The Mystique of Transmission

The Mystique of Transmission: On an Early Chan History and Its Context

Wendi L. Adamek
Copyright Date: 2007
Pages: 448
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7312/adam13664
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  • Book Info
    The Mystique of Transmission
    Book Description:

    The Mystique of Transmission is a close reading of a late-eighth-century Chan/Zen Buddhist hagiographical work, the Lidai fabao ji ( Record of the Dharma-Jewel Through the Generations), and is its first English translation. The text is the only remaining relic of the little-known Bao Tang Chan school of Sichuan, and combines a sectarian history of Buddhism and Chan in China with an account of the eighth-century Chan master Wuzhu in Sichuan.

    Chinese religions scholar Wendi Adamek compares the Lidai fabao ji with other sources from the fourth through eighth centuries, chronicling changes in the doctrines and practices involved in transmitting medieval Chinese Buddhist teachings. While Adamek is concerned with familiar Chan themes like patriarchal genealogies and the ideology of sudden enlightenment, she also highlights topics that make Lidai fabao ji distinctive: formless practice, the inclusion of female practitioners, the influence of Daoist metaphysics, and connections with early Tibetan Buddhism.

    The Lidai fabao ji was unearthed in the early twentieth century in the Mogao caves at the Silk Road oasis of Dunhuang in northwestern China. Discovery of the Dunhuang manuscripts has been compared with the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, as these documents have radically changed our understanding of medieval China and Buddhism. A crucial volume for students and scholars, The Mystique of Transmission offers a rare glimpse of a lost world and fills an important gap in the timeline of Chinese and Buddhist history.

    eISBN: 978-0-231-51002-8
    Subjects: Religion, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-xii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-xvi)
  4. PART 1 THE MYSTIQUE OF TRANSMISSION
    • CHAPTER 1 Authority and Authenticity
      (pp. 3-16)

      Even among hagiographers the Lidai fabao ji 暦代法寳言記 (Record of the Dharma-Jewel Through the Generations) has been called a fabric of self-promoting fictions. The text was discredited soon after it was written in the late eighth century, and it still provokes disparaging comments even now. The sharpest contemporary criticism is found in the Beishan lu 北山錄 (Record of North Mountain), completed in 806 by Shenqing 神清 (d. 814), a former adherent of the Jingzhong 淨衆 school.² According to a more recent assessment by the Chan historian John McRae, among texts of early Chan that indulge in “patent fabrications and questionable...

    • CHAPTER 2 Transmission and Translation
      (pp. 17-54)

      In this chapter we look at some of the various means of guaranteeing continuity in the early period of the establishment of Buddhist practice and the Buddhist Saṅgha in China. Taking up episodes and topics that the Lidai fabao ji authors used in their presentation of the introduction of Buddhism to China, I discuss issues of continuity and community in the context of the legend of Emperor Ming of the Han and the transmission activities of Daoan, Buddhabhadra, and Huiyuan. The early history of Buddhism in China has been relatively well studied; scholars, whether Chinese, Japanese, or Western, have been...

    • CHAPTER 3 Transmission and Lay Practice
      (pp. 55-90)

      In chapter 2 we looked at fourth-century figures who were instrumental in defining the parameters of practice for the ordained, and for heuristic purposes I grouped “practice” according to the traditional categories of śīla, represented by the Vinaya; samādhi, represented by dhyāna techniques; and prajñā, represented by translation of the scriptures. In this chapter we turn to lay practice, examining the early canonical basis of the distinction between lay and ordained and the background of the practices that became popular for the laity in fifth- and sixth-century China. I highlight two categories of practice: (1) reception of the bodhisattva precepts...

    • CHAPTER 4 Material Buddhism and the Dharma Kings
      (pp. 91-135)

      In the fifth and sixth centuries, the practice of making offerings to gain merit gathered momentum among clergy and laity alike, and this was closely linked to widespread interest in stories of karmic retribution and theories of the decline of the Dharma. In chapter 3, we looked at some of the figures, practices, and texts involved in the dissemination of Buddhist devotionalism, and in this chapter we explore a few of the currents in this rising tide of piety. In the first section, I introduce the motif of the threat of spiritual materialism through a brief chronicle of the Northern...

    • CHAPTER 5 Robes and Patriarchs
      (pp. 136-193)

      We turn now to issues pertaining to that much-debated entity, the Chan school. In the seventh and eighth centuries, lineage and transmission schemes became ever more varied and complex. In this chapter I continue to explore the role that court-clergy relations played in shaping Chinese Buddhist transmission discourse, here highlighting the motif of ambivalence toward imperial patronage, a prominent trope in transmission paradigms. On the one hand, eminent monks like Zhiyi and Daoxuan developed rich fields of symbolism based on the interplay of royalty and renunciation, whereby the ideal reciprocity between rulers and clerics was to be achieved without compromising...

    • CHAPTER 6 Wuzhu and His Others
      (pp. 194-252)

      Wuzhu takes center stage in this chapter, and the history of Buddhism in China becomes the backdrop for his dramatic entrance. Wuzhu’s lines claim the absence of the actor—“In meditation there is neither exiting nor entering”²—and the Lidai fabao ji celebrates his unique character. In this chapter we see how key transmission themes play out in Wuzhu’s story. Beginning with the development of the Chan ordination platform and formless precepts, I explore the various ways that the ordination platform influenced Bao Tang identity. I then turn to transmission of Huineng’s robe and the relationship between Wuzhu and other...

    • CHAPTER 7 The Legacy of the Lidai fabao ji
      (pp. 253-296)

      Blame and praise centered on Chan’s antinomian qualities have had a long history and have been used for quite disparate purposes. Jesuits encountering Chan in the eighteenth century repudiated it as antinomian and quietistic, and this animus seems to have been a reflection of their distaste for such tendencies in European rivals.¹ By contrast, Japanese sectarians in general and D. T. Suzuki in particular have celebrated Chan/Zen spontaneity and iconoclasm. As a corrective, scholars like Bernard Faure, T. Griffith Foulk, and Robert Sharf have devoted careful effort to show that Chan’s iconoclastic, anti-institutional, antinomian, and subitist rhetoric went hand in...

  5. PART 2 ANNOTATED TRANSLATION OF THE LIDAI FABAO JI
    • [PART 2 Introduction]
      (pp. 297-300)

      This translation based on S. 516, with P. 2125 as the alternate text for portions illegible in S. 516. While at Hanazono College in Kyoto from 1991 to 1993, I attended Koga Hidehiko’s 古賀英彦 seminar on the Lidai fabao ji, and he argued convincingly that, except for its missing front portion, S. 516 was the best of the remaining manuscripts. I have also compared S. 516 and P. 2125 character by character, and S. 516 requires less editorial adjustment than P. 2125. While this may be an indication that S. 516 is therefore an edited and less “original” text, for...

    • SECTION 1 Sources and the Legend of Emperor Ming of the Han (T. 51. 179A1–179C4)
      (pp. 300-304)

      暦代法寳記。² 亦名師資血脈傳。亦名定是非摧邪顕正破壊一切心傳。亦名 最上乗頓悟法門。

      Record of the Dharma-Jewel Through the Generations. Also called: The Transmission of the Masters and Disciples of the [True] Lineage. Also called: The Transmission Determining True and False, Annihilating Wrong and Displaying Right, and Destroying All Mind [Consciousnesses].³ Also called: The Supreme Vehicle, the Dharma-Gate of Sudden Awakening.⁴

      案本行経云、雑⁵阿含経、普曜経云、應瑞経⁶、文殊師利涅槃経、清浄 法行経、无垢光轉女身経、決定毘尼経、大佛頂経、金剛三昧経、法句 経、佛蔵経、纓絡経、華嚴経、大般若経、襌門経、涅槃経、楞伽経、思 益経、法華経、維摩経、藥師経、金剛般若經、藥師経⁷、付法蔵経、道教 西昇経、釋法琳傳、釋虚實記、開元釋教目、周書異記、漢法内傳、尹喜 内傳、牟子、列子、苻子、呉書、并古録、及楊愣伽鄴都故事等。

      Based on the authority of the Abhiniṣkramaṇa-sūtra (Scripture of the Initial Steps on the Path), Saṃyuktāgama-sūtra (Miscellaneous Discourses), Lalitavistara-sūtra (Scripture of the Unfolding of the Divine Play [of the Buddha]), Kumārakuśalaphalanidāna-sūtra (Scripture of Auspicious Signs), Manjuśrīparinirvāṇa-sūtra (Scripture of the Final Nirvāṇa of Manjuśrī),...

    • SECTION 2 Buddhism in China (T. 51. 179C4–180A2)
      (pp. 305-306)

      案清浄法行経云、「天竺國東北真丹國。人民多不信敬、造罪者甚衆、吾 我39今先遣聖弟子三人悉是菩薩、於彼示現行化。摩訶迦葉彼稱老子、光浄 童子彼号仲尼明月儒童彼名顔迴。講論五経詩書礼楽、威儀法則、以漸誘 化、後然40佛経當往。」

      牟子云、「昔漢孝明皇帝夜夢見神人身有日光、飛在殿前、意中欣然也 心甚悦之。明日傳問群臣、『此為何?』有通人傳毅曰、『臣聞天竺有徳 道者号日佛。軽挙能飛、身有日光、殆将其神。』於是上悟、遣使張騫羽 林郎中秦、博士弟子王尊等一十二人、大月支写取佛経四十二章、在蘭臺 石室第十四。即時洛陽城西雍門外起佛寺、其壁畫朝廷千乗萬騎繞騎十三 匝。又於南宫清涼臺及開陽門上作佛像形41 明帝在時、知命无常、先造寿陵、陵曰顕節、亦於其上作佛42圖像、於未減時、國豊民寧、遠残暮夷慕 義、咸来歸徳、願為臣妾者、以為億数。故謚曰明也。自是之後、京城左 右及諸州縣處處各有佛寺、學者由此而滋。」

      晋書云、「晉桓帝時、欲刪除佛法、召盧山遠法師。帝問曰、『朕比来 見僧尼、戒行不純、多有毁犯。朕欲刪除揀擇、事今可否。』遠公答曰、 『崑山出玉、上雑塵砂、麗水豊金、猶饒瓦礫。陛下只得敬法重人、不可 軽人慢法。』晉43帝大赦之。」

      蕭梁武帝會三教云、「小時學周礼、弱冠窮六経、中復觀道書、有名與 無名、晚年開釋卷、猶日映衆星。」

      The Qingjing faxing jing (Scripture of the Pure Practice of the Dharma)⁴⁴ says: “To the northeast of India is the kingdom of China. Few of the people are devout, and evil-doers are legion. For the present, I will dispatch three holy disciples, all bodhisattvas, to appear there and make conversions. Mahākśyapa will there be styled Laozi. Kumara will there be called Confucius.⁴⁵ Sumedha will there be called Yanhui.⁴⁶ They will expound on the five classics: the Classic of Poetry, Classic of...

    • SECTION 3 Transmission from India to China (the Fu fazang zhuan) (T. 51. 180A2–180C2)
      (pp. 307-310)

      按花厳経云、「一切諸佛退位、或作菩薩、或作聲聞、或作轉輪聖王、 或作魔王、或作國王大臣、居士長者、綵女百官、或作大力鬼神、山神河 神、江神海神、主日神主月神、晝神夜神、主火神主水神、一切苗稼神、 樹神及諸外道。作種種方便、助我釋迦如来化道⁵⁵衆生。」

      按大般若経陀羅尼品云、「氽時舍利子白佛言、『世尊如是般若波羅蜜 多、甚深経典、佛般捏槃後、何方興盛。』佛言『舍利子、如是般若波羅 蜜多、甚深経⁵⁶典、我捏槃後、従北方至東北方、漸當興盛、彼方多⁵⁷有安 住大乗諸宓芻、宓芻[宓芻]⁵⁸尼、烏波索迦、烏波斯迦、能依如是甚深般若 波羅蜜多、深信楽。』又佛告舍利子、『我捏槃後、後時後分後五百歳、 如是甚深般若波羅蜜多、於東北方大作佛事。』」

      按付法蔵経云、釋迦如来滅度後、法眼付嘱摩訶迦葉、迦葉付嘱阿難、 阿難付嘱末田地、末田地付嘱商那和脩、商那和脩付嘱優波掬多、優波掬 多付嘱提多迦、提多迦付嘱弥遮加、弥遮加付嘱佛陀難提、佛陀難提付嘱 佛陀蜜多、佛陀蜜多付嘱脇比丘、脇比丘⁵⁹付嘱冨那耶奢、冨那耶奢付嘱 馬鳴、馬鳴付嘱毘羅長老、毘羅長老付嘱龍樹、龍樹付嘱迦那提婆、迦那 提婆付嘱羅[目+候]、羅[目+候]付嘱僧迦那提、僧迦那提付嘱僧迦耶舍、僧 迦耶舍付嘱鳩摩羅馱、鳩摩羅馱付嘱闍夜多、闍夜多付嘱婆脩槃陀、婆脩 槃陀付嘱摩拏羅、摩拏羅付嘱鶴勒那、鶴勒那付嘱師子比丘、師子比丘付 嘱舍那婆斯己。故従中天竺國来向麗賓國王名弥多羅掘、其王不信佛法、 毁塔壊寺、殺害衆生、奉事外道末曼尼及弥師訶等。時師子比丘故来化此 國王、其王无道、自手持利鈕口云60、「若是聖人諸師等惣須誡形。」時 師子比丘示刑、身流白乳。末曼尼弥師訶等被刑死、如凡人流血灑地。其 王發心歸佛、即命師子比丘弟子(師子比丘先付嘱舍那婆斯已)人南天竺 國、廣行教化、度脱衆生。

      王即追尋外道末曼弟子、及弥師訶弟子等、得己於朝堂立架懸首、挙 國人射之。屙賓國王告令諸國、若有此法、駔令出國。因師子比丘佛法再 興。舍那婆斯付嘱優婆掘、優婆掘付嘱須婆蜜、須婆蜜付嘱僧迦羅叉、僧 迦羅叉付嘱菩提達摩多羅。西國廿九代、除達摩多羅即廿八代也。

      有東都沙門浄覺師、是玉泉神秀禅師弟子、造愣伽師資血脉記一卷、妄 引宋朝求那跋陀三蔵、為弟一祖。不知根由、或乱後學云、是達摩祖師之 師。求那跋陀自是訳経三蔵、小乗學人、不是禅師、譯出四卷愣伽経、非 開受愣伽経与達摩祖師。達摩祖師⁶¹自廿八代首尾相傳、承僧迦羅叉、後恵 可大師親於嵩山少林寺問達摩祖師承上相傳、付嘱自有文記分明、彼浄覺 師妄引求那跋陀、稱為弟一祖、深乱學法。⁶²

      法華経云、「不許親近三蔵小乗學人。」求那跋陀三蔵譯出四卷愣伽 経、名阿跋陀寳愣伽経。魏朝菩提流支三蔵譯出十卷、名入愣伽経。唐朝 則天時、實叉難陀譯出七卷名人愣伽経。已上盡是譯経三蔵、不是禅師、 並傳文字教法。達摩祖師宗徒禅法、不将一字教来、黙傳心印。

      The Avataṃsaka-sūtra says: “All Buddhas abdicate their status [as Buddhas]; some become bodhisattvas, some become śrāvakas, some become Cakravartins, some become demon kings, some become princes of kingdoms or great ministers, or lay elders, or palace women and officials, some become powerful ghosts and spirits, or mountain spirits or stream spirits, or river spirits or sea spirits, or spirits that rule the...

