union. Security contacts began in 1994 through the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program.¹ These efforts focused initially on finding peaceful work for former Uzbek weapons scientists and the elimination of biological-weapons infrastructure. In 1998, the program was expanded to include border control efforts, in keeping with the counterproliferation imperatives of CTR. Ties continued to develop from that point on but remained fairly low-key; a total of just under $190 million in overall assistance had been provided as of September 30,...

  13. CHAPTER FIVE Afghanistan
    (pp. 89-124)

    In 2001, the United States orchestrated the overthrow of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, using a combination of CIA and Special Operations units, air power, and support from indigenous allies.¹ While fighting continued over the next several years in the east and south of the country, reconstruction efforts began in December 2001, when Afghan leaders signed the Bonn Agreement. The Bonn Agreement established a timetable for achieving peace and security, reestablishing key government institutions, and rebuilding Afghanistan. Security-sector reform in Afghanistan was based on a “lead nation” approach. The United States was the lead donor nation for reconstructing the Afghan...

  14. CHAPTER SIX Pakistan
    (pp. 125-160)

    The government of Pakistan is now considered to be one of the most important partners of the United States in the South Asian region. Since reversing its policy of support to the Taliban in Afghanistan following the 9/11 attacks, Pakistan has been hailed as a central partner in the Bush administration’s global war on terror (GWOT), playing a critical role in helping to degrade the operational capabilities of al Qaeda and affiliated Taliban elements fleeing Afghanistan in the wake of Operation Enduring Freedom. Indeed, at the time of writing, Pakistan had rendered more terrorist suspects to America than any other...

  15. CHAPTER SEVEN Conclusion
    (pp. 161-174)

    Few would disagree that internal security forces should be judged by their ability to respond effectively to terrorist organizations, insurgents, criminal groups, and other security threats that fall within their area of responsibility. In the interest of long-term sustainability, however, they must also be judged by their accountability and human rights practices. The goals of effectiveness, accountability, and human rights are interlinked and mutually reinforcing.

    The United States has long struggled with the tradeoffs inherent in working with repressive regimes. During the Cold War, the global struggle against the Soviet Union led the United States to provide internal security assistance...

  16. APPENDIX Training Assistance Provided to Uzbekistan, January 2001–June 2005
    (pp. 175-180)
  17. Bibliography
    (pp. 181-203)