Preparing the U.S. Army for Homeland Security

Preparing the U.S. Army for Homeland Security: Concepts, Issues, and Options

Eric V. Larson
John E. Peters
Copyright Date: 2001
Edition: 1
Published by: RAND Corporation
Pages: 327
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/mr1251a
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  • Book Info
    Preparing the U.S. Army for Homeland Security
    Book Description:

    Homeland security encompasses five distinct missions: domestic preparednessand civil support in case of attacks on civilians, continuity of government, continuity ofmilitary operations, border and coastal defense, and national missile defense. This reportextensively details four of those mission areas (national missile defense having beencovered in great detail elsewhere). The authors define homeland security and its missionareas, provide a methodology for assessing homeland security response options, and reviewrelevant trend data for each mission area. They also assess the adequacy of the doctrine,organizations, training, leadership, materiel, and soldier systems and provide illustrativescenarios to help clarify Army planning priorities. The report concludes with options andrecommendations for developing more cost-effective programs and recommends a planningframework that can facilitate planning to meet homeland security needs.

    eISBN: 978-0-8330-3249-2
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. PREFACE
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-x)
  4. FIGURES
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. TABLES
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  6. SUMMARY
    (pp. xv-xxviii)
  7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. xxix-xxx)
  8. ABBREVIATIONS
    (pp. xxxi-xxxiv)
  9. Chapter One INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-4)

    Concern recently has grown within the U.S. national security establishment that the natural protection from attack historically afforded by the nation’s enviable geographic isolation—long borders with stable neighbors to the north and south and large oceans to the east and west—may be coming to an end.

    One reason can be found in a number of unfavorable long-term trends in the nature of the adversaries of the United States and their potential future warfighting strategies. Future U.S. adversaries, recognizing that they are unlikely to prevail in theater war, it is believed, may instead choose to respond asymmetrically by attacking...

  10. Chapter Two UNDERSTANDING HOMELAND SECURITY
    (pp. 5-24)

    This chapter places the homeland security mission in the context of the Constitution, the nation’s national security, national military strategy, and the Army Strategic Planning Guidance; presents our working definition of homeland security; and describes the task areas that are the essence of the homeland security mission.

    The fundamental justification and broader context for homeland security activities can be found in the Preamble; Article I, Section 8; and Article IV, Section 4, of the Constitution of the United States. The Preamble includes the basic “insure domestic tranquility” and “provide for the common defense” justifications:

    [In] Order to form a more...

  11. Chapter Three ANALYTIC FRAMEWORK
    (pp. 25-44)

    In a way, homeland security looks like defense analysis probably did before it became analytic, i.e., before the advent of gaming, simulation, cost-effectiveness, and trade-off analyses and the application of other techniques that are, by now, standard tools for assessing options in defense.¹ Most of the work done in the area of homeland security seems to be focused on essentially organizational solutions whose premise seems to be that if only more centralized control of policy were in evidence, the problem would be far more tractable.² While more centralized control and policy direction almost certainly would help, we take a somewhat...

  12. Chapter Four PROTECTING AMERICANS AT HOME: WMD DOMESTIC PREPAREDNESS AND CIVIL SUPPORT
    (pp. 45-98)

    The first homeland security task area is domestic preparedness against terrorism and WMD. We conceive of domestic preparedness against WMD terrorism as local, state, and federal activities that aim to improve the ability of the nation as a whole to prevent, prepare for, or respond to such incidents.

    As was described in Chapter Three, the GAO has called for the use of threat and risk assessments to guide the development of programs for combating terrorism and WMD. The Fiscal Year 1999 National Defense Authorization Act also has called for threat and risk assessments to be used in developing federal, state,...

  13. Chapter Five ENSURING CONSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITY: CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT
    (pp. 99-108)

    The continuity of government (COG) task area of homeland security includes providing for the continuity and restoration of all levels of government—federal, state, and local.² For a host of reasons the importance of COG is difficult to overstate:

    At the federal level, COG ensures the integrity of constitutional authority.

    At the state and local level, COG operations can facilitate the quick restoration of civilian authority and essential government functions and services.³ This can greatly reassure citizens and can minimize the risks that military support to consequence management activities is misperceived as an imposition of martial law.⁴ It also can...

  14. Chapter Six ENSURING MILITARY CAPABILITY: CONTINUITY OF OPERATIONS
    (pp. 109-138)

    This chapter addresses the third homeland security task area—the continuity of military operations in the United States, its territories, and its possessions.