    • SECTION 4 The First Patriarch, Bodhidharmatrāta (T. 51. 180C3–181A18)
      (pp. 310-313)

      梁朝弟一祖

      菩提達摩多羅禅師者、即南天竺國王弟三子、幼而出家、早稟師氏、於 言下悟。闡化南天、大作佛事。

      是時觀見漢地衆生有大禅⁷⁵性、乃遣弟子佛陀耶舍二人、往秦地説頓 悟教法。秦中大徳乍聞狐疑、都无信受、被擯出遂於盧山東林寺。時有 法師遠公、問曰、「大徳将何教来、乃被擯也?」於是二婆羅門申手告 遠公曰、「手作拳、拳作手、是事疾否?」遠公答曰、「甚疾。」二婆羅 門言、「此未為疾、煩悩即菩提即為疾。」遠公深達、方知菩提煩悩卒 不異、即問曰、「此法彼國復従誰學?」二婆羅問⁷⁶曰、「我師達摩多羅 也。」遠公既深信已。還譯出禅門経一卷、具明大小乗禅法。西國所傳法 者、亦具引禅経序上。二婆羅門譯経畢、同日滅度、葬于盧山、塔廟見 在。

      達摩多羅聞二弟子漢地弘化、無人信受、乃泛海而来至梁朝。武帝出 城躬迎、昇殿問和上曰、「従彼國、将何教法来化衆生?」達摩大師答、 「不将一字教来。」帝又問、「朕造寺度人、写経鑄像、有何功徳?」大 師答曰、「並无功徳。」答曰、「此乃有為之善、非真實功徳。」武帝凡 情不曉、乃辭出國。北望有大乗気。大師来至魏朝、居嵩高山、接引群品 六年、學如雲奔如雨、衆如稻麻竹葦、唯可大師得其髓。

      其時魏有菩提流支三蔵光統律師於食中著毒餉。大師食訖、索盤吐[虫+也]⁷⁷一斗。又食著毒再餉、大師取食訖、於大槃石上座、毒出石裂。前後 六度毒。大師告諸弟子、「我来本為傳法、今既得人、久住何益?」遂傳 一領袈裟以為法信。語恵可、「我緣此毒、汝亦不免此難。至第六代、傳 法者命如懸絲。」言畢遂因毒而終。每常自言、「我年一百五十歳。」實 不知年幾也。大師云、「唐國有三人得我法、一人得我髄、一人得我骨、 一人得我肉。得我髄者恵可、得我骨者道育、得我肉者尼惣持也。」葬于 洛州熊耳山。

      時魏聘國使宋雲、於窓嶺逢大師、手提履一隻。雲問、「大師何處 去?」答、「我歸卒國、汝國⁷⁸王今日亡。」雲即書記之。雲又問大師、「 大師去後、佛法付嘱誰人?」答、「我去後四十年、有一漢道人可是也。」宋雲歸朝、舊帝果崩、新帝已立。雲告諸朝臣説、「大師手提一隻履、歸 西國、言『汝舊國王亡。』實如所言。」諸朝臣不信、遂發大師墓、唯有 履一隻。

      蕭梁武帝造碑文:「西國弟子般若蜜多羅、唐國三人、道育、尼惣 持等、唯恵可承衣得法。」⁷⁹

      Chan Master Bodhidharmatrāta⁸⁰ was the third son of a South Indian king. He became a monk while still young, and as soon as he received instruction from his master he was immediately awakened. He preached in South India and greatly furthered Buddhism.

      At a certain point, he ascertained that the beings of the land of the Han (China) were possessed of the Great Chan nature. So he dispatched...

    • SECTION 5 The Second Patriarch, Huike (T. 51. 181A19–181B18)
      (pp. 313-315)

      北齊朝弟二祖

      恵可禅師、俗姓如、武牢人也。時年四十、奉事大師六年。先名神光。 初事大師夜、於大師前立、其夜大雪、至腰不移。大師曰、「夫求法者不 貧軀命。」遂截一臂、乃流白乳。大師黙傳心契、付袈裟一領。

      大師云、「我縁此毒、汝亦不免、善自保愛。」可大師問、「和上此法 卒國承上所傳、嘱付法者、請為再説。」「具如禅経序上説。」又問、「 大師西國、誰人承後、亦傳信袈裟否?」大師答、「西國人信敬无有矯詐。 承後者是般若波羅蜜多羅、承後不傳衣。唐國衆生有大乘性。詐言得道得 果、遂傳袈裟以為法信。譬如轉輪王子灌其頂者、得七真寳、紹隆王位、 得其衣者以表法正相承。」

      可大師得付嘱以後四十年、隠[山+兒]⁹⁸山洛相二州、後接引群品、道俗 歸依不可稱數。経廿年開化時有難起、又被菩提流支三蔵光統律師徒[人+黨]欲損可大師。大師付嘱僧燦、法已人司空山隠。可大師後佯狂於四衢城 市説法、人衆甚多。菩提流支徒黨告可大師云妖異。奏勅令所司推問可大 師、大師⁹⁹答、「承實妖。」所司知衆疾、令可大師審。大師確答、「我實 妖。」勅令城安縣令翟沖侃¹⁰⁰、依法處刑。可大師告衆人曰、「我法至弟 四祖、化為名相。」語已悲涙、遂示形身流白乳、肉色如常。所司奏帝、 聞悔過、此真菩薩。挙朝發心、佛法再興。

      大師時年一百七歳、其墓¹⁰¹皿葬在相州城安縣子陌河北五里東柳構、去墓 一百歩、西南十五里、年兒曹口是。相伽業都故事具載。弟子承後傳衣得 法僧燦、釋後法琳¹⁰²造碑文。¹⁰³

      Chan Master Huike had the lay surname Ji, and he was from Wulao.¹⁰⁵ When he was forty, he had served the Great Master [Bodhidharma] for six years. He had previously been called Shenguang.¹⁰⁶ When he first came [with the intention] to serve the Great Master, he stood before the Great Master in the night. That night there was a heavy snowfall and the snow rose up to [Huike’s] waist, but he did not stir. The Great Master said, “He who...

    • SECTION 6 The Third Patriarch, Sengcan (T. 51. 181B19–181C8)
      (pp. 315-316)

      随朝弟三祖

      燦禅師、不知何處人。初遇可大師、燦示見大風疾、於衆中見。大師 問、「從何處来、今有何事?」僧燦對曰、「故投和上。」可大師語曰、 「汝大風患人、見我何益?」璨對曰、「身雖有患、患人心与和上心無有 別處。」可大師知燦是非常人、便付法嘱¹²⁰及信袈裟与僧燦。可大師曰、 「汝善自保愛、吾有難、汝須避之。」燦大師亦佯狂市肆、後隠舒州司空 山。

      遭周武帝滅佛法、隠[山+兒]公山十餘年。此山比多足猛獣常損居人、 自璨大師至、並移出境。

      付法並袈裟与道信後、時有[山+兒]禅師月禅師定禅師巌禅師、来至燦 大師所云、「達摩祖師付嘱後、此燦公真神燦也、定惠齊用、深不思議 也。」

      燦大師遂共諸禅師往隠羅浮山。三年後至大會齋、出告衆人曰、「吾今 欲食。」諸弟子奉飲食。大師食畢、告衆人曰、「諸人歎言坐終為奇、唯 吾生死自由。」語已¹²¹ —手攀會中樹枝掩¹²²然立化。亦不知年幾。塔廟在 [山+克]山寺側。

      弟子甚多、唯道信大師傳衣得法承後。薜道衡撰碑文。¹²³

      Chan Master Can’s place of origin is unknown. When he first encountered Great Master Ke, Can appeared to have palsy, and they met in the midst of a crowd. Great Master Ke asked, “Where are you from? Why are you here?” Sengcan replied, “Because I want to serve the Venerable.” Great Master Ke said, “For you, a person afflicted with palsy, what good is it to meet with me?” Can replied, “Although my body is afflicted, between the mind of the afflicted...

    • SECTION 7 The Fourth Patriarch, Daoxin (T. 51. 181C9–182A10)
      (pp. 316-319)

      唐朝弟四祖

      信禅師、俗姓司馬、河内人也。少小出家、承事璨大師。璨大師知為 特器、晝夜常坐不臥、六十餘年、脇不至席。神威奇特、目常不視、若欲 視人、見者驁悚。

      信大師於是大業年、遥見吉州、狂賊圍城百日已上、泉井枯涸。大師人 城勧誘道俗、令行般若波羅蜜。狂賊自退、城中泉井再汎、學道者眾。

      信大師遥見蘄州黄梅、破頭山有紫雲盖。信大師遂居此山、後改為雙峯山。

      貞觀十七年、文武皇帝勅使於雙峯山、請信禅師入内。信禅師辞老不 去。勅使廻見帝奏云、「信禅師辞老不来。」勅又遣再請。使至信禅師 處、使云、「奉勅遣請禅師。」禅師苦辞老不去。語使云、「若欲得我頭 任斬将、我終不去。」使廻見帝奏云、「須頭任斬将去、心終不去。」勅 又遣使封刀来取信禅師頭。勅云、「莫損和上。使至和上處云、奉勅取和 上頭、禅師去不去?」和上云、「我終不去。」使云、「奉勅云、若禅師 不来、斬頭将来。」信大師引頭云¹³³、「[石+斤]取。」使返刀乙項。信大師唱言、「何為不[石+斤]、更待何時!」使云、「奉勅不許損和上。」 信禅師大笑曰、「教汝知有人處。」

      後時信大師大作佛事、廣開法門、接引群品。四方龍像造盡受歸依。 経卅餘年、唯弘忍事之得意。付法及袈裟与弘忍訖、命弟子元一師、「与 吾山側造龍龕一所、即須早成。」後問、「龍龕成否。」元一師答、「功 畢。」

      永黴二年閏九月廿四日、大師素無撰疾、奄然坐化。大師時年七十有 二。葬後周年、石戸无故自開、大師容貌瑞厳、无改常日。弘忍等重奉神 儀不勝感慕。乃就尊容加以漆布、自此已後更不敢開。

      弟子甚多、唯有弘忍傳衣得法後承¹³⁴、中書令仕正倫撰碑文。¹³⁵

      Chan Master Xin’s lay surname was Sima, and he was from east of the Yellow River.¹³⁷ He became a renunciant when very young and entered into the service of Great Master Can. Great Master Can knew that he was especially talented. He sat day and night without lying down; for over sixty years his sides never touched a mat. He had an exceptional spiritual presence. His eyes usually did not gaze out, [but] when he wanted to...

    • SECTION 8 The Fifth Patriarch, Hongren (T. 51. 182A11–182B5)
      (pp. 319-320)

      唐朝第五祖

      弘忍禅師、俗姓周、黄梅人也。七歳事信大師信¹⁴⁵、年十三入道披衣。 其性木訥沉厚、同學軽戯黙然无對。常勤作務、以禮下人。晝則混迹驅 給、夜便坐攝至晓、未常懈倦。卅年不離信大師左右。身長八尺、容貌与 常人絶殊。

      得付法居馮茂山。在雙峯山東相去不遥。時人号為東山法門、即馮茂山 也、非嵩山是也。時有狂賊可達寒奴戮等、圍繞州城数匝、无有路人、飛 鳥不通。大師遥見来彼城、群賊退散、遞相言、「无量金剛、執杵趁我、 怒目切齒。我遂奔散。」忍大師却歸馮茂山。

      顕慶五年、大帝勅使黄梅馮茂山、請忍大師。大師不赴所請。又勅使再 請不来。賜衣薬就馮茂山供養。後四十餘年、接引道俗、四方龍像、歸依 奔湊。大師付嘱恵能法及袈裟。

      後至咸亨五年、命弟子玄赜師、「与吾起塔。」至二月十四日、問、 「塔成否?」答「功畢。」大師云、「不可同佛、二月十五日入般涅 槃。」又云、「吾一生教人无数、除恵能餘有十尔。神秀師、智銑師、智 徳師、玄赜師、老安師、法如師、恵蔵師、玄約師、劉主薄。雖不離吾左 右、汝各一方師也。」後至上元二年二月十一日、奄然坐化、忍大師時年 七十四也。

      弟子¹⁴⁶唯恵能傳衣得法承後。學士閭丘均撰碑文。¹⁴⁷

      Chan Master Hongren’s lay surname was Zhou, and he was from Huangmei. At the age of seven he went to serve Master Xin, and at the age of thirteen he entered upon the Way and donned robes. He was by nature taciturn and imperturbable, and when his fellow students joked about, he remained silently unresponsive. He was always diligent in performing duties,¹⁴⁹ and toward others conducted himself with decorous humility. By day he secretly did things for others and by night...

    • SECTION 9 The Sixth Patriarch, Huineng, Part 1 (T. 51. 182B6–182C16)
      (pp. 320-323)

      唐朝第六祖

      韶州漕溪能禅師、 俗姓慮、范陽人也。随父宦嶺外、居新州。年廿二、 来至馮茂山、礼忍大師。初見大師、問、「汝従何来?」答、「従新州 来、唯求作佛。」忍大師曰、「汝新州是[犬+巢]獠、若為作佛?」惠能答 曰、「 [犬+巢]獠佛性与和上佛性豈異別否?」大師深知其能、再欲共語、 為衆人在左右、令能随衆。

      踏碓八箇月碓聲相似不異。忍大師就碓上密説、直了見性。於夜間潜 喚入房、三日三夜共語了、付嘱法及袈裟、「汝為此世界大師、即令急 去。」大師自送、過九江驛看渡大江已、却迴歸。諸門徒並不知付法及袈 裟与恵能。去三日、大師告諸門徒、「汝等散去、吾此間無有佛法、佛法 流過嶺南。」衆人咸驚、通相問¹⁶²、「嶺南有誰?」潞州法如師對曰、 「恵能在彼。」衆皆奔湊。

      衆中有一四品官将軍、捨官人道、字恵明。久在大師左右、不能契悟。 聞大師此言、即當曉夜倍逞奔趁、至大庚嶺上見能禅師。怕急、恐性命不 存、乃将所傳衣¹⁶³袈裟、過与恵明禅師。恵明禅師曰、「我本不為袈裟 来。忍大師発遣之日、有何言教?願為我説。」能禅師具説心法直了見 性。恵明師¹⁶⁴聞法已、合掌頂礼。発遣能禅師、「急過嶺去、在後大有人 来相趁。」其恵明禅師後居蒙山、所出弟子亦只看浄。

      能禅師至韶州漕溪、四十餘年開化、道俗雲奔。後至景雲二年、命弟 子玄楷、令新州龍山造塔。至先天元年、問、「塔¹⁶⁵成否?」答、「已 成。」其年九月、従漕溪却歸至新州。漕溪僧玄措、智海等問、「和上已 後、誰人得法承後、傳信袈裟?」和上答、「莫汝¹⁶⁶問。已後難起極盛。 我縁此袈裟、幾度合失身命。在信大師處三被度¹⁶⁷偸、在忍忍¹⁶⁸大師處 三度被偸、乃至吾處六度被偸。竟无人偸得、我此袈裟、女子将去也。更 莫問我。汝若欲知得我法者、我滅度後廿年外、竪我宗旨者即是得法人 也。」

      至先天二年、忽告門徒、「吾當大行矣。」八月三日夜、奄然坐化。 大師春秋七十有六。漕溪溝澗斷流、泉池枯竭、日月無光、林木変白、異 香氳氳、三日不絶。其年於新州國忌寺、迎和上神座、至十一月、葬於漕溪。

      太常寺承韋據造碑文。至開元七年被人磨改別造碑。近代報脩侍郎宋鼎 撰碑文。¹⁶⁹

      The lay surname of Chan Master Neng of Caoqi in Shaozhou was Lu, and he was from Fanyang.¹⁷¹ After his father was posted to Lingwai, he lived in Xinzhou.¹⁷² When he was twenty-two, he came to Mt. Pingmao to pay his respects to Great Master Ren. At their first meeting the Great Master asked, “Where did you come from?” [Huineng] replied, “I have come from Xinzhou. I...

