Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century

Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates: Executive Summary

Gabriella Gonzalez
Lynn A. Karoly
Louay Constant
Hanine Salem
Charles A. Goldman
Copyright Date: 2008
Edition: 1
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 154
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/mg786-1rc
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  • Book Info
    Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century
    Book Description:

    Summarizes the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region--Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates--to address the human resource issues they each face as they prepare their countries for a place in the 21st century global economy. Together, these countries highlight the variety of challenges faced by countries in the region and responses to those challenges.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-4822-6
    Subjects: Education, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Preface
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  4. Figures
    (pp. vii-viii)
  5. Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xii)
  7. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-14)

    According to the Framework for Action adopted for Arab states by the 2000 Regional Conference on Education for All (United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2000b), millions of individuals in the Arab region¹ are being deprived of education, and millions are receiving education of poor quality. In addition, most of those receiving an education are not being appropriately prepared for the technological era or the potential for international competition in the new millennium. While primary education enrollments are relatively high (90 percent or higher), secondary and post-secondary education remains elusive for most. And illiteracy rates in the region...

  8. CHAPTER TWO Economic and Sociopolitical Context for Reform in the Four Study Countries
    (pp. 15-28)

    We classified the countries in our study on the basis of four characteristics: source of national wealth, nature of sociopolitical system, diversity of economy, and composition of labor pool.¹ These four characteristics are intrinsically tied to each other. The countries that rely on natural resources for their wealth have similar political systems, have a large public sector that serves as the dominant employer in the country, and need to import expatriate (skilled and unskilled) labor to fill shortages in their local labor pools. Conversely, the countries that have a variety of sources of national wealth share a longer history of...

  9. CHAPTER THREE Human Resource Challenges and Reform Efforts in Qatar, UAE, Oman, and Lebanon
    (pp. 29-46)

    This chapter summarizes the human resource challenges and human capital reform initiatives in place or under way in our four study countries. We begin with Qatar and the UAE because these two countries are the most similar in the group: They are resource rich, are governed by a ruling elite, have a large or relatively large public sector, and have a labor market dominated by non-nationals. We then discuss Oman, which is like Qatar and the UAE in that it is governed by a ruling elite, but has dwindling resources and a more diverse economy with less reliance on expatriate...

  10. CHAPTER FOUR Conclusions
    (pp. 47-64)

    The countries examined in this study face a number of human resource challenges, to a large extent reflecting the range of issues affecting countries throughout the Arab region. Our four study countries are at various stages of implementing reforms and policy initiatives to address these challenges. We found that while the motivations for these reforms and other initiatives are oftentimes similar, the countries’ specific approaches can be distinctly different. More common across the study countries is a gap between implementation of reforms and evaluation of whether they are having the intended effect. In many cases, the reforms have only recently...

  11. References
    (pp. 65-70)
  12. ﺔﻴﻟﻭﻷﺍ ﻞﺋﺎﺴﻤﻟﺍ
    (pp. i-ii)
  13. ﺮﻳﺪﺻﺗ
    (pp. iii-iv)
  14. ﺕﺎﻳﻮﺘﺤﻤﻟﺍ
    (pp. v-vi)
  15. ﻞﺎﻜﺷﻷﺍ
    (pp. vii-viii)
  16. ﻞﻭﺍﺪﺠﻟﺍ
    (pp. ix-x)
  17. ﻦﺎﻔﺮﻋﻭ ﺮﻜﺷ
    (pp. xi-xii)
  18. :لوﻷا ﻞﺼﻔﻟا ﺔﻣﺪﻘﻣ
    (pp. ١-١٤)

