Green Warriors

Green Warriors: Army Environmental Considerations for Contingency Operations from Planning Through Post-Conflict

David E. Mosher
Beth E. Lachman
Michael D. Greenberg
Tiffany Nichols
Brian Rosen
Henry H. Willis
Copyright Date: 2008
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 248
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Green Warriors
    Book Description:

    This study assesses whether Army policy, doctrine, and guidance adequately address environmental activities in post-conflict phases of contingencies. A review of policy, doctrine, operational experience, and documentation, as well as interviews with Army personnel, indicates that environmental concerns can have significant impacts. Recommendations are made for improving the Army?s approach to environmental issues in contingency operations.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-4586-7
    Subjects: Political Science, Health Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Sponsor Guidance
    (pp. v-vi)
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  5. Figures
    (pp. xi-xii)
  6. Tables and Boxes
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  7. Summary
    (pp. xv-xviii)
  8. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xix-xx)
  9. Acronyms
    (pp. xxi-xxiv)
  10. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-16)

    In the past few decades, the United States has been involved in contingency operations throughout the world. Since the end of the Cold War, U.S. combat forces have deployed to the Persian Gulf region to oust Iraqi forces from Kuwait in 1990–1991; Somalia to provide humanitarian assistance amid the chaos in 1992–1993; Bosnia in 1996 and Kosovo in 1999 to enforce peace agreements; Haiti to provide stability in 1997; Afghanistan to remove the Taliban from power in 2001; and Iraq to end the Saddam Hussein regime in 2003. Not only have U.S. forces been involved in more contingency...

  11. CHAPTER TWO The Context for Environmental Considerations in Contingency Operations
    (pp. 17-66)

    Any consideration of the environment in a contingency operation must take account of the legal, policy, operational, and environmental context in which the operation occurs.

    Army forces interact with the environment in five principal arenas: achieving strategic objectives, conducting tactical operations, sustaining forces, providing humanitarian assistance, and conducting stabilization and reconstruction operations. The environmental considerations can differ in each arena.

    Strategic objectives are driven by the nation’s overall purposes in engaging in an operation. Those purposes are often much broader than simply winning military battles. They may include political, economic, social, and diplomatic outcomes. At a minimum, most successful operations...

  12. CHAPTER THREE Experience with Environmental Considerations in Contingency Operations
    (pp. 67-94)

    This chapter catalogs a wide range of Army and joint-force environmental experiences in contingency operations and assesses what those experiences may mean for future operations. First, we discuss how environmental considerations have been incorporated into planning for contingency operations, Army activities in the field, and training for field operations. Next, we present some of the key findings from a database of 111 case studies that we assembled from interviews and literature reviews. Chapter Four presents insights gained from our analysis of the operational experience, based on the case studies, interviews, and the broader literature.

    How have the Army, the joint...

  13. CHAPTER FOUR Analysis of Army Operational Experience
    (pp. 95-120)

    On the basis of our analysis of the case study database and data collected from interviews and the literature, we developed a number of insights. In this chapter, we discuss nine insights that we believe are central to understanding and ultimately improving the Army’s policy, doctrine, training, and operations as they apply to environmental considerations in contingency operations:

    Environmental considerations have a broad range of far-reaching impacts.

    The Army is involved in many diverse reconstruction activities with environmental components.

    Insufficient resources are available to fully address environmental issues.

    Contractors must be carefully selected and managed.

    Collaboration with stakeholders is beneficial...

  14. CHAPTER FIVE Findings and Recommendations
    (pp. 121-146)

    Environmental considerations for the Army range from strategic concerns about desired end states to mundane issues of managing sewage at base camps. In this report, we have identified the effects of environmental considerations on the Army in contingency operations and the lack of policy and doctrinal support in this area. Although environmental considerations are integral to the Army’s ability to meet national objectives and desired end states in contingency operations, they are often underrepresented in the competition for attention, investments, and manpower. Balancing environmental considerations with other factors that contribute to mission success is a constant undertaking and requires better...

  15. APPENDIX A Domestic and International Law in Army Contingency Operations
    (pp. 147-172)
  16. APPENDIX B The Importance of Environmental Conditions to the Local Populace in Iraq
    (pp. 173-190)
  17. APPENDIX C Case Studies of Operational Experiences
    (pp. 191-214)
  18. Glossary of Selected Environmental Terms
    (pp. 215-218)
  19. Bibliography
    (pp. 219-228)