    • SECTION 10 Dharma Master Daoan and Scripture Quotations (T. 51. 182C17–183C1)
      (pp. 323-328)

      自教法東流三百年、前盡無事相法則。後因晉石勒時、佛圖澄弟子道安法 師在襄陽。秦苻堅遥聞道安名、遂遣使伐襄陽、取道安法師。秦帝常重 遇之、長安衣冠子弟為詩賦諷誦皆依附。「學不依道安法師、義不中難 也、」此是。世智辯聡。後又造講説章門、作僧尼軌範、佛法憲章。受戒 法則、條為三例。一曰行香定坐、二曰常六時礼懺、三曰每月布薩悔過。 事相威儀、法事呪願讃歎等、出此道安法師。近代蜀僧嗣安法師、造「齋 文」四卷、現今流行。

      愣伽経云、「乃至有所立、一切皆錯乱、若見於自心、是則无違¹⁸⁸ 諍。」

      又云、「若依止少法、而有少法起。若依止於事、此法即便壊。」

      又云、「随言而取義、建立於諸法、以彼建立故、死堕地獄中。」

      又云、「理教中¹⁸⁹㈣求我、是妄垢悪¹⁹⁰離㈣離聖教正理、欲減或返増是 外道狂言、智者不應説。」

      金剛経云、「離一切諸相即名諸佛。」

      又云、「若以色見我、以音声求我、是人行邪道、不能見如来。」

      思益経云、「『比丘、云何随佛教、云何随佛語?』『若称讃毁辱、其 心不動、是随佛教。』又答云、『若不依文字語言、是名随佛語。』『比 丘云何應受供養?』答言、『於法无所取者。』『云何消供養?』『不為 世法之所牽者。』『誰人報佛恩?』答言、『依法脩行者。』」

      諸小乗禅及諸三昧門不是達摩祖師宗旨。列名如後:白骨觀、数息觀、 九相觀、五停心觀、日觀、月觀、樓臺觀、池觀、佛觀。又禅秘要経云、「人患熱病、想涼冷觀。患冷病、作¹⁹¹熱想觀。色想作毒蛇觀、不浄觀。 愛好飲食、作蛇蛆觀。愛好衣、作熱鐵纏身觀。 」諸餘三昧觀等

      禅門経云、「『坐禅觀中、見佛形像冊二相、種種光明、飛騰虚空、變 見自在、為真實耶、為虚妄耶?』佛言、『坐禅見空无有物、若見於佛卅 二相、種種光明、飛騰虚空、變見自在、皆是自心顛倒、繋着魔網、於空 寂減、見如是事即為虚妄。』」

      愣迦経云、「如是種種相、墮於外道見。」

      法句経云、「若學諸三昧、是動非坐禅、心随境界流、云何名為定?」

      金剛三昧経云、「我不人三昧、不住坐禅、无生无行、不動不禅、是无 生禅。」

      思益経云、「不依止欲界、不住色无色、行如是禅定、是菩薩遍行。」

      維摩経云維摩詰訶舍利弗林間晏坐、訶須菩提大迦葉不平等。

      轉女身経云、「无垢光女訶天帝釋、『汝聲聞乗人、畏生死樂槃。』」

      決定毗尼経云、「菩薩乗人持開通戒、聲聞乗人持盡遮戒盡護戒。」

      藥師経云、「佛訶阿難、『汝聲聞人、如盲如聾、不識无上空義。』」

      佛頂経云、「訶聲聞人得少為足此七。」

      佛蔵経云、「舍利弗、如来在世三寶一味、我滅度後分為五部。舍利 弗、悪魔於今猶尚隠身、佐助調達破我法僧如来大智見在世故、弊悪 魔衆不能成其大悪。當来之世、〜¹⁹²魔變身作沙門形。人於僧中種種耶 説、令多衆生人於耶見為説邪法氽時悪人為魔所迷各執所見、『我是彼 非。』舍利弗、如来豫見未来世中、如是破法事故説是深経、悉斷悪魔諸 所執着。」

      『阿難、譬如悪賊於王大臣不敢自見、盗他物者不自言賊如是阿難、 破戒比丘成就非沙門法、尚不自言『我是悪人』況能向餘人説自言罪人 阿難、如是経者、破戒比丘随得聞時、自降伏則有慚愧、持戒比丘得自増長。」

      大佛頂経云、「即時如来普告大衆及阿難言、『汝等有學縁覺聲聞、今 日廻心趣大菩提無上妙覺吾今己説真脩行法、汝猶未識脩奢摩他毗婆舍 那。微細魔事魔境現前、汝不能識。洗心非正、落於邪見。或汝陰魔、或 復天魔、或着鬼神、或遭魑魅。心中不明認賊為子又復於中得少為足、 如弟四禅無聞比丘、妄言證聖。天報巳畢、衰相見前。謗阿羅漢、身遭後 有墮人阿鼻獄。』」

      所以釋迦如来傳金襴袈裟。令摩訶迦葉在鶏足山、待弥勒世尊下生分 付。今悪世時、學禅者衆。我達摩祖師遂傳袈裟表其法正、令後學者有其 禀承也。

      In the three hundred years after the Buddhist teachings came east, there was no formal standard at all. Later, around the time of Shi Le of the Jin, Fotudeng’s disciple Dharma Master Daoan was at Xiangyang.¹⁹³ Fujian of the Qin heard of Daoan’s fame from...

    • SECTION 11 Huineng, Part 2 (T. 51. 183C1–184A6)
      (pp. 328-330)

      忍大師當在黄梅馮茂山日、廣開法門、接引群品。當此之時、學道者千万 餘人、其中親事不離忍大師左右者唯有十人。並是昇堂人室:智誅、神 秀、玄赜、義方、智徳、恵蔵、法如、老安、玄約、劉主薄等。並盡是當 官領袖、盖國名僧。各各自言為大龍像、為言²²⁶得底、乃知非底也。

      忽有新州人、俗姓盧、名恵能。年廿二、礼拝忍大師。忍大師²²⁷問、 「汝従何来、有何事意?」恵能答言、「従嶺南来、亦無事意、唯求作 佛。」大師知是非常人也。大師縁左右人多、「汝能随衆作務否?」恵能 答、「身命不惜、何但作務?」遂随衆踏碓八箇月。大師知恵能根機純 熟、遂黙喚付法、及与所傳信袈裟、即令出境。

      後恵能恐畏人識、常隠在山林、或在新州、或在韶州。十六七年在俗、 亦不説法。後至南海制止寺、遇印宗法師講捏槃経。恵能亦在坐下、時印 宗問衆聽人、「汝惣見風吹翻干、上頭翻動否?」衆答言、「見動。」或 言、「見風動。」或言、「見翻動。」「不是風動、是見動。」如是問難 不定。恵能於座下立、答法師言、「自是衆人妄想心動、動与不動、非是 翻動。法卒无有動不動。」法師聞説驁愕、忙然不知是何言。問、「居士 従何来?」恵能答、「本来不来、今亦不去。」

      法師下筒座、迎恵能就房、子細借問。恵能一一具説東山佛法、及有 付嘱信装裟。印宗法師見巳、頭面頂礼、歎言、「何期座下有大菩薩!」 語己又頂礼、請恵能為和上。印宗法師自稱弟子。即与恵能禅師剃髪被衣 己、自許弟子。及講下門従嘆言、「善哉善哉、黄梅忍大師法比聞流嶺 南、誰知今在此間?衆人識否?」咸目、「不識。」印宗法師曰、「吾所 説猶如瓦礫、今有能禅師、²²⁸傳忍大師法門、喩若真金、深不思議。」

      印宗法師領諸徒衆頂礼能禅師足。恐衆人疑、及請所傳信袈裟示衆人、 并自身受菩薩戒。印宗師共大衆送能禅師歸漕溪。接引群品、廣開禅法。 天下知聞、漕溪佛法最不思議。

      One day at Mt. Pingmao in Huangmei, Great Master [Hong]ren was opening the Dharma gates wide, receiving people of all degrees for instruction. At this time his students were exceedingly numerous, but among them the close attendants who never left the side of Great Master Ren numbered only ten. All of them were [disciples who could] “ascend the hall and enter the chamber”; ²²⁹ [they were] Zhishen, Shenxiu, Xuanze, Yifang, Zhide, Huizang, Faru, Laoan, Xuanyue...

    • SECTION 12 Zhishen and Empress Wu (T. 51. 184A6–184B17)
      (pp. 330-333)

      後時大周立、則天即位、敬重佛法。至長壽元年、勅天下諸州各置大雲 寺。二月廿日、勅使天冠郎中張昌期往韶州漕溪請能禅師、能禅師²³⁵託病不去。則天後至万歳通天元年、使往再請能禅師、能禅師²³⁶既不来、請上 代達摩祖師傳信袈裟、朕於内道場供養。能禅師依請、即擎達摩祖師傳信 袈裟与勅使。使廻得傳信袈裟、則天見得傳信袈裟来、甚喜悦、於内道塲 供善。

      万歳通天二年七月、則天勅天冠郎中張昌期往資州徳純寺、請銑禅師。 銑禅師²³⁷授請赴京、内道場供養。久視年、使荊州玉泉寺請秀禅師、安州 受山寺請玄赜禅師、随州大雲寺請玄約禅師、洛州嵩山會善寺請²³⁸老安禅 師。則天内道場供養。則天本請諸大徳、縁西國有三蔵婆羅門、則天常偏 敬重之。

      劍南智銑禅師、當有疾思念歸郷。 為関山阻遠、心有少憂。其邪通婆 羅門云、「彼与此何殊?禅師何得思郷?」智誅答、「三蔵何以知之?」 答云、「禅師但試舉意看、無有不知者。」銑又云、「去也看。」想身著 俗人衣裳、於西市曹門看望。其三蔵云、「大徳僧人、何得著俗衣、市中 而看?」銑又云、「好。看去也。」想身往禅定寺佛圖相輪上立。三蔵又 云、「僧人何得登高而立。」銑云、「赭²³⁹廻好好、更看去也。」即當處 依法想念不生。其三蔵於三界内尋看、竟不可得。三蔵婆羅門遂生敬仰、 頂礼銑足、白和上言、「不知唐國有大乘佛法、今自責身心懺悔。」

      則天見三蔵歸依銑禅師。則天諮²⁴⁰問諸大徳和上等、「有慾否?」神 秀、玄約、老安、玄蹟等皆言、「無慾。」則天問銑禅師、「和上有慾 否?」銑禅師恐不放歸、順則天意答、「有慾。」則天答云、「何得有 慾?」銑答云、「生則有慾、不生則無慾。」則天言下悟。又見三蔵歸依 銑和上、則天倍加敬重。銑禅師因便奏請歸郷。勅賜新翻花厳経一部、弥 勒繡像及幡花等、及将達摩祖師信装裟。則天云、「能禅師不来、此上代 袈裟亦奉上和上。将歸故郷、永為供養。」

      則天至景龍元年十一月、又使内侍将軍薛間²⁴¹至曹溪能禅師所宣口、勅 云、「将上代信袈裟奉上銑禅師、将受持供養。今別将摩納袈裟一領、及 絹五百疋、充乳薬供養。」

      Later, the Great Zhou [dynasty] was established and [Empress Wu] Zetian ascended the throne, who greatly revered the Buddha-Dharma. In the first year of the Changshou era (692),²⁴² she decreed that every region in the empire should establish a Dayun monastery. On the twentieth day of the second month, she sent Zhang Changqi, director of the Ministry of Personnel, to Caoqi in Shaozhou in order to invite Chan Master Neng [to...

    • SECTION 13 Chan Master Zhishen (T. 51. 184B18–184C2)
      (pp. 333-334)

      資州徳純寺智誅禅師、俗姓周、汝南人也。随祖宦至蜀。年十歳、常好釋 教、不食薰²⁵⁹莘、志操高標、不為童戯。年十三、辞親入道。初事玄奘法 師、學経論。後聞雙峰山忍大師、便辞玄奘法師、捨経論、遂於馮茂山投 忍大師。大師²⁶⁰云、「汝兼有文性。」

      後歸資州徳純寺、化道衆生。造虚融觀三卷、縁起一卷、般若心疏一 卷。後至万歳通天二年七月、則天勅天冠郎中張昌期、於徳純寺請。遂赴 西京、後因疾進表、却歸徳純寺。首尾卅餘年化道衆生。長安二年六月、 命處寂、「扶侍吾。」遂付信衣云、「此衣是達摩祖師所傳袈裟、則天 賜吾、吾今付汝。善自保愛。」至其年七月六日夜、奄然坐化、時年九 十四。

      Chan Master Zhishen of Dechun Monastery in Zizhou had the lay surname Zhou, and was from Runan.²⁶¹ He accompanied his grandfather when the latter was posted to Shu (Sichuan). When he was ten years old [Zhishen] was very partial to the Buddhist teachings, did not eat strong and pungent foods, resolutely adhered to a lofty standard, and did not engage in childish play. When he was thirteen he left his family and entered the Way. First he served Dharma Master Xuanzang, with whom he studied the scriptures and treatises.²⁶² Later...

    • SECTION 14 Chan Master Chuji (T. 51. 184C3–184C16)
      (pp. 334-335)

      處寂禅師、綿州浮城縣人也。俗姓唐、家代好儒。常習詩礼、有分義孝 行。年十歳父亡。歎曰、「天地既无、我聞佛法不可思議、抜生死苦。」 乃投誅和上、誅和上問、「汝從何来?」答、「故投和上来。」和上知非 常人。

      當赴京日、遂擔大師至京、一肩不移。身長尺、神情稟然。於衆獨見 其首、見者欽貴。

      後還居資州徳純寺、化道衆生廿年。後至開元廿四年²⁶⁷四月、密遣家人 王鏜、喚海東无相禅師。付嘱法及信袈裟云、「此²⁶⁸衣是達摩祖師信衣。 則天賜誅和上、誅和上与吾、吾轉付汝。善自保愛、看好山住去。」後至 其年五月廿七日、告諸門徒、「吾不久住。」至夜半子時、奄然坐化。處 寂大師²⁶⁹時年六十乂、。

      Chan Master Chuji was from Foucheng District in Mianzhou.²⁷⁰ His lay surname was Tang, and his family had for generations favored Confucianism. Chuji diligently studied the Book of Odes and the Book of Rites, and he had moral integrity and filial piety. When he was ten his father died. He lamented, “There is nothing in Heaven and earth! I have heard that the Buddha-Dharma is inconceivable and roots out the suffering of life and death.” And so he offered himself as disciple to the Venerable Shen.²⁷¹ The Venerable Shen...