    ﻊﯿﻤﺠﻠﻟ ﻢﯿﻠﻌﺘﻠﻟ ﻲﻤﯿﻠﻗﻹا ﺮﻤﺗﺆﻤﻟا ﻦﻣ مﺪﻘﻤﻟاو ﺔﯿﺑﺮﻌﻟا ناﺪﻠﺒﻟﺎﺑ ﮫﺑ لﻮﻤﻌﻤﻟا ﻞﻤﻌﻟا رﺎﻃﻹ ﺎﻘﻓو ،(ب٢٠٠٠ ،[ﻮﻜﺴﻧﻮﯿﻟا] ﺔﻓﺎﻘﺜﻟاو ﻢﻠﻌﻟاو ﺔﯿﺑﺮﺘﻠﻟ ةﺪﺤﺘﻤﻟا ﻢﻣﻷا ﺔﻤﻈﻨﻣ) ٢٠٠٠ مﺎﻋ ﺪﻘﻋ يﺬﻟا ﻦﯿﯾﻼﻣ نأ ﻰﻠﻋ ةوﻼﻋ ،ﻢﯿﻠﻌﺘﻟا ﻦﻣ نﻮﻣوﺮﺤﻣ ١ﺔﯿﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺔﻘﻄﻨﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ داﺮﻓﻷا ﻦﯿﯾﻼﻣ نﺈﻓ صﺎﺨﺷﻷا ﻚﺌﻟوأ ﺔﯿﺒﻠﻏأ نﺈﻓ ،ﻚﻟذ ﻰﻟإ ﺔﻓﺎﺿﻹﺎﺑ .ىﻮﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻲﻧﺪﺘﻣ ﺎًﻤﯿﻠﻌﺗ نﻮﻘﻠﺘﯾ ﻦﯾﺮﺧآ ﺲﯿﻟ ﮫﻧأ ﺎﻤﻛ ،ﻲﺟﻮﻟﻮﻨﻜﺘﻟا ﺮﺼﻌﻟا لﻮﺧﺪﻟ ﺐﺳﺎﻨﻤﻟا ﻞﻜﺸﻟﺎﺑ ﻦﯾﺪﻌﻣ ﺮﯿﻏ ﺎًﻤﯿﻠﻌﺗ نﻮﻘﻠﺘﯾ ﻦﯾﺬﻟا نأ ﻦﻣ ﻢﻏﺮﻟا ﻰﻠﻌﻓ .ةﺪﯾﺪﺠﻟا ﺔﯿﻔﻟﻷا لﻼﺧ ﺔﯿﻤﻟﺎﻌﻟا ﺔﺴﻓﺎﻨﻤﻟا رﺎﻤﻏ ضﻮﺨﻟ ﺔﺻﺮﻓ ﻢﮭﻣﺎﻣأ ﺔﺒﺴﻧ ﻰﻘﺒﺗ ،(ﺮﺜﻛأ وأ ﺔﺋﺎﻤﻟﺎﺑ ٩٠ ﻎﻠﺒﺗ) ﺎًﯿﺒﺴﻧ ﺔﻌﻔﺗﺮﻣ ﻲﺋاﺪﺘﺑﻻا ﻢﯿﻠﻌﺘﻟﺎﺑ ﻞﯿﺠﺴﺘﻟا تﺎﯿﻠﻤﻋ ﺔﺒﺴﻧ ﺪﻌﺗ ،ﻚﻟذ ﻰﻠﻋ ةوﻼﻋ .سﺎﻨﻟا ﺔﯿﺒﻟﺎﻐﻟ اًﺮﯿﺤﻣ اًﺮﻣأ يﻮﻧﺎﺜﻟا ﺪﻌﺑ...

  19. :ﻲﻧﺎﺜﻟا ﻞﺼﻔﻟا ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻞﺤﻣ ﺔﻌﺑﺭﻷﺍ نﺍﺪﻠﺒﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺮﻳﻮﻄﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺭدﺎﺑﻤﻟ ﻲﺳﺎﻳﺳﻟﺍ ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍﻭ ﻱدﺎﺻﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﻕﺎﻳﺳﻟﺍ
    (pp. ١٥-٢٨)