    As distinct from the COG operations, discussed in Chapter Five, this task area of homeland security consists of the continuity ofmilitaryoperations, including

    force protection, primarily for deploying units;

    critical infrastructure protection, i.e., the protection of mission-critical facilities and systems, i.e., the infrastructure necessary for the Army to carry out its missions; and

    protection of higher headquarters operations, which will help to ensure the integrity of the military chain of command.

    The importance of this task...

  15. Chapter Seven PROTECTING SOVEREIGNTY: BORDER AND COASTAL DEFENSE
    (pp. 139-158)

    The fourth task area of homeland security is border and coastal defense. Included in this are the following two high-priority activities:

    Operations to prevent WMD from being smuggled into the nation (counterproliferation and nonproliferation).

    Activities undertaken to manage large-scale refugee flows that could create threats to national security.

    We exclude from this task area the following three types of activities because, although they may have military involvement, they seem not to rise to the level of national security concern that makes them a part of homeland security:¹

    Routine enforcement of immigration and naturalization laws, which should be handled by civilian...

  16. Chapter Eight ILLUSTRATIVE PLANNING VIGNETTES
    (pp. 159-182)

    This chapter provides illustrative planning vignettes to assist in thinking through the key consequences, key tasks, key Army tasks, and current and needed Army capabilities, as well as key issues for Army doctrine, organization, training, leadership, materiel, and soldier systems (DOTLMS). In all, a total of nine vignettes address

    domestic preparedness, including three vignettes (high explosives, chemical, biological, and radiological or nuclear attacks);

    continuity of government;

    continuity of operations, including three vignettes (force protection, critical infrastructure protection, and continuity of headquarters operations); and

    border and coastal defense.

    A more detailed analysis of Army DOTLMS for each homeland security task area...

  17. Chapter Nine ANALYSIS OF ARMY DOTLMS
    (pp. 183-210)

    Chapter Eight described a number of illustrative planning vignettes that illuminated the sorts of capabilities that the Army might need to provide under different circumstances. This chapter analyzes Army DOTLMS and addresses the Army’s preparedness to undertake the missions identified in the vignettes. The chapter also addresses the question of adequacy of forces—whether the Army has enough of the right types of units for the likely homeland security contingencies.

    The analysis began with an assessment of the DOTLMS in each of the four homeland security task areas that are the focus of this report:

    Domestic preparedness for WMD terrorism....

  18. Chapter Ten OPTIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, CONCLUSIONS
    (pp. 211-222)

    This report has analyzed four of the homeland security task areas: domestic preparedness, continuity of operations, continuity of government, and border and coastal defense; the fifth homeland security area—national missile defense—was not addressed. For each of the four, we used the following approach.

    First, we described an illustrative notional planning magnitude for each threat based on a stylized threat and risk assessment, while noting that a more comprehensive threat and risk assessments could reveal that these illustrative magnitudes were either too high or too low. Our illustrative threat assessments relied on historical data revealing observed frequencies and consequences...

  19. Appendix A CONSIDERING THREAT CAMPAIGNS
    (pp. 223-230)
  20. Appendix B A NOTIONAL WMD CST TRADE-OFF ANALYSIS
    (pp. 231-238)
  21. Appendix C HOMELAND SECURITY DoD DIRECTIVES
    (pp. 239-242)
  22. Appendix D OVERVIEW OF THE POSSE COMITATUS ACT
    (pp. 243-246)
  23. Appendix E THREAT FINDINGS OF THE NUNN-LUGAR-DOMENICI ACT
    (pp. 247-250)
  24. Appendix F STATE AND LOCAL DOMESTIC PREPAREDNESS NEEDS
    (pp. 251-256)
  25. Appendix G THE FEDERAL RESPONSE PLAN AND TERRORISM INCIDENT ANNEX
    (pp. 257-262)
  26. Appendix H ARMY DOMESTIC PREPAREDNESS TRAINING ACTIVITIES
    (pp. 263-266)
  27. Appendix I ARMY MISSION-CRITICAL FACILITIES AND SYSTEMS
    (pp. 267-272)
  28. Appendix J RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD
    (pp. 273-274)
  29. Appendix K RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE PRESIDENT’S COMMISSION ON CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION
    (pp. 275-276)
  30. Appendix L THE FEDERAL PROGRAM TO COMBAT TERRORISM AND WMD
    (pp. 277-284)
  31. Appendix M NOTIONAL GPRA MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE
    (pp. 285-292)
  32. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 293-310)