    • SECTION 15 Chan Master Wuxiang (T. 51. 184C17–185B14)
      (pp. 335-339)

      劍南城都府浄泉寺无相禅師、俗金姓²⁷⁴、新羅王之族、家代海東。昔在卒 國、有季妹、初聞礼娉、授刀割面、誓志歸真。和上見而歎曰、「女子柔 弱、猶聞雅操。丈夫剛強、我豈無心?」遂乃削髪辞親。浮海西渡乃至唐 國。尋師訪道、周遊[水+步]歴、乃到資州徳純寺、礼唐和上。唐和上有 疾遂不出見、便燃一指為燈、供養唐和上。唐和上知其非常人、便留左右 二年。

      後居天谷山。却至徳純寺、唐和上遣家人王鏜、密付信衣、「此衣是達 摩祖師傳衣。則天賜与誅和上、誅和上与吾、吾付嘱汝。」金和上得付法 及信衣、遂居天谷山石巌下。草衣節食、食盡餐土、感猛獣衛護。後章仇 大夫請開禅法。居淨衆寺、化道衆生廿餘年。

      後至寳應元年五月十五日、忽憶白崖山無住禅師、「吾有疾計此合来 看吾。」数数問左右人、「無住禅師何為不来?吾将年邁。」密使工人董璿、「将吾信衣及餘衣十七事、密送与无住禅師。善自保愛。未是出山 時、更待三五年間、太平即出。」遥付嘱訖。

      至五月十九日命第子、「与吾取新浄衣、吾欲沐浴。」至夜半子時、儼 然坐化。是日、日月无光、天地變白。法幢摧折、禅河枯涸。衆生失望、 學道者無依。大師時年七十九。

      金和上、每年十二月正月、与四衆百千万人受縁。厳設道場、處高座説 法。先教引聲念佛、盡一氣絶聲停念訖。説云、「無憶、無念、莫妄。無 憶是戒²⁷⁵、無念是定、莫妄是恵。此三句語即是惣持門。」

      又云、「念不起猶如鏡面、能照万像。念起猶如鏡背、即不能照見。」

      又云、「須分明知起、須知起滅、須知滅此知須不間斷、即是見佛。譬 如二人同行、倶至他國。其父将書教誨。一人得書、尋讀己畢、順其父教²⁷⁶ 不行非法。一人得書、尋讀己畢、不依教示、熾行諸悪。一切衆生、 依无念者、是孝順之子、着文字者、是不孝之子。」

      又云、「譬如有人酒酔而臥。其母来喚、欲令還家。其子為酔迷乱、悪 罵其母。一切衆生无明酒酔、不信自身見性成佛道。」

      又起信論云、「『心真如門、心生滅門。』无念即是真如門、有念即是 生滅門。」

      又云、「无明頭出、般若頭没。无明頭没、般若頭出。」

      又引捏槃経云、「家犬野鹿。家犬喩妄念、野鹿喩佛性。」

      又云、「綾本来是絲、无有文字。巧児織成、乃有文字。後折却還是本 絲。絲喩佛性、文字喩妄念。」

      又云、「水不離波、波不離水。波喩妄念、水喩佛性。」

      又云、「擔麻人伴轉逢銀所。一人即捨擔取銀。餘人言、『我麻擔己 定、我終不能棄。』又至金所、棄銀取金。諸人云、『我麻擔己定、終不 能捨。』金喩捏槃、麻喩生死。」

      又云、「我此三句語是達摩祖師本傳教法、不言是銑和上唐和上 所説。」

      又言、「許第子有勝師之義。縁銑唐二和上不説了教、曲承信衣。」

      金和上所以不引銑唐二和上説處。每常座下教戒真言、「我達摩祖師所 傳此三句語是惣持門、念不起是戒門、念不起是定門²⁷⁷、念不起恵門。无 念即是戒定恵具足、是過去未来見²⁷⁸在、恒沙諸佛、皆従此門入。若更有 別門、無有是處。

      Chan Master Wuxiang of Jingzhong Monastery in Chengdu City Prefecture in Jiannan had the lay surname Kim and was from a clan of Silla princes, his family went back for generations East-of-the-Sea (i.e., Korea).²⁷⁹ Formerly, when he was in his homeland, he had a younger sister. When she first heard of her betrothal ceremony, she picked up...

    • SECTION 16 The Venerable Shenhui (T. 51. 185B14–185C26)
      (pp. 339-342)

      東京荷澤寺神會和上每月作壇場、為人説法、破清浄禅立如来禅。立知 見³⁰⁴。立言説、為戒定恵不破言説。云、「正説之時即是戒、正説之時即 是定、正説之時即是恵。」説无念法、立見性。

      開元年中、滑臺為天下學道者定宗旨。會和上云、「若更有一人説、會 終不敢説也。」為會和上不得信³⁰⁵衣。

      天寳八年中、洛州荷澤寺亦定宗旨。被崇遠法師問、「禅師於三賢十聖 脩行、證何地位?」會答曰、「捏槃経云、『南无純吔、南无純吔、身同 凡夫、心同佛心。』」會和上却問遠法師、「講捏槃³⁰⁶経来、得幾遍?」 遠法師答、「四十餘遍。」又問、「法師見佛性否?」法師答、「不 見。」會和上云、「師子吼品云、『若人不見佛性、即不合講捏槃経、若 見佛性、即合講捏槃経。』」遠法師却問、「會和上見佛性否?」會答、 「見。」又問、「云何為見為復眼見、耶耳鼻等見耶?」會答、「見無氽 許多³⁰⁷、見只没³⁰⁸見。」又問、「見等純吔否?」會答、「比量見、比即 比於純吔、[量即]³⁰⁹量等純吔、不敢定斷。」又被遠法師問、「禅師上代袈 裟傳否?」會答、「傳。若不傳時、法有斷絶。」又問、「禅師得否?³¹⁰答、「不在會處。」遠法師又問、「誰得此袈裟?」會答、「有一人得、 己後自應知。此人若説法時、正法流行邪法自減。為佛法事大所以隠 而未出。」

      會和上在荊府時、有西國人迦葉賢者、安樹提等廿餘人。向會和上説 法處問、「上代信袈裟、和上得否?」答、「不在會處。」却問賢者等、 「従何處来?」迦葉答、「従劍南来。」問、「識金禅師否?」迦葉答、 「盡是金和上第子。」會和上問說、「汝金禅師教人教道如何?」迦葉 答、「无明頭出、捏槃頭没、般若頭出、无明頭³¹¹没。有念猶如鏡面。」 會和上叱之、「莫説此閑言語!汝姓迦葉、是婆羅門種姓、計合利根、乃 是尿床婆羅門耳。」

      會和上云、「汝劍南誅禅師是法師、不説了教。唐禅師是誅禅師第子、 亦不説了教。唐禅師第子梓州趙法師是³¹²、陵州王是律師、已³¹³西表是法 師。益州金是禅師、説了教亦不得。雖然不説了教、佛法只在彼處。」

      郎中馬雄使到漕溪礼能和上塔。問守塔老僧、「上代傳信袈裟何在?」 玄楷答³¹⁴老師答、「能和上在、玄楷師智海師³¹⁵等問能和上、『承上袈 裟傳否?佛法付嘱誰人?』能和上答、『我衣女子将也。我法我死後廿年 外、竪立宗旨、是得我法人也。』」

      The Venerable Shenhui of Heze monastery in the Eastern Capital [Luoyang] would set up an [ordination] platform every month and expound on the Dharma for people, knocking down “Purity Chan” and upholding “Tathāgata Chan.”³¹⁶ He upheld direct experience and verbal explanation—regarding precepts, meditation, and wisdom, he did not knock down verbal explanation. He said, “Just as I am speaking now is none other than śīla, just as I...

    • SECTION 17 Discourses of the Venerable Wuzhu (T. 51. 185C26–186A14)
      (pp. 342-343)

      劍南成都府大暦保唐寺无住和上、每常為³³³學道四衆、「百千万人及一 人、無有時節、有疑任問。處座説法、直指見性。以直心為道場、以発行 為道場、以深心為道場、以無染為道場、以不取為道場、以不捨為道場。 以无為為方便、以廣大為方便、以平等為方便。以離相為火、以解脱為 香。以无堊碍是懺悔、以无念為戒、以无為无³³⁴所得為定、以不二為恵。 不以嚴設為道場。」

      和上云、「一切衆生本来清淨、本来圓満、添亦不得、減亦不得。為順 一念漏心、三界受種種身。假善知識直指本性。見性即成佛道、着相即沈 輪為衆生有念、假説无念。有念若无、无念不自。減三界心、不居寂 地、『不住事相、不无功用。』但離虚妄、名為解脱。」

      又云、「有心即是波浪、无心即是外道。順生死即是衆生垢、依寂即是 捏槃動。不順生、不依寂地、『不人三昧、不住坐禅、无生无行、心无得 失。』影體倶非、性相不立。」

      Whenever the Venerable Wuzhu of the Dali³³⁶ Bao Tang monastery in Chengdu sub-prefecture in Jiannan³³⁷ addressed students of the Way of the four assemblies, [he would say], “Whether a multitude or a single person, regardless of the time, if you have doubts you may confide your questions to me. I am occupying the seat and explaining the Dharma [so that you] directly see your own natures. Regard direct mind as the bodhimaṇḍa (daochang道場). Regard aspiration to practice as the bodhimaṇḍa. Regard the profound mind as the bodhimaṇḍa....

    • SECTION 18 Wuzhu and Wuxiang (T. 51. 186A15–187C7)
      (pp. 343-352)

      和上鳳翔郿縣人也。俗姓李、法号无住、年登五十。開元年代、父朔方展 効。時年廿、膂力過人、武藝絶輪³⁴⁴。當此之時、信安王充河朔両道節 度使。見和上有勇有列、信安王留充衙前遊弈先峯官。和上每自歎、「在 世栄華、誰人不樂?大丈夫兒、未逢善知識。一生不可虚弃。」遂乃捨官 宦、尋師訪道。忽遇白衣居士陳楚璋、不知何處人也。時人号為維摩結化 身。説頓教法。和上當遇之日、密契相知、黙傳心法。和上得法己、一向 絶思斷慮、事相並除。三五年間、白衣脩行。

      天寳年間、忽聞范陽到次山有明³⁴⁵和上、東京有神會和上、太原府有自 在和上、並盡是第六祖師第子、説頓教法。和上當日之時亦未出家。遂往 太原、礼拜自在和上。自在和上説、「淨中无浄想³⁴⁶、即是真浄佛性。 和上聞法己、心意快然、欲辞前途。老和上共諸律師大徳、苦留不放、 「此真法棟樑。」便与削髪披衣。

      天寳八年、受具戒己、便辞老和上、向五臺山清涼寺、経一夏。聞説到 次山明和上縦由、神會和上語音³⁴⁷、即知意况、亦不往礼

      天寳九載、夏満出山至西京、安國寺崇聖寺往来。

      天寳十載、従西京却至北霊州、居賀蘭山二年。忽有商人曹[玉+裹]礼拜 問、「和上曾到劍南、識金和上否?」答云、「不識。」[玉+裹]云、「和 上相貌、一似金和上。鼻梁上有靨、顔状与此間和上相貌、更無別也。應 是化身。」和上問曹[玉+裹]、「居士従劍南来、彼和上說何教法?」曹[玉+裹]答、「説无憶无念莫忘³⁴⁸第子當日之時、受縁訖辞、金和上問瓖、 『何處去?』[玉+裹]答云、『父母在堂、欲帰覲省。』金和上語瓖、『正 不憶不念惣放却、朗朗蕩蕩³⁴⁹、看有汝父母否。』[玉+裹]當日之時、聞己 未識、今呈和上。」和上聞説豁然、遥与金和上相見。遂乃出賀蘭山至北 霊州出行文、往劍南礼金和上。遂被留、後姚嗣王不放。大徳史和上、辯 才律師、恵荘律師等諸大徳並不放来。

      至徳二年十月、従北霊州黙出。向定遠城及豊寧、軍使楊含璋處出行 文。軍使苦留、問和上、「佛法為當只在劍南、為復此間亦有?若彼此一 種、縁何故去?」和上答、「若識心見性、佛法遍一切處。无住為在學 地、善知識在劍南、所以遠投。」軍使又問和上、「善知識是誰?」和上 答、「是无相和上、俗姓金、時人号金和上也。」軍使頂礼、便出行文。 和上漸漸南行至鳳翔、又被諸大徳苦留不放、亦不住。又取太白路山³⁵⁰、 入住太白山経一夏。夏満、取細水谷路出至南梁州。諸僧徒衆苦留不住。

      乾元二年正月、到成都府浄衆寺。初到之時逢安乾師、引見金和上。 金和上見非常歓喜。金和上遺安乾師作主人。安置在鐘樓下院住。其時正 是受縁之日、當夜随衆受縁。只経三日三夜。金和上每日於大衆中、高聲 唱言、「縁何不人山去、久住何益?」左右親事第子傕、「金和上不曽有 如此語、縁何忽出此言?」无住和上、黙然入山。金和上憶、「縁何不 来。」空上座、秦上座、欲得相識、「恐後相逢、彼此不知是誰。」

      和上向倪朝説、「吾雖此間、每常与金和上相見。若欲不相識、對面 千里。吾重為汝説一縁起。佛昔在日、夏三月忉利天為摩耶夫人説法時、 十六大國王及一切衆生悉皆憶佛。即令大目犍連往忉利天請佛。佛降下閻 浮時、須菩提在石室中。聞佛降下即欲出室、自念云、『我聞世尊、『若 在三昧、即是見吾。若来縦見吾色身、有何所益?』』便即却人三昧。是 時連華色比丘尼、擬除悪名、即欲在前見佛。諸大國王、龍神八部、闔匝 圍遶、无有路入。化身作大轉輪王千子圍遶、龍神國王悉皆開路。連華色 比丘尼還作本身、圍遶世尊己、合掌説偈、『我初見佛、我初礼佛。』説 偈己、作礼而立。氽時世尊告比丘尼、『於此會中、汝最在後。』比丘尼 白世尊、『於此會中、无有阿羅漢、云何言我在後?』世尊告比丘尼、 『須菩提在石室中常在三昧、所以先得見吾法身。汝縦来見色身、所以在 後。』佛有明文、无住所以不去。」

      同住道逸師、習誦礼念、和上一面³⁵¹向絶思斷慮、人自證境界。道逸 共諸同住小師、白和上云、「逸共諸同住、欲得六時礼懺、伏願和上聴 許。」和上語道逸等、「此間粮食並是絶緣、人般運深山中。不能依法脩 行、欲得學狂、此並非佛法。」和上引佛頂経云、「『狂心不歇、歇即菩 提、勝浄明心、本周法界。』无念即是見佛、有念即是生死。若欲得礼念 即出山。平下大有寛閑寺舍、任意出去。若欲得同住、一向无念。得即任 住、不得即須下去。」

      道逸師見不遂本意、辞和上出天蒼山。来至益州浄衆寺、先見空上座 等説、「山中无住禅師不行礼念、只空閑坐。」何空等聞説、倍常驚傕、 「豈是佛法!」領道逸師見金和上。道逸礼拝未了、何空等諮金和上云、 「天蒼山无住禅師只空閑坐。不肯礼念、亦不教同住人礼念。豈³⁵²有此 事、可是佛法!」金和上叱何空道逸等、「汝向後!吾在學地時、飯不及 喫、只空閑坐。大小便亦无功夫。汝等不識、吾當天谷山日亦不礼念、諸 同學嗔吾並出山去。无人送粮、惟錬土為食、亦无功夫出山、一向閑坐。 孟寺主聞諸同學説吾閑坐、便向唐和上讒吾。唐和上聞説吾閑坐、倍加歎 喜。吾在天谷山³⁵³亦不知讒。聞唐和上四大違和、吾従天谷山来至資州徳 純寺。孟寺主見吾来、不放寺人³⁵⁴。唐和上聞吾来、使人喚吾至堂前。吾 礼拝未訖、唐和上便問、『汝於天谷山作何事業?』吾答、『一物不作、 只没忙。』唐和上報吾、『汝忙、吾亦忙矣!』唐和上知、衆人不識。」

      和上云、「居士、達摩祖師一支佛法流在劍南、金和上即是。若不 受縁、恰似宝山空手帰。」璿聞己、合掌起立、「第子即入成都府受縁 去。」和上山中知金和上遥憶彼即知意。遂向璿説、「此有茶芽半斤、居 士若去将此茶芽為信、奉上金和上、傳无住語頂礼金和上。金和上若問无 住、云无住未擬出山。」

      和上山中知金和上遥憶彼即知意。遂向璿説、「居士、達摩祖師一支佛 法流在劍南、金和上即是。若不受縁、恰似宝山空手帰。」璿聞己、合掌 起立、「第子即入成都府受縁去。」和上云、「此有茶芽半斤、居士若去 将此茶芽為信、奉上金和上、傳无住語頂礼金和上。金和上若問无住、云 无住未擬出山。」³⁵⁵

      璿即便辞和上、将所奉茶芽。至建己月十三日、至成都府浄衆寺。為 金和上四體違和、輒无人得見。董璿逢菩提師、引見金和上。具陳无住禅 師所奉茶芽、傳頂礼金和上。金和上聞説及見茶芽、非常歎喜、語董璿、 「无住禅師既有信来、何得不身自来?」董璿答、「无住禅師来日云未擬 出山。」金和上問董璿、「汝是何人?」璿誑金和上答、「是无住禅師親 事第子。」金和上向璿云、「帰白崖山日、吾有信去、汝須見吾来。」

      至十五日、見金和上、璿云「欲帰白崖山、取和上進止。」其時發遣左 右親事第子、「汝等惣出堂外去。」即喚董璿入。璿依命入堂[足+胡]跪合 掌。³⁵⁶金和上将袈裟一領、人間罕守勿有。呈示、「此是則天皇后与銑和 上、銑和上与唐和上、唐和上与吾、吾傳将付与无住禅師。此衣久遠己来 保愛、莫遣人知。」語己悲涙哽咽、「此衣嫡嫡相傳付授、努力努力!」 即脱身上袈裟、覆膊裙衫坐具、共有十七事。「吾将年邁。汝将此物密 送无住禅師、傳吾語、 『善自保愛、努力努力!未是出山時。更待三五 年間、自有貴人迎汝即出。』」便即発遣董璿、「急去莫教人。」見璿 去、後金和上獨語云、「此物去遅、到頭還達。」金和上正語之時左右无 人。堂外第子聞和上語聲一時人堂、問金和上、「云何獨語?」「吾只没 語。」為金和上四大違和、諸人見己有擬便問、「和上承上所傳信衣何 在?和上佛法付嘱誰人?」金和上云、「吾法无住處去。衣向木頭上掛 着、无一人得。」金和上向諸人言、「此非汝境界、各着本處去。」

      元年建已月十五日、改為寳應元年五月十五日、遥付嘱法³⁵⁷訖。至十九 日命第子、...