    ﺔﯿﻨﻃﻮﻟا ةوﺮﺜﻟا رﺪﺼﻣ :ﺺﺋﺎﺼﺧ ﻊﺑرأ سﺎﺳأ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻨﺘﺳارد ﻲﻓ ناﺪﻠﺒﻟا ﻒﯿﻨﺼﺘﺑ ﺎﻨﻤﻗ ١.ﺔﻟﺎﻤﻌﻟا ردﺎﺼﻣ ﺔﺒﯿﻛﺮﺗو ﺔﯾدﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻا ﺔﻄﺸﻧﻷا عﻮﻨﺗو ﻲﺳﺎﯿﺴﻟا ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻا مﺎﻈﻨﻟا ﺔﻌﯿﺒﻃو ﺪﻤﺘﻌﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا ناﺪﻠﺒﻟا نإ .ﺎًﯾﺮھﻮﺟ ﺎًﻃﺎﺒﺗرا ﺾﻌﺒﻟا ﺎﮭﻀﻌﺒﺑ ﻊﺑرﻷا ﺺﺋﺎﺼﺨﻟا هﺬھ ﻂﺒﺗﺮﺗو ﺎﮭﺑ مﺎﻌﻟا عﺎﻄﻘﻟا ﻞﻐﺸﯾو ﺔﮭﺑﺎﺸﺘﻣ ﺔﯿﺳﺎﯿﺳ ﺔﻤﻈﻧﺄﺑ ﻊﺘﻤﺘﺗ ﺎﮭﺗاوﺮﺛ ﻲﻓ ﺔﯿﻌﯿﺒﻄﻟا دراﻮﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ هﺬھ نأ ﺎﻤﻛ ،ﺪﻠﺒﻟا ﻲﻓ ﻦﻤﯿﮭﻤﻟا ﻲﺴﯿﺋﺮﻟا ﻞﻤﻌﻟا ﺐﺣﺎﺻ ﺪﻌﯾ ﺚﯿﺣ طﺎﺸﻨﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺎًﻤﺨﺿ اًﺰﯿﺣ ﺰﺠﻌﻟا ﺪﺴﻟ ﻚﻟذو (ةﺮھﺎﻣ ﺮﯿﻏو تارﺎﮭﻣ تاذ) ﺔﺑﺮﺘﻐﻣ ﺔﻟﺎﻤﻋ داﺮﯿﺘﺳا ﻰﻟإ جﺎﺘﺤﺗ ناﺪﻠﺒﻟا ﻲﺘﻟا ناﺪﻠﺒﻟا نأ ﺪﺠﻧ ،ﻚﻟذ ﻦﻣ ﺾﯿﻘﻨﻟا ﻰﻠﻋو .ﺎﮭﯾﺪﻟ ﺔﯿﻠﺤﻤﻟا ﺔﻟﺎﻤﻌﻟا ردﺎﺼﻣ ﻲﻓ دﻮﺟﻮﻤﻟا ﺶﯿﻌﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻞﯾﻮﻃ ﺦﯾرﺎﺗ ﺎﮭﻨﯿﺑ ﻊﻤﺠﯾ ﺔﯿﻨﻃﻮﻟا ةوﺮﺜﻟا ردﺎﺼﻣ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻋ...

  20. :ﺚﻟﺎﺜﻟا ﻞﺼﻔﻟا ﺕﺍرﺎﻣﻹﺍﻭ رﻄﻗ ﻲﻓ ﺮﻳﻮﻄﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﺑﻣ دﻮﻬﺟﻭ ﺔﻳﺮﺸﺑﻟﺍ دﺭﺍﻮﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺪﺤﺗ نﺎﻨﺑﻟﻭ نﺎﻤﻏﻭ ﺓﺪﺤﺘﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟﺍ
    (pp. ٢٩-٤٤)

    لﻮﻤﻌﻤﻟا يﺮﺸﺒﻟا لﺎﻤﻟا سأر ﺮﯾﻮﻄﺗ تاردﺎﺒﻣو ﺔﯾﺮﺸﺒﻟا دراﻮﻤﻟا تﺎﯾﺪﺤﺗ ﻞﺼﻔﻟا اﺬھ ﺺﺨﻠﯾ تارﺎﻣﻹاو ﺮﻄﻘﺑ ﺎﻨﺘﺳارد أﺪﺒﻧو .ﺎﻨﺘﺳارد ﺎﮭﻠﻤﺸﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا ﻊﺑرﻷا لوﺪﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺔﯾرﺎﺠﻟا وأ ﺎﮭﺑ ﺎﻤﮭﻧﻮﻛ ﺐﻧﺎﺟ ﻰﻟإ اﺬھ :ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺎﮭﺑﺎﺸﺗ ﺮﺜﻛﻷا ﻦﯿﺘﻟوﺪﻟا ﺎﻤﮭﻧﻮﻜﻟ اًﺮﻈﻧ ةﺪﺤﺘﻤﻟا ﺔﯿﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺮﯿﺒﻛ وأ ﺮﯿﺒﻛ مﺎﻋ عﺎﻄﻗ دﻮﺟوو رﻮﻣﻷا ﺪﯿﻟﺎﻘﻣ ﺎﻤﮭﺑ ﺔﻤﻛﺎﺤﻟا ﺔﺒﺨﻨﻟا ﻲﻟﻮﺗو دراﻮﻤﻟﺎﺑ ﻦﯿﺘﯿﻨﻏ ﺔﻟﺎﺣ ﺔﺸﻗﺎﻨﻤﻟ ﻚﻟذ ﺪﻌﺑ ﻲﻀﻤﻧ ﻢﺛ .ﻦﯾﺪﻠﺒﻟا ﻲﻨﻃاﻮﻣ ﺮﯿﻏ ﺔﻨﻤﯿﮭﻟ ﻊﺿﺎﺧ ﻞﻤﻋ قﻮﺳو ﺎًﯿﺒﺴﻧ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﮭﺑ ﺔﻤﻛﺎﺤﻟا ﺔﺒﺨﻨﻟا ةﺮﻄﯿﺳ ﻲﻓ ةﺪﺤﺘﻤﻟا ﺔﯿﺑﺮﻌﻟا تارﺎﻣﻹاو ﺮﻄﻗ ﮫﺒﺸﺗ ﻲﺘﻟاو ،نﺎﻤﻋ ﻞﻗأ ﺔﺟرﺪﺑ دﺎﻤﺘﻋﻻا ﻊﻣ ﺎًﻋﻮﻨﺗ ﺮﺜﻛأ اًدﺎﺼﺘﻗاو ﺔﻠﺋﺎﻀﺘﻣ دراﻮﻣ ﻚﻠﺘﻤﺗ ﺎﮭﻨﻜﻟ ،ﻢﻜﺤﻟا ﺪﯿﻟﺎﻘﻣ ناﺪﻠﺒﻟا ﻦﻋ ةﺮﯿﺒﻛ ﺔﺟرﺪﺑ ﮫﻓﻼﺘﺧﻻ اًﺮﻈﻧ نﺎﻨﺒﻠﺑ ﺔﺳا...