    • SECTION 19 Du Hongjian’s Arrival in Shu (T. 51. 187C7–188B21)
      (pp. 352-356)

      副元帥黄門侍郎杜相公初到成都府日、聞金和上不可思議。金和上既化、 合有承後第子。遂就浄衆寺、衡山寧國寺觀望、見金和上在日蹤跡。相 公借問小師等、「合有承後第子、僧人得衣鉢者?」小師答、「亦无人 承後。和上在日有両領袈裟、一領衡山寧國寺、一領留後³⁹⁰在浄衆寺供 養。」相公不信、又問諸律師、「鴻漸遠聞金和上是大善知識、承上已来 師師相傳授付嘱衣鉢。金和上既化、承後第子何在?」律師答相公云、 「金禅師是外國蕃人、亦无佛法。在日亦不多説法、語不能得正。在日雖 足供養布施、只空是有福徳僧。縱有第子亦不閑佛法。」

      相公高鑑、即知盡是嫉言。即廻帰宅、問親事孔目官馬良康然等、「知 劍南有高行名僧大徳否?」馬良答云、「院内常見節度軍将説、蠶崖関西 白崖山中有无住禅師、得金和上衣鉢、是承後第子。此禅師得³⁹¹業深厚、 亦不曽出山。」相公聞説向馬良等、「鴻漸遠聞金和上是大善知識。昨自 到衡山寧國寺淨衆寺、問金和上親事第子。皆云无承後第子及得衣鉢。又 問律師、咸言毁謗。據此蹤由、白崖山无住禅師、必是道者。」

      即於大衙日問諸軍将等、「知此管内、有何名僧大徳否?」節度副使 牛望仙、李虚應、帰誠王、董嘉會、張温、陰浴、張餘光、張轸、韋鸞、 秦逖等諮相公、「白崖山中有无住禅師。金和上衣鉢在彼禅師處、不可思 議。」相公問牛望仙、「君何以得知?」答云、「望仙高大夫差充石碑營 使、為去道場不遠、数就頂礼、知不可思議。」相公又問、「適來言衣鉢 在彼、誰知³⁹²的實?」

      秦逖張鏜諮儔曰、「逖等充左右巡虞候、金和上初滅度日、両寺親事第 子啾唧。嘱何常侍向大夫説、『金和上信衣、不知的實、及不肯焚焼。』 高大夫判付左右巡虞候推問、得實領過。當日初只得両領袈裟、両寺各得 一領、信衣不知尋處。當日不知有蠶崖関西白崖山中有无住禅師。後被差 充十将領兵馬上西山、打當狗城未進軍、屯在石碑營寄住。行營迫³⁹³道 場、逖等諸軍将齎³⁹⁴供養到彼。見此禅師与金和上容貌³⁹⁵—種。逖等初 見、将是金和上化身。借問逗留、知金和上衣鉢先遣人送。被隠二年不 送、賣与僧。僧得衣、夜有神人遣還本主、『若不還必損汝命。』買人 遞³⁹⁶相告報。後賣不得、還到本禅師處。逖等初聞當時推尋不知袈裟去處 今在此間、即請頂礼。亦不生難、便擎袈裟出、呈示諸軍将官健等、所以 知在彼處。」

      相公聞説、「奇奇哉哉!僧等隠没佛法、不如俗人。俗人却欲得佛法 流行。」節度副使李靈應、張温、牛望先、帰誠王、董嘉會、韋鸞、秦逖 等、即衆連署状、請和上。相公向諸軍将知无住禅師、自有心請。相公差 光祿卿慕容鼎為専使、即令出文牒。所在路次州縣、嚴擬幡花、僧道耆壽 及音声。差一了事縣官就山同請。

      文牒未出、浄衆寺寧國両寺小金師張大師聞請无住和上、惶怖无計。 与諸律師平章、擬作魔事。先嚴尚書表第子簫律師等、嘱太夫人、奪金和 上禅院為律院、金和上禅堂為講律堂。小金師且苟³⁹⁷安身。与簫律師等相 知計會、為律院立碑、都³⁹⁸昂撰文。律師張知足与王英耀、及小金師張大 師、嘱都昂郎中。律師英耀、共王謇侍御同姓、相認為兄第。

      嘱崔僕射任夫人設齋。食訖小金師即擎裴僕射所施納袈裟、呈示僕射 及夫人。小金師悲涙云、「此是承上信衣。」僕射、「旰由来不知此事、 請无住禅師。相公意重、不関旰事。」都昂王謇曲黨、恐奪律院、廻顧問 諸律師、「此山僧无住禅師、有何道業?」英耀律師等答、「若據此无住 禅師无有知解。若請此僧深不益緇流。」尚書問、「縁何不益緇流。」答 云、「有一工人於汶川刻鏤功徳平、得袈裟一領計直廿千文。被彼禅師奪 工人衣不還。云、『是金和上与我。』不行事相礼念。據此蹤由、即是不 益緇流。」僕射向諸律師云、「旰先在西山兵馬、具知意況。律師等何用 相³⁹⁹誣?」語已離蓆。魔黨失色无計。魔事便息。

      As soon as the Lord Minister Du [Hongjian],⁴⁰⁰ vice-marshal and vice-director of the chancellery, first arrived in Chengdu Superior Prefecture, he heard that the Venerable Kim was inconceivable. As the Venerable Kim had passed on, [Du Hongjian] expected that he had left a successor. So he went to Jingzhong...

    • SECTION 20 Du Hongjian and Wuzhu Meet (T. 51. 188B21–189B22)
      (pp. 356-362)

      永泰二年九月廿三日、光祿卿慕容鼎専使縣官僧道等、就白崖山請和上。 傳相公、僕射、監軍請礼頂、願和上:「不捨慈悲、為三蜀蒼生、作大橋 樑、」殷®苦請。和上知相公深閑佛法愛慕大乗、知僕射仁慈寛厚、知監 軍敬佛法僧。審知是同縁同會、不逆所請。即有幡花寳蓋。諸州大徳、恐 和上不出白崖山、亦就山門同来赴請。即寳輿迎和上令坐輿中、和上不 受、歩歩徐行。欲出之日、茂州境内六廻震動、山河吼虫鳥鳴。百姓互相 借問、「是何祥瑞?」見有使来迎和上、當土僧尼道俗、再請留和上。専 使語僧俗等、「是相公僕射意重為三蜀蒼生。豈縁此境、約不許留?」

      當和上未出山日、寇盗競起、諸州不熟、榖米勇貴、万姓惶惶。相公 僕射迎和上出山、所至州縣、榖米倍賤、人民安楽、率境豊熟、寇盗盡 除、晏然無事。和上⁴¹⁰到州史迎、至縣縣令引路。家家懸幡、戸戸焚香、 咸言、「蒼生有福。」道俗満路、唱言、「无相和上去、无住和上来。此 即是佛佛授手、化化不絶、燈燈相傳、法眼再明。法幢建立、大行佛法 矣!」

      相公令都押衙欽華遠迎和上。欽押衙傳相公語云、「鴻漸忽有風疾不得 遠迎、至日頂礼。」劍南西川節度使左僕射兼御使大夫成都尹崔公、令都 虞候王休巌、少府監李君昭、衙前虞候杜璋等傳僕射語。頂礼和上、「第 子是地主、自合遠迎。縁相公風疾所以第子及監軍使不敢先来。伏願和上 照察。」傳語已一時便引和上至空恵寺安置。

      是九月廿九日到十月一日、杜相公、呉監軍、諸郎官侍御、東川留後 杜⁴¹¹郎中杜濟、行軍杜蔵、経邛南使中丞鮮于叔明、郎中楊炎、杜亞、都 昂、馬雄、岑参、觀察判官員外李布、員外柳子華、青苗使呉郁、祖庸⁴¹² 使韋夏有、侍御狄博濟、崔伉、崔倜、王謇、蘇敞、司馬廉両少尹成賁白 子昉、両縣令班遜⁴¹³、李融捕賊官、惣来空恵寺門。

      即都虞候王休巌、相公都押衙欽華、衛擇交先来白和上云、「相公⁴¹⁴来 謁和上。」和上答、「来即従他来。」押牙等白和上、「國相貴重、應須 出迎。」和上答、「不合迎。迎即是人情、不迎即是佛法。」押衙又欲 語、相公入院見和上容儀不動、儼然安佯。⁴¹⁵相公頓身下階、作礼合掌、 問信起居。諸郎官侍御未曽見有此事。乍見和上不迎不起、両両相看問、 「縁何不迎不起?」郎中楊炎、杜亞久事相公、深識意旨、亦閑佛法。語 諸郎官侍御、「觀此禅師、必應有道、相公自鑒、何用傕耳。」是日門外 節度副使、都虞侯、捕賊官、乍聞和上見相公不起不迎、戦懼失色、流汗 靈霃。使人潜聴、更待進止。見相公坐定言笑⁴¹⁶和上説法、相公合掌叩 額。諸郎官侍御等喜⁴¹⁷、門外人聞已便即无憂。

      相公初坐問和上、「因何至此間?」和上答云、「遠故投金和上。」相 公又問、「先在何處?今来遠投金和上、説何教法?」答无住、⁴¹⁸「曽臺 山抱腹寺、⁴¹⁹并汾等州、及賀蘭山坐。聞金和上説頓教法、所以遠投。」 相公問和上、「金和上説无憶无念莫忘、是否?」和上答云、「是。」相 公又問、「此三句語、為是一為是三?」和⁴²⁰上答、「是一不三。无憶是 戒、⁴²¹无念是定、莫妄是恵。」又云、「念不起戒門、念不起是定門、念 不起恵門。无念即戒定恵具足。」相公又問、「既一妄字、為是亡下女、 為是亡下心?」和上答、「亡下女。」「有證處否?」和上答。「有。」 即引法句経云、「説諸精進法、為増上慢説。若无増上慢、无善无精進。 若起精進心、是妄非進精⁴²²。若能心不妄、精進无有涯。」

      相公又⁴²³聞説、白和上、「見庭前樹否?」和上答、「見。」相公又問 和上、「向後墙外有樹、見否?」和上答、「見。非論前後、十方世界悉 見悉聞。」庭前樹上[亞+鳥]鳴。相公又問和上、「聞[亞+鳥]鳴否?」

      和上答、「此見聞覺知、是世間見聞覺知。維摩経云、「『若行見聞 覺知、是即見聞覺知。法離見聞覺知。』無念即无見、无念即无知、為衆 生有念、假説无念、正⁴²⁴无念之時、无念不自。」又引金剛⁴²⁵三昧経云、 「『尊者大覺尊、説生无念法。无念无生心、心常生不滅。』又維摩経 云、『不行是菩提、无憶念故。』『常求无念、實相智恵。』愣伽経云、 『聖者内所證、常住於无念。』佛頂経云、『阿難、汝踅挙心、塵勞先 起。』又云、『見猶離見、見不能及。』思益経云、『云何一切法正、云 何一切法邪?若以心分別、一切法邪。若不以心分別、一切法正。无心法 中、起心分別、普皆是邪。』愣伽経云、『見佛聞法皆是自心分別。不起 見者、是名見佛。』」

      相公聞説、頂礼和上。白和上云、「鴻漸初聞。和上未下山日、鴻漸向 浄衆寺寧國寺觀金和上蹤跡。是大善知識、即知劍南更合有善知識。鴻漸 遍問諸師僧、金和上三句語及妄字、皆云亡下作心、三句語各別。不決第 子所疑。鴻漸問諸軍将、『劍南豈无真僧?』无有一人祇對得者、節度副 使牛望先⁴²⁶秦逖諸軍将齊諮鴻漸、説和上徳業深厚。所以遠迎、伏願和 上不捨慈悲、与三蜀蒼生作大良縁。」語已頂礼、「第子公事有限、為僕 射諸節度副使、未得礼拜和上。鴻漸未離劍南、每日不離左右。」語已辞 去。

      On the twenty-third day of the ninth month of the second year of the Yongtai era (766),⁴²⁷ the Imperial Entertainments Chief Minister Murong Ding acting as special messenger, the district officials, Buddhists, Daoists, and such...

    • SECTION 21 Cui Gan Visits Wuzhu (T. 51. 189B22–190B16)
      (pp. 362-368)

      僕射知相公歓喜云、「和上不可思議。」即共任夫人及節度軍将頂礼和 上。起居問訊訖、坐定處分都押衙、放諸軍将同聴和上説法。時有无盈法 師清原法師、僧中俊哲、在衆而坐。

      和上引佛頂経云、「『阿難、一切衆生従无始来、種種顛倒、業種自 然、如悪叉聚。諸脩行人不能得成无上菩提。乃至別成⁴⁵²聲聞縁覺、及 成外道諸天、魔王眷属。皆由不知二種根本、錯乱脩習、猶如煮沙欲成嘉 饌。縦経塵劫、終不能得。云何二種?阿難、一者无始生死根本、則汝今 者与諸衆生、用攀縁心為自性。二者无始菩提捏槃元⁴⁵³清浄體。則汝今者識精无明、能生諸縁。縁所遺者、由失本明。雖終日行、而不自覺、枉人諸趣。』」

      和上又説、「一切衆生本来清浄、本来圓満。上至諸佛下至一切含識、 共同清浄性。而⁴⁵⁴為衆生一念妄心、即染三界。為衆生有念、假説无念、 有念若无、无念不自。无念即无生、无念即无滅、无念即无愛、无念即无 憎⁴⁵⁵、无念即无取、无念即无捨、无念即无高、无念即无下、无念即无 男、无念即无女、无念即无是、无念即无非。正无念之時、无念不自。心 生即種種法生、心滅即種種法滅。如其心然、罪垢亦然、諸法亦然。正无 念之時、一切法皆是佛法、无有一法離菩提者。」

      又云、「因妄有生、因生⁴⁵⁶妄有滅。生滅名妄、滅妄名真、是稱如来无 上菩提及大捏槃。」

      和上説法已、儼然不動。僕射聞説合掌、白和上云、「旰是地主。自 合遠迎、為公事不獲。願和上勿責。旰先是西山兵馬使、和上在白崖山蘭 若、元是當家。若有所須、専差衙前虞侯祗供和上。」

      和上答云、「脩行般若波羅蜜、百无所須。」又云、「汝但辧心、諸天 辧供⁴⁵⁷。何等心辧、不求心、不貪心、辧不受心、辧不染心。梵天不求、 梵天自至、果報不求、果報自至。无量珍寳不求自至。」又云、「知足大 冨貴、少欲最安樂。」

      僕射聞和上説、合掌頂礼。清原法師作礼、白和上、「小師一聞法已、 疑網頓除。今投和上、願悲慈攝授和上。」然无盈法師據傲、⁴⁵⁸懍然色 變。和上問无盈法師、「識主客否?」无盈法師答、引諸法相、廣引文 義。和上云、「法師不識主客。強認前塵、以流注生滅心自為知解。猶如 煮沙、欲成嘉饌、計劫只成熱沙。只是自誑誑他。愣伽経云、『随言而取 義、建立於諸法、已彼建立故、死隨⁴⁵⁹地獄中。』」

      无盈法師聞説、側身偏坐。和上問法師、「无記有幾種?」法師答、 「異熟无記、變易无記、工巧无記、威儀无記。」和上又問、「何者是有 記?」法師答、「第六意識是有記。」

      和上云、「第六意識⁴⁶⁰是顛倒識。⁴⁶¹一切衆生、不出三界、都由意識。 意不生時、即超三界。剃頭削髪、盡是佛第子、不可學有記、不可學无 記。今時法師、盡學无記、不信大乗。云何是大乗?内自證不動、是无上 大乗。我无上大乗、超過於名言、其義甚明了、愚夫不能覺。覺者覺諸情 識空寂无生、名之為覺。」

      无盈法師聞説杜口无詞。和上云、「无記有二種、一者有覆无記、二者 无覆无記。第六意識、至眼等五識、盡属有覆无記。第六識已下至八識、 盡属无覆无記。並是強名言之。又加第九識是清浄識、亦是妄立。」

      和上引愣伽経云、「『八九種種識、如海衆波浪。習氣常増長、槃根堅 固依。心随境界流、如鉄於磁⁴⁶²石。』『如水瀑流盡、波浪即不起、如是 意識滅、種種識不生。』『種種意生身、我説為心量。』『得无思想法、 佛子非聲聞。』」

      无盈法師聞説、唯稱「不可思識。」和上又問、「愣伽経云、『已楔出 楔』此義云何?」无盈法師答云、「譬如擗木、先以下大楔、即下小楔、 令出大楔。」和上報法師、「既小楔出大楔、大楔⁴⁶³既出、小楔還在。云 何以楔出楔⁴⁶⁴? 」

      法師更無詞敢對。和上即解、「楔喩衆生煩悩、楔假諸佛如来言教。 煩悩既无、法即不自。譬如有病、然与處方。病得愈、方藥並除。然今法 師執言教法、如病人執方、而不服藥。不捨文字、亦如楔在木中。愣伽経 云、『譬如以指指物、小児觀指不觀於物。』随言説指而生執着、乃至盡 命、終不能捨文字之指取弟一義。⁴⁶⁵」

      和上又問法師三寳四諦義、又問三身義。法師更不敢對、唯稱和上不 可思議。僕射聞説法已、倍加歓喜、「第子當日恐和上久在山門、畏祇對 相公不得、深憂直縁。三川師僧、無一人稱相公意者。相公一見和上、向 第子説、真實道者、天然特達、与諸僧玄殊、讃歎不可思議。第子聞相 公説、喜躍不勝。是第子有福、登時无憂。」諸軍将並喜慰、不可説、 頂礼去。

      Vice-Director [Cui] ⁴⁶⁶ learned that the Lord Minister had joyfully declared, “The Venerable is unfathomable.” He immediately went with his wife Ren⁴⁶⁷ and the military commissioners and army officers to make obeisances to the Venerable. When they had inquired...

    • SECTION 22 Dialogue with Chan Master Tiwu (T. 51. 190B16–190C18)
      (pp. 368-370)

      時有東京體无師、僧中俊哲。處處尋師。戒律威儀及諸法事、聡明多 辨⁴⁹⁰。亦稱禅師、是聖善寺弘政禅師第子。共晉原竇承、什邡李去泰、青 城蘇承、判官周洽等、尋問和上。直至禅堂、和上見来相然已各坐。

      體无問和上、「是誰第子、是誰宗旨?」答、「是佛宗旨、是佛第 子。」和上報、「闍梨削髪被衣、即是佛第子、何用問師宗旨?『依了義 経、不依不了義経。』有疑任問。」體无知和上是金和上第子、乃有毁 言、「希見劍南人⁴⁹¹不起心。禅師打人云不打、嗔人云不嗔。有施来受言 不受。體无深不解此事。」

      和上答、「脩行般若波羅密、不見報恩者、不見作恩者。已无所受、而 受諸受。未具佛法、亦不滅受。无住従初發心迄至于今、未曽受人⁴⁹²毛髪 施。」體元聞説、視諸官面云、「禅師言語大曷。」和上問體无、「闍梨 既口認禅師。云何起心打人、起心嗔人、起心受施?」體无自知失宗旨、 瞿然失色、量久不語。問和上、「解愣伽経否。」和上答云、「解是不 解。」

      諸官相黨語和上、「禅師但説、何用相詰?」和上報諸官人、「若説恐 諸官不信。」官人答言、「信。」和上即説、「我若具説、或有人聞、心 即狂乱、狐疑不信。」即引愣伽経云、「愚夫樂妄説、不聞真實恵。言説 三界本、真實滅苦因。言説即變異、真實離文字。於妄想心境、愚生二種 見。不識心及縁、即起二妄想。了心及境界、妄想即不生。」

      體无救義引法華経有三乗。和上引愣伽経云、「『彼愚癡人説有三乗、 不説唯心、无諸境界。』『心无覺智心⁴⁹³生動念即魔網。』」又引思益経 云、「云何一切法正、云何一切法邪?若以心分別、即一切法邪。若不以 心分別、一切法正。无心法中起心分別、普皆是邪。」

      At that time there was a Master Tiwu of the Eastern Capital (Luoyang), eminently sagacious among monks.⁴⁹⁴ He had sought out masters everywhere. [He was notable in] adherence to the precepts, imposing comportment, and all matters of the Dharma, and he was astute and eloquent. He was also designated a “Chan master,” and he was a disciple of Chan Master Hongzheng of Shengshan monastery [in Luoyang].⁴⁹⁵ Together with Dou Cheng of Jinyuan, Li Qutai of Shifang, Su...

    • SECTION 23 Dialogue with Chan Master Huiyi (T. 51. 190C18–22)
      (pp. 370-370)

      有恵憶禅師、時人号李山僧。問和上云、「以北禅師、云何入作?」和上 答、「禅師亦不南、亦不北、亦不入作、亦不出作。没得没失、不流不 注、不沈不浮、活鏺鏺。」恵憶聞已、合掌叩頭而坐。

      There was Chan master Huiyi, whom people in those days called “the monk of Plum Mountain.” ⁵⁰⁴ He asked the Venerable, “As for the Northern Chan masters, how do they go about ‘entering’?”

      The Venerable replied, “A Chan master is neither ‘Southern’ nor ‘Northern,’ he neither enters nor exits.⁵⁰⁵ One has neither gain nor loss; not flowing and not fixed, not sinking and not floating, lively like a fish jumping!”⁵⁰⁶ When Huiyi heard this, he joined his palms and knocked his head [on the ground], then sat down....

    • SECTION 24 Dialogue with Masters Yijing, Zhumo, and Tangwen (T. 51. 190C22–191A27)
      (pp. 370-373)

      有義浄師、處黙師、唐蘊師、並是恵明禅⁵⁰⁷師第子。来欲得共和上同住。 和上問、「闍梨解何経論?」唐蘊師答、「解百法論、曽為僧講。」和上 請説。唐蘊答、「内有五箇无為、外有五箇有為、惣攝一切法。」和上引 愣伽経云、「无智恆分別有為及无為。若諸脩行者、不應起分別。経経説 妄想、終不出於名。若離於言説、亦无有所説。」

      唐蘊語義浄師、「請闍梨更問。」義浄即問和上、「禅師作沒⁵⁰⁸生坐 禅?」和上答、「不生、只没禅。」義浄自不會、問處黙、「此義云⁵¹⁰何?」處黙亦不會。更令義浄師別問。和上知⁵⁰⁹不會、遂問義淨、「闍 梨解何経論?」答、「解菩薩戒、曽為僧講。」和上問、「戒已何為體、 以何為義?」其義浄无詞可對、便出穢言、「非我不解、直為試你。如似 你禅、我嫌不行。」處黙連聲、「我嫌你鈍不作、我嫌悶不行、我嬾嫌 ⁵¹¹不作、我慵嫌⁵¹²不人!」

      和上語諸僧、「『如如之理、具一切智。』『我无上大乗、超過於 名言。其義甚明了、愚夫不覺知。』无住与諸闍梨説一縁起。有聚落、 於晨朝時有一孩⁵¹³子啼叫聲。隣人聞就看、見母嗔打。隣人問、『何為 打之?』母云答、⁵¹⁴『為尿床。』隣人叱母、『此子幼稚、何為打之?』 又聞一啼哭聲。隣人就問、見一丈夫年登卅、其母以杖鞭之。隣人問、 『縁何鞭?』母答云、『尿床。』隣人聞説言、『老漢多應故尿、直須痛 打。』如此僧等類、『譬如象馬攏恨不調。加諸楚毒、至乃⁵¹⁵徹骨。』」

      和上再為説、「欲⁵¹⁶求寂滅樂、當學沙門法。『无心離意識、是即沙 門法。』諸闍梨削髪披衣、自言我是佛第子、不肯學沙門法。只⁵¹⁷言慵作 嬾⁵¹⁸作、嫌鈍不入。此非沙門釋子、是野干之類。佛有明文、 『未来世當有身着於袈裟、妄説於有无、毁壊我正法。』 『譬如以指指物、愚癡凡夫、觀指不觀於物。』随言説指 而生執着、乃至盡命、終不能捨文字之指。『随言而取義、建立於諸法、 以彼建立故、死堕地獄中。』」諸僧聞説、忙然失色辭去。

      There were Master Yijing, Master Zhumo, and Master Tangwen, who were all disciples of Chan master Huiming.519 They came wishing to stay with the Venerable. The Venerable asked, “Ācārya, what scriptures and treatises have you explicated?” Master Tangwen replied, “I have explicated the Baifa lun (Treatise on One Hundred Dharmas),520 I have lectured on it for the monks.” The Venerable invited him to expound on it. Tangwen replied, “Inside there are five [kinds of] asaṃskṛta...

    • SECTION 25 Dialogue with Master Jingzang (T. 51. 191A28–B17)
      (pp. 373-374)

      西京勝光寺浄蔵師、聞和上不可思議、遠投和上。和上⁵³²問、「云何⁵³³知 不可思議?」浄蔵師答、⁵³⁴「知金和上衣鉢傳授和上。」和上⁵³⁵問、「云 何以知之?」浄蔵答云、「僧俗咸言云、和上嫡嫡相傳授、得金和上法。 小師多幸有福得遇和上。」語已作礼。

      和上問、「先學何経論?」答云⁵³⁶「小師曾看維摩章疏、亦學坐禅是 太白宗旨。」和上即為説法、「无意是道、不觀是禅。不取亦不捨、境来 亦不縁。若看章疏、即是想念喧動。若學太白宗旨、宗旨坐禅、即是意想 攀縁。若欲得此間住、一生来所學者、盡不在心。」問浄蔵、「得否?」 答「得。和上慈悲指授、一取和上規模。」

      和上觀浄蔵堪為法器、即重再説法、「一物在心、不出三界。『有法是 俗帝、⁵³⁷无性第一義。』『離一切諸相、即名諸佛。』无念即无相、有念 即虚妄。无念出三界、有念在三界。无念即无是、无念即无非、无念即无 自、无念即无他。自他倶離、成佛菩提。正无念之時、无念不自。」

      浄蔵聞説、歓喜踊躍、即請和上改法号。名超蔵、不離左右扶持。

      Master Jingzang of Shengguang monastery in the Western Capital (Chang’an)⁵³⁸ heard that the Venerable was inconceivable and came from afar to submit himself to the Venerable. The Venerable asked, “How did you know that I am inconceivable?” Jingzang replied, “I knew that the Venerable Kim transmitted his robe and bowl to the Venerable.” The Venerable asked, “How did you know this?” Jingzang replied, “Monk and layman alike say that Venerable was invested with the transmission from legitimate heir to legitimate heir, and has got the Venerable...

    • SECTION 26 Dialogue with Master Zhiyi (T. 51. 191B18–C2)
      (pp. 374-375)

      隴州開元寺覺禅師弟子知一師、時人号質直僧。来投和上。和上⁵⁴³問、 「汝従何来?」知一師答、「従隴州来。」和上問、「是誰弟子?」知一 師答、「是覺和上弟子。」「覺和上是誰弟子?」「是老福和上弟子。」 和上云、「説汝自脩行地看。」知一師即呈本師教云、「看浄。」

      和上即為説法、「法无垢浄、云何看浄?此間淨由不立、因何有垢?看 浄⁵⁴⁴即是垢、看垢即是淨。妄想是垢、无妄想是浄。取我是垢、不取我是 浄。无念即无垢、无念即无浄。无念即无非。无念即无自、无念即无他。自他倶離、成佛菩提。正自之時、自亦不自。」

      知一師聞説、言下悟。於説法⁵⁴⁵處、更不再移。和上見知一師志性淳 厚、有忠孝心。便為改号名超然。不離左右、楽行作務。

      Master Zhiyi, disciple of Chan Master Jue of Kaiyuan monastery in Longzhou, was designated by his contemporaries as a monk of upstanding character.⁵⁴⁶ He came to submit himself to the Venerable. The Venerable asked, “Where did you come from?” Master Zhiyi replied, “I came from Longzhou.” The Venerable asked, “Whose disciple are you?” Master Zhiyi replied, “I am the disciple of Master Jue.” [The Venerable asked,] “Whose disciple is the Venerable Jue?” [Zhiyi replied,] “He is the disciple of the Venerable Old Fu.”⁵⁴⁷ The Venerable said, “Tell me about your own...

    • SECTION 27 Dialogue with Master Zhongxin (T. 51. 191C2–15)
      (pp. 375-376)

      登州忠信師、博覧詩書、釋性儒雅。捨諸事業、来投和上、「忠信是海隅 邊境、遠投和上。」語已作礼。和上答、「道无遠近、云何言遠?」忠信 啓和上、「生死事大、聞和上有大慈悲、故投和上。不縁衣食、伏願照 察。」和上問、「學士多足思慮、若能捨得、任住此間。」忠信答云、 「朝聞道夕死可矣。身命不惜、何但文字?」

      和上即為説法、「『尊者大覺尊、説生无念法。无念无生心、心常生 不減。』於一切時中自在、勿逐勿轉。不沈不浮、不流不注、不動不摇、 不来不去、活鏺鏺。『行坐惣是禅。』」忠信師聞説、儼然不動。和上見 己、即知悟解大乗。改名号超寂。山中常秘密、夜即作務。不使人知、明 即却来舊處。

      Master Zhongxin of Dengzhou⁵⁵¹ was widely read in the [Classics of] Poetry and Documents, and his Buddhist character was learned and refined. He abandoned all worldly affairs and came to submit himself to the Venerable, [saying]: “I am from a frontier region at the edge of the sea, I have come far to submit myself to the Venerable.” So saying, he made obeisance. The Venerable replied, “The Way has neither far nor near, why do you speak of ‘far’?” Zhongxin explained to the Venerable, “The matter of life and death...