  21. :ﻊﺑاﺮﻟا ﻞﺼﻔﻟا ﺕﺎﺟﺎﺘﻨﺘﺳﺍ
    (pp. ٤٥-٦٠)

    ﻰﻠﻋ ،ﺔﯾﺮﺸﺒﻟا دراﻮﻤﻟا تﺎﯾﺪﺤﺗ ﻦﻣ اًدﺪﻋ ﺔﺳارﺪﻟا هﺬھ ﻲﻓ ﺎﮭﻟوﺎﻨﺗ ﻢﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا لوﺪﻟا ﮫﺟاﻮﺗ ناﺪﻠﺒﻟا ﺪﺟاﻮﺘﺗو .ﺔﯿﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺔﻘﻄﻨﻤﻟﺎﺑ لوﺪﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺮﺛﺆﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا ﻞﻛﺎﺸﻤﻟا ىﺪﻣ ﺲﻜﻌﯾ ﺮﯿﺒﻛ قﺎﻄﻧ تاردﺎﺒﻤﻟاو ﺮﯾﻮﻄﺘﻟا تﺎﯿﻠﻤﻋ ﻖﯿﺒﻄﺗ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻣ ﻞﺣاﺮﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻨﺘﺳارﺪﺑ ةدراﻮﻟا ﺔﻌﺑرﻷا ﻊﻓاود ﮫﯿﻓ ﮫﺑﺎﺸﺘﺗ يﺬﻟا ﺖﻗﻮﻟا ﻲﻓ ﮫﻧأ ﻰﻟإ ﺎﻨﻠﺻﻮﺗ ﺪﻘﻓ .تﺎﯾﺪﺤﺘﻟا هﺬھ ﺔﮭﺟاﻮﻤﻟ ﺔﯿﺳﺎﯿﺴﻟا نﻮﻜﺗ ﺪﻗ ﺔﻟود ﻞﻜﺑ ﺔﺻﺎﺨﻟا تﺎﮭﺟﻮﺘﻟا نأ ﻻإ ،ىﺮﺧﻷا تاردﺎﺒﻤﻟاو هﺬھ ﺮﯾﻮﻄﺘﻟا تﺎﯿﻠﻤﻋ ﻖﯿﺒﻄﺗ ﻦﯿﺑ ٍةﻮﺠﻓ دﻮﺟو ﺔﺳارﺪﻟﺎﺑ ةدراﻮﻟا لوﺪﻟا ﻦﯿﺑ ﺔﻌﺋﺎﺸﻟا رﻮﻣﻷا ﻦﯿﺑ ﻦﻣو .ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻣ ،تﻻﺎﺤﻟا ﻦﻣ ٍﺮﯿﺜﻛ ﻲﻔﻓ .ﻮﺟﺮﻤﻟا ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺘﻟا تﺎﯿﻠﻤﻌﻟا هﺬﮭﻟ نﺎﻛ اذإ ﺎﻣ ﻢﯿﯿﻘﺗو ﺮﯾﻮﻄﺘﻟا تﺎﯿﻠﻤﻋ ﻢﯿﯿﻘﺗ ﮫﻧاوﻷ ﻖﺑﺎﺴﻟا ﻦﻣ نﻮﻜﯾ ﺪﻗ ﻢﺛ ﻦﻣو...