    • SECTION 28 Dialogue with Dharma Master Falun (T. 51. 191C15–192A7)
      (pp. 376-377)

      有法輪法師。解捏槃章疏、⁵⁵⁶博學聡明。傍顧无人、自言弟一。故就山 門、共和上問難。遥見和上、神威奇特、与諸僧不同。法輪師向前作礼、 問訊起居和上。和上遥見、知是法師、即遣坐已。和上問、「法師解何経論?」答云、「解捏槃経。」和上問、「云何解捏槃経?」法師即引諸章 疏。

      和上説云、「非是捏槃経、此並是言説。『言説三界本、真實滅苦因。 言説即變異、真實離文字。』高貴得⁵⁵⁷王菩薩問、『世尊、云何名大般捏 槃?』佛言、『盡諸動念、思想心息。如是法相、名大捏槃。』云何將言 説妄想、已為捏槃?若如此説、即是不解。云何言解捏槃?」法輪聞説、 无詞敢對。

      和上云、「『有法是法⁵⁵⁸是俗帝、⁵⁵⁹无性弟一義。』言解即是繋、聡明 是魔施。无念即无繋、无念即无縛。无念是捏槃、有念是生死、无念是聡 明、有念是暗鈍。无念即无彼、无念即无此。无念即无佛、无念无衆生。 般若大悲智、无佛无衆生。『无有捏槃佛、亦无佛捏槃。』若明此解、是 真解者。若不如此解、是着相凡夫。」法輪師聞説、啓顙帰依、「小師傳 迷日久。今日得遇和上、暗眼再明。伏願和上慈悲攝授。」

      There was a Dharma Master Falun who explicated Nirvāṇa-sūtra commentaries and was extensively learned and brilliant.⁵⁶⁰ He took account of no one else and considered himself “number one.” So he went to [Wuzhu’s] temple to dispute with the Venerable. When he saw the Venerable from a distance, [he thought the Venerable] looked mysterious and unusual, unlike other monks. Master Falun approached and made obeisance, and inquired after the Venerable’s health. When the Venerable saw [Falun] from a distance he knew he was a Dharma master...

    • SECTION 29 Dialogue with the Brothers Yixing and Huiming (T. 51. 192A7–24)
      (pp. 378-379)

      綏州禅林寺僧是⁵⁶⁵兄第二人、並持法華経、時人号史法華。兄法名一 行師、⁵⁶⁶第名恵明師。来投和上。和上⁵⁶⁷問、「従何處来?先學何教 法?」恵明師云、「従綏州来。持法華経、日誦三遍。」和上問云、「安 樂行品、『一切諸法、空无所有、无有常住、亦无起減、是名智者親近 處。』」恵明等聞説、「小師迷没、只解依文誦習、未識義理。伏願和上 接引盲迷。」

      和上即為説法、「『諸法寂減相、不可以言宣示。』『法不可示、言 詞相寂減。』『離相減相、⁵⁶⁸常寂減相、終歸於空。』『常善人於空寂 行、』『恒沙佛蔵一念了。』若欲得住山中、更不得誦習。常閑[人+登][人+登]、⁵⁶⁹得否?」恵明等兄第知習誦是不究竟、故投和上。

      和上⁵⁷⁰即為再説、「无念即无生、无念即无死。无念即无遠、无念即 无近。无念即是史法華、有念即是法華史。无念即是転法華、有念即是 法華転。正无念之時、无念不自。」恵明等聞己、心意快然。便住山中、樂作佛。

      At the Chanlin monastery in Suizhou⁵⁷¹ there were two monks who were brothers who both maintained the Lotus Sūtra, such that people at that time called them chroniclers of the Lotus.⁵⁷² The elder brother’s Dharma name was Master Yixing, and the younger was named Master Huiming.⁵⁷³ They came to submit to the Venerable. The Venerable asked them, “Where do you come from? What teachings have you studied previously?” Master Huiming said, “We came from Suizhou. We maintain the Lotus Sūtra, every day we recite it three times.” The...

    • SECTION 30 Dialogue with Changjingjin and Liaojianxing (Female Disciples) (T. 51. 192A24–B18)
      (pp. 379-381)

      慶州慕容長史夫人并女、志求大乗。舉家大小並相随、来礼拜和上。和上 問夫人、「従何處来?」答、「第子遠聞和上有大慈悲、故来礼拜。」和 上即為説種種法要。其女聞説、合掌[足+胡]⁵⁸¹跪啓和上、「第子女人、三 障五難、不自在身。今故投和上、擬截生死源。伏願和上、指示法要。」 和上語云、「若能如此、即是大丈夫児、云何是女?」和上為説要法⁵⁸²、 「无念即无男、无念即无女。无念即无障、无念即无礙。无念即无生、无 念即无死。正无念之時、无念不自、即是截生死源。」女人聞説、目不瞬 動、立不移處。食頃間、和上知此女人有決定心。与法号常精進、母号 政⁵⁸³遍知。落髪脩行、尼僧中為道首。

      後引表妹姓韋、是蘇宰相女孫。聡明黯恵、博學多知、問无不答。来 礼拜和上、和上⁵⁸⁴ 見有剛骨志操、即為説法、「是法非因非縁、无非不 非、无是非是。『離一切相即一切法。』『法過眼耳鼻舌身心。法離一切 觀行。』无念即无行、无念即无觀。无念即无身、无念即无心。无念即无 貴、无念即无賤。无念即无高、无念即无下。正无念之時、无念不自。」

      女人聞説、合掌白和上、「第子女人、罪障深重、今聞法己、垢障消 除。」語已悲泣雨涙。便請法号、名了見性。得号已、自落髪披衣、尼師 中為首。

      The wife and daughter of Administrator Murong of Qingzhou were determined to seek the Mahāyāna.⁵⁸⁵ Accompanied by the entire family, young and old, they came to pay obeisance to the Venerable. The Venerable asked the wife, “Where did you come from?” She replied, “Your disciple heard from afar that the Venerable had great compassion, so we came to pay obeisance.”

      The Venerable then expounded various essentials of the Dharma for them. When the daughter had heard his talk, she knelt on one...

    • SECTION 31 Excerpts and Quotations, Part 1 (T. 51. 192B18–193A15)
      (pp. 381-385)

      「誰人報佛恩?依法脩行者。誰人銷供養?世事不牽者。誰人堪供養?於 法无所取者。」若能如此、自有天厨供養。

      和上向諸第子説、「攝己従他、万事俱和。攝他従己、万事不己。」

      又説偈、「一念毛輪觀自在。勿共同學諍道理。見鏡⁵⁹¹即是丈夫児、 不明即同畜生類。」「但脩自己行、莫見他邪正。口意不量他、三業自然 浄。欲見心佛國、普敬真如性。」「善男子、於恪⁵⁹²惜心盡、即道眼心 開、明如日。若有毛輪許惜心者、其道眼即被翳障。此是黒暗之大坑、无 可了了實知難出。」

      又説偈、「我今意况大好、行住坐臥倶了。看時无物可看、畢竟无言可 道。但得此中意况、高抵木枕到晓。」

      和上所引、諸経了義、无旨心地法門、並破言説。和上所説、説不可 説。今願同學、但依義脩行、莫着言説。若着言説、即自失脩行分。

      金剛経云、「若取法相、即着我人衆生。若取非法相、即着我人衆生。 是故不應取法、不應取非法。以是義故、如来常説、『汝等比丘、知我説 法、如筏喩者、法尚應捨、何况非法?』」

      法句経云、「説食之人、終不能飽。」

      佛頂経云、「阿難縦強記、不免落邪思。覺觀出思惟、身心不能及。暦 劫多聞、不如一日脩无漏法。」

      方廣経石、「一念乱禅定、如煞二千界、満中一切人。一念在定、如活 三千界、満中一切人。」

      維摩経云、「『心不住内、亦不在外、是為宴坐。若能如此者、佛即 印可。』『无以生滅心、説實相法。』『法過眼耳鼻舌身心、法離一切觀 行。法相如是、豈可説乎?』」是故文殊師利菩薩讃維摩詰无有言説、 「是真人不二法門。」

      和上説、「无念法、法本不自。」

      又云、「知見立知、即无明本。知見无見、思即捏槃、无漏真浄。」

      又破知病、「知行亦寂滅、是即菩提道。」

      又破智病、「智求於智不得智。『无智亦无得、已⁵⁹³无所得故、即菩提薩埵。』」

      又云、「圓満菩提、歸无所得。『无有少法可得、是名阿耨多羅三藐三 菩提。』」

      又破本病、「云何為本?一切衆生本来清浄、本来圓満。有本即有利、 為有利故、心有採集。識家得便、便即輪廻生死。本離離他、即无依止。 己他倶利、成佛菩提。佛无根境相、不見名見佛『於畢竟空中、熾然建立。』」

      又破浄病、涅槃病、自然病、覺病、觀病、禅病、法病、「若住此者、 即為有住是病。法不垢不淨、亦无捏槃佛、法離觀行。『超然露地坐、識 蔭般捏槃。』『遠離覺所覺。』『不人三昧、不住坐禅、心无得失。』」

      又破一病、「『一亦不為一、為一破諸数。』『一根既返源、八根成解 脱。』『制之一處、无事不辧。』『参羅及万像、一法之所印。』『一本 不起、三用無施。』『其心不計、是有力大觀。』汝等當離己衆他衆、己 即是自性、他即是妄念。妄念不生、即是自他倶離、成佛菩提。」

      “Who repays the Buddha’s kindness? One who practices according to the Dharma. Who consumes offerings? One who is not involved in worldly affairs. Who is worthy of offerings? In the Dharma there is nothing that is taken.” ⁵⁹⁴ If one is able to practice in this way, one naturally has offerings from Heaven’s kitchen.

      The Venerable explained to his disciples...

    • SECTION 32 Excerpts and Quotations, Part 2 (T. 51. 193A15–B2)
      (pp. 385-386)

      和上每説言「有縁千里通、无縁人對面不相識。但識法之時、即是見佛、 此諸経了義経。」

      和上坐下、尋常教戒諸學道者。恐着言説、時時引稲田中螃蠏問、衆人 不會。

      又引王梵志詩、「恵眼近空心、非開髑髏孔。對面説不識、饒你母姓董。」

      有数老人白和上、「第子盡有妻子男女眷属。罄捨投和上學道。」和 上云、「道无形段可脩、法无形段可證。只没閑不憶不念、一切時中惣是 道。」問老人、「得否?」老人黙然不對、為未會。和上又説偈、「婦是 没耳枷、男女蘭單杻。你是没價奴、至老不得走。」

      又有鈒南諸師僧欲往台山礼拜、辞和上。和上⁶²²問言、「大徳何去?」 僧答、「礼文殊師利。」和上云、「大徳、佛在身心、文殊不遠。妄念不 生、即是見佛。何勞遠去?」諸師僧欲去。和上又与説偈、「迷子浪波 波、巡山礼土坡。文殊只没在、背佛覓弥陀。」

      The Venerable always said, “If there is a karmic cause it will penetrate a thousand li; if there is no cause, then even people facing each other will not recognize one another. When one is only conscious of the Dharma, this in none other than ‘seeing the Buddha,’ this is all the scriptures of complete meaning.” ⁶²³

      When the Venerable took his seat, he usually taught the precepts to all those studying the Way. Fearing that they would get attached to verbal explanation, from time to time...

    • SECTION 33 Tea Gāthā (T. 51. 193B2–19)
      (pp. 386-387)

      和上呷茶次、是日幕府郎官侍御卅人礼拜訖、坐定問、「和上大愛茶?」 和上云、「是。」便説茶偈、「幽谷生霊草、堪為入道媒。樵人採其葉、 美味人流坯。静慮澄虚識、明心照會臺。不勞人氣力、真聳法門開。」

      諸郎官因此問、「和上縁何不教人讀経念佛礼拜?第子不解。」和上 云、「自證究竟捏槃、亦教他人如是。不将如来不了教。廻自己解、己悟 初學。佛印是人得真三昧者。」

      和上説訖、儼然不動。諸郎官侍御咸言歎、「未曽有也。」問、「和上 縁何不教事相法?」和上答、「『大乗妙理至理控⁶²⁶曠。有為衆生而不能 人。』経教旨衆生本性。見性即成佛道、着相即沉輪。」『心生即種種法 生、心減即種種法減。』轉経礼拜皆是起心。起心即心⁶²⁷是生死、不起即是 佛見。⁶²⁸」

      又問、「和上若依此教、人得否?」和上云、「得。起心即是塵勞、 動念即是魔網。『一切有為法、如夢幻泡影、如露亦如電。應作如是 觀。』」諸官聞説、疑網頓除。咸言為第子。

      Once when the Venerable was drinking tea, [a party of] thirty Directors and Censors of the Secretariat came to pay their respects, and when they had done this they took seats and asked, “Venerable, you really love tea, [don’t you]?” The Venerable said, “Yes.”⁶²⁹ Then he recited a tea-gāthā for them:

      The obscure valley produces the mysterious herb that serves as a medium for entering the Way.

      Wood-cutters gather its leaves, the delicious flavor flows into an earthen vessel.

      It tranquilizes worries and clarifies void consciousness,...

    • SECTION 34 Dialogue with Daoists (T. 51. 193B120–194A20)
      (pp. 388-391)

      又有道士数十人、山人亦有数十人、法師律師論師亦有廿人、皆是劍南領 袖。和上問道士云、「『道可道非常道、名可名非常名。』豈不是老君所 説?」道士云、「是。」和上云、「尊師解此義否?」道士黙然无對。

      和上又問、「『為學日益、為道日損。損之又損之、已⁶³⁵至於无為。无 為无不為。』」

      又問、「荘子云、『生生者不生、煞生者不死。』」道士盡不敢對。 和上云、「時今道士、无有一人學老君者、只學謗佛。」道士聞已、失色 合掌。

      和上又問諸山人、「夫子説昼否?」山人答云、「説。」又問、「夫 子説仁義礼智信否?」答言、「説。」又問、「為如何?」山人並不言。 和上即為説云、「垦言『无思也无為也、寂然不動、感而遂通。』此義如 何?」山人不敢對。和上更説云、「叠『不變不易』是衆生本性。『无思 也无為也、寂然不動』是衆生本性。若不變不易、不思不想、即是行仁義 礼智信。如今學士不見本性、不識主客。強識前塵、已為學問、大錯。夫 子説无思无為、大分明。」

      山人問、「和上、『感而遂通』義如何?」和上答云、「『梵天不求、 梵天自至。』果報不求、果報自至。煩悩已盡、習氣亦除、梵釋龍神、咸 皆供敬。是故如来入城乞食、一切草木皆悉頭低、一切山河皆傾向佛。何 况衆生?此是『感而遂通』也。」山人一時礼和上、並願為第子。

      和上又問道士云、「『上得⁶³⁶不失得、是以有得。下得不失得、是以无 得。』此義如何?」道士云、「請和上為説。」和上説云、「上得之人无 所得心。為无所得、即是菩提薩埵。无有少法可得、是名阿耨多羅三⁶³⁷藐 三菩提。即是上得之義。『下得不失得、是以无得。』下得之人為有所 求。若有所求、即有煩悩。煩悩⁶³⁸之心、即是失得。此是失得之義也。」

      又云、「『為學日益、為道日損。』若有學心、惟憎塵勞生死、此 是不益也。『為道日損、損之又損之。已⁶³⁹至於无為、无為⁶⁴⁰不為。」 『道』即本性。至道絶言、妄念不生、即是『損之』。観見心王時、一切 皆捨離、即是『又損之』。『以至於无為。』性空寂滅時、是法是時見。 『无為无不為』、即是不住无為。脩行无起、不已⁶⁴¹无起為證。脩行於 空、不以空為證、即是『无不為』義也。又荘子云、『生生者不生。』妄 念不起、即是『不生』。『煞生者不死。』『不死』義者、即是无生。」

      又云、「『道可道非常道』、即是衆生本性。言説不及、即『非常 道』。『名可名非常名』、亦是衆生本性。但有言説、都无實義、但名但 字。法不可説、即『非常名』也。」⁶⁴²

      道士聞説已、合掌問、「和上若如此説、即佛道无二。」和上言、 「不然。荘子、老子、盡説无為无相、説一説浄、説自然。佛即不如此、 説因縁自然倶為戲論。『一切賢聖皆以无為法、而有差別。』佛即不住无 為、不住无相。以住於无相、不見於大乗。二乗人三昧酒酔、凡夫人无明 酒酔。聲聞人住盡智、縁覺⁶⁴³浄智。如來之智恵、生起无窮盡。荘、老、 夫子説、与共聲聞等。佛⁶⁴⁴呵聲聞人、『如盲如聾』。『預流、一来果、 不還、阿羅漢果⁶⁴⁵、是等諸聖人、其心悉迷惑。』佛即不堕衆数、超過一 切。法无垢浄、法无形相、法无動乱、法无處所、法无取捨。是以超過孔 丘、荘子、老子⁶⁴⁶。『佛常在世間、而不染世法。不分別世故⁶⁴⁷、吣敬礼无 所観。』孔老所説、多有所着。盡是聲聞二乗境界。」道士作礼、盡為第 子。黙然信受聴法。

      Another time [Wuzhu was visited by] scores of Daoist priests and scores of recluses,⁶⁴⁸ and also twenty Dharma masters, Vinaya masters, and Treatise masters. They were all “collars and sleeves” (leading figures) in Jiannan. The Venerable asked the Daoists, “ ‘The Way that can be spoken/trodden is not the constant Way, the names that can...

    • SECTION 35 Dialogue with Dharma Masters (T. 51. 194A20–194B1)
      (pp. 392-392)

      又問諸法師、「云何是佛寳、云何是法寳、云何是僧寳?」法師黙然不 語。和上説云、「知法即是佛寳、離相即是法寳、无為即是僧寳。」

      又問法師、「法无言説、云何説法?『夫説法者、无説无示。其聴法 者、无聞无得。』『无法可説、是名説法。』『常知如来不説法者、是具 足多聞。』法師云何説法?」法師答曰、「般若有三種。一文字般若、二 實相般若、三觀照般若。」和上答云、「『一切諸文字、无實无所依。倶 同一寂減、本来无所動。』『我法无實无虚。』『法離一切觀行。』」諸 法師互相視面、无詞可言。

      He also asked the Dharma masters, “What is the Buddha-Jewel, what is the Dharma-Jewel, what is the Saṅgha-Jewel?” The Dharma masters were silent and did not speak. The Venerable explained, “Knowing the Dharma is precisely the Buddha-Jewel, transcending characteristics is precisely the Dharma-Jewel, and nondoing is precisely the Saṅgha-Jewel.” ⁶⁶⁹

      He also asked the Dharma masters, “The Dharma is without verbal explanation, how does one explain the Dharma? ‘One who explains the Dharma does so without explaining and without manifestation. Those who listen to the Dharma do so without hearing and without...

    • SECTION 36 Dialogue with Vinaya Masters (T. 51. 194B1–194C15)
      (pp. 392-395)

      和上問律師、「云何是戒律?云何是決定毗尼、云何是究竟毗尼?戒以何 為體、律以何為義?」律師盡不敢答。和上問律師、「識主客否?」律師 云、「請和上為説主客義。」

      和上答、「来去是客、不来去是主。想念不生、即没主客、即是見性。『千思万慮』不益道理、徒為動乱、失本心王。若无思慮、即无生滅。律 是調伏之義、戒非青黄赤白。非色非心、是戒體。戒是衆生本性、本来圓 満、本来清淨。妄念生時、即『背覺合塵』、即是犯戒律。妄念不生、即 背塵合覺、即是戒律満足。念不生時、即是究竟毗尼。念不生時、即是决 定毗尼。念不生時、即是破壊一切心識。『若見持戒、即破戒。戒非戒二 見一相。能知此者、即是大道師。』『見犯重罪比丘、不人地獄、見清浄 行者、不入捏槃。若住如是是見⁶⁷⁷平等見。』」

      「今時律師説觸説浄、説持説犯。作相授戒、作相威儀、及以飯食皆作 相。『假使作相、即与外道五通等。若无作相、即是无為。不應有見。』 妄想是垢、无妄想是浄。取我是垢、不取我是浄。顛倒是垢、不顛倒是 浄。持犯但束身、非身无所束。非无⁶⁷⁸遍一切、云何獲圓通?『若説諸持 戒、无善无威儀。戒性如虚空、持者為迷倒。』『心生即種種法生、心滅 即種種法滅。』『如其心然、罪垢亦然、諸法亦然。』今時律師只為名聞 利養。如猫伺鼠、細歩徐行、見是見非、自称戒行。此並是滅佛法、非 沙門行。愣伽経云、『未来世當有身着於袈裟、妄説於有无、毁壊我正 法。』未来世、於法我⁶⁷⁹中、而為出家、妄説毗尼、壊乱正法。寧毁尸 羅、不毁正見。尸羅生天、増諸結縛、正見得捏槃。」律師聞説、惶悚失 色、戰悚不安。

      和上重説、「『離相滅相、常寂滅相、終歸於空。』『常善入於空寂 行。』『恒沙佛蔵、一念了。』佛只許五歳學戒律。五歳己、捨小乗師、 訪大乗師、學无人我法。若不如此、佛甚呵責。」律師聞已、疑網頓除、 白和上、「小師傳迷日久、戒律盡捨、伏願慈悲攝受。」一時作礼、雨涙 而泣。

      和上云、「不憶不念、一切法並不憶、佛法亦不憶、世間法亦不憶、只 没閑。」問、「得否?」律師咸言、「得。」和上云、「實若得時、即是 真律師、即是見性。正見之時、見猶離見。見不能及、即是見佛。正見之 時、見亦不自。」和上更為再説、「起心即是塵勞、動念即是魔網。只没 閑、不沉不浮、不流不轉、活鏺鏺。一切時中、惣是禅。」律師聞已、踴 躍歎喜、黙然坐聴。

      The Venerable asked the Vinaya masters, “What are the Vinaya precepts? What is Vinayaviniścaya and what is Vinayottara? ⁶⁸⁰ What is the substance of the precepts, and what is the meaning of the Vinaya?” None of the Vinaya masters dared answer. The Venerable asked the Vinaya masters, “Do you recognize host and guest or not?”⁶⁸¹ The Vinaya masters said, “We request the Venerable to explain the meaning of...

    • SECTION 37 Dialogue with Treatise Masters (T. 51. 194C16–195A2)
      (pp. 395-397)

      和上問諸法師論師、「作何學問?」論師答、「解百法。」和上説、「解 一百法是一百箇計、惣不解是无計。无計即无念。无念即无受、无念即无 自、无念即无他。為衆生有念、假説无念。正无念時、无念不自。」

      又問論師、「更解何経論?」答、「解起信論。」和上説云、「起即不 信、信即不起。」又問論師、⁶⁹⁹「以何為宗。」論師不語。

      和上云、「論以摧邪顕正為宗。論云、『離言説相、離名字相、離心縁 相。』『離念相者等虚空、遍法界无所不遍。』如今論師只解口談藥方。 不識主客、以流注生減心解経論、大錯。論云、『離言説』即着言説、 『離名字』即着名字。只解渾喫[食+追]子、不知棗素。愣伽経云、『乃至 有心轉、是即為戲論。不起分別者、是人見自心。』『以无心无⁷⁰⁰意无受 行、而悉摧伏諸外道。』『達諸法相无堊礙、⁷⁰¹稽首如空无所依。』」論 師聞説、合掌作礼。

      The Venerable asked the Dharma masters and Treatise masters, “What branch of study do you pursue?” The Treatise masters replied, “We explicate the Baifa [lun].”⁷⁰² The Venerable expounded, “Explicating the one hundred Dharmas is one hundred separate calculations,⁷⁰³ and not explicating at all is no-calculation. No-calculation is thus no-thought. Nothought is thus no-receiving, no-thought is thus no-self, no-thought is thus no-other. It is because beings have thought that one provisionally teaches no-thought, but at the time of true no-thought, no-thought itself is not.” ⁷⁰⁴

      He further questioned the...

    • SECTION 38 Trading Quotations with Masters Daoyou, Mingfa, and Guanlu (T. 51. 195A2–12)
      (pp. 397-397)

      又有道幽師、旻法師、冠⁷¹²律師。法名嗣遠⁷¹³。問和上、「禅師経云、⁷¹⁴『貪着禅味、是菩薩縛。』」

      和上答、「諸法師取相着相、是衆生繋。」

      「又経云、『鈍根浅智人、着相僑慢者、如斯之等類、云何而可度? 』」

      和上言、「経云、『離相滅相、常寂滅相。』律師法師、惣違佛教。着 相取相、妄認前塵、以為學問。如犬逐塊、塊即増多。无住即不如此。如 師子放塊尋人、塊即自息。想念喧動、壊其善根。悟性安禅、即无漏智。 『若於外相求、縦経塵劫、終不能得。』於内覺觀、刹那頃便成阿耨多羅二親二菩提。」

      There were also Master Daoyou, Master Mingfa, and Master Guanlu. (Their Dharma names were long passed down.)⁷¹⁵ They asked the Venerable [to explain], “The Chanshi jing says, ‘Attachment to the taste of meditation is the bondage of the bodhisattva.’ ” ⁷¹⁶

      The Venerable replied, “That Dharma Masters grasp after characteristics and are attached to characteristics is the bondage of the many beings.”

      [The masters went on,] “Another scripture says, ‘People of dull roots and shallow wisdom, those arrogant ones attached to characteristics; regarding this type, how can one say that they can...

    • SECTION 39 Taking on Chan Disciples While Drinking Tea (T. 51. 195A12–29)
      (pp. 398-399)

      又時有廣慶師、悟幽師、道宴師、大智師。已上並是堅成禅師第子。来至 和上⁷²³坐下。是時和上呷茶次。悟幽師向和上説、「呷茶三五椀合眼坐。 恰似壮士把一痩人腰、着急[日+空][日+空]地大好。」和上語悟幽師、「莫 説閑言語、永淳年不喫泥[食+專]飩。」悟幽聞語失色。和上云、「阿師今 将世間生減心測度禅、大癡愚。此是『龍象蹴蹋、非驢所堪。』」

      和上語悟幽師、「无住為説一箇話。有一人高[土+追]阜上立。有数人 同伴路行、遥見高處有人立。⁷²⁴遞⁷²⁵相語言、『此人必失畜生。』有一 人云、『失伴。』有一人云、『採風涼。』三人共爭不定、来至高處問[土+追]上人、『失畜生否?』答云、『不失。』又問、『失伴否?』亦不 失伴。又問、『採風涼否?』亦不採風涼。『既惣无、縁何高立 [土+追] 上?』答、『我只没立。』」和上語悟幽師、⁷²⁶ 「无住禅、不沉不浮、 不流不注、而實有用。用无生寂、用无垢淨、用无是非。活鏺鏺、一切時 中、惣是禅。」

      Another time there were Master Guangjing, Master Wuyou, Master Daoyan, and Master Dazhi. All of the above were disciples of Chan master Jiancheng.⁷²⁷ They came to the Venerable and sat down. The Venerable was drinking tea at the time. Master Wuyou said to the Venerable, “Drinking three or five cups of tea and sitting with eyes closed. . . . Just like a strong fellow grabbing an emaciated man by the waist, it seems rather affected and pretentious.” The Venerable told Master Wuyou, “Don’t indulge in...

    • SECTION 40 Dialogue with Master Xiongjun (T. 51. 195A29–B3)
      (pp. 399-399)

      有雄俊法師、問「和上、禅師入定否?」和上云、「定无出入。」問、 「禅師人三昧否?」答云、「『不人三昧、不住坐禅、心无得失。』一切 時中惣是禅。」

      There was Dharma Master Xiongjun,⁷³³ who asked, “Venerable, does a Chan master enter meditation?” The Venerable said, “In meditation there is neither exiting nor entering” [Master Xiongjun] asked, “Does a Chan master enter samādhi?” [The Venerable] replied, “ ‘Not entering samādhi, not abiding in seated meditation, the mind is without gain or loss.’ ⁷³⁴ At all times, everything is meditation.” ⁷³⁵...

    • SECTION 41 Dialogue with Master Fayuan, Accompanied by His Mother (T. 51. 195B3–22)
      (pp. 399-400)

      又有隴右法縁師、俗姓魯。⁷³⁶遠聞和上⁷³⁷、将母相随、至白崖山、礼拜和 上。和上⁷³⁸問、「講説何経論?」答云、「講金剛般若波羅蜜経。」和上 問、「用誰疏論?」答云、「用天親、无着論、暉、壇、達等師疏。」和 上問、「経云、『一切諸佛、及諸佛阿耨多羅三藐三菩提法、皆従⁷³⁹此経 出。』云何是此経?黄蘗是此経、紙是此経、墨是此経?」法縁師答云、 「實相般若、觀照般若、文字般若。」

      和上語法縁師、「一切諸文字无實无所依。倶同一寂滅、本来无所動。 法離一切觀行。経云、『我法无實无虚。』『若言如来有所説法⁷⁴⁰、即 為謗佛。』」法師答云、「法縁依章疏説。」和上語法縁師、「天親、无 著、暉、壇等疏、何如佛説?」法縁師答、「不如。」和上云、「既不 如、縁何不依佛教?経云、『離一切諸相、即名諸佛。』『若以色見我、 以音聲求我、是人行邪道、不能見如来。』此経者即是此心。見性成佛 道。无念即見性、无念无煩悩。无念即无自、无念即无他。无念即无佛、 无念无衆生。正无念之時、无念不自。」

      法師聞已、合掌白和上、「法縁多幸得遇和上。法縁老親伏願慈悲攝 授。」便住山中、不離左右。

      There was also Master Fayuan of Longyou,⁷⁴¹ whose secular surname was Lü. From afar he heard of the Venerable and, bringing his mother along with him, he arrived at the Baiyai mountains and made obeisance to the Venerable.⁷⁴² The Venerable asked, “On which scriptures and treatises do you lecture?” He replied, “I lecture on the Jingangbanruopoluomi jing (Vajracchedikā-sūtra).” The Venerable asked, “Whose commentaries and treatises do you use?’ He replied, “I use the treatises by Vasubandhu and Asaṅga, and the commentaries of Masters Hui...

    • SECTION 42 Discourse to Lay Donors (T. 51. 195B23–C13)
      (pp. 401-402)

      「般若波羅蜜、不見報恩者、不見作恩者。无住行无縁慈、行无願慈、行 不熱慈、行无恩⁷⁵⁴慈。亦不彼亦不此、不行上中下法、不行有為无為、 實不實法。不為益不為損、无大福无小福。以无所授、而授諸授。未具佛 法、亦不減授。『若欲懺悔者、端坐觀實相。』无念即實相、有念即虚 妄。懺悔呪願、皆是虚妄。」

      和上又説、「『誰人報佛恩?依法脩行者。誰人堪授供養⁷⁵⁵?世事不 牽者。誰人消供養?於法无取者。』无念即无取、无念即无捨⁷⁵⁶无念 即无垢、无念即无浄。无念即无繋、无念即无縛。无念即无自、无念即无 他。正无念之時、无念不自。无念即是般若波羅蜜。『般若波羅蜜者、是 大神呪、是大明呪、是无上呪、是无等等呪。能除一切苦、真實不虚。」 何其壇越、拔妄見之源、悟无生之體?卷重雲而朗恵日、業障頓袪。廓妄 想以空心、寂然不動。真如之義、非理非事、无生无減、不動不寂。二諦 雙照、即真見佛。壇越但依此法、无慢斯須、雖開塞阻遥、即常相見无異 也。儻違此義、流注根塵、思慮競生、貪染過度。縦常對面、楚越難以 喩焉。

      [The Venerable said,] “In the Prajñāpāramitā, one does not see the one who repays the kindness nor does one see the one who does the kindness. I, Wuzhu, practice unconditioned compassion, practice desireless compassion, practice not-grasping compassion, and practice causeless compassion. It is neither that nor this, I do not practice upper, middle, and lower Dharma, do not practice ‘conditioned and unconditioned’ or ‘real and unreal’ Dharma. It is not for the sake of increase and not for the sake of decrease, there is no...

    • SECTION 43 Portrait-Eulogy and Final Scene (T. 51. 195C15–196B6)
      (pp. 402-406)

      大暦保唐寺和上傳

      頓悟大乗禅門門人写真讃文并序。⁷⁶³

      山人孫寰述曰、「『道也无名』、悟道者方知得本。法也无相、識 法者乃達其源。得本即道、知道體妙有无生。識法即源、見法性圓明自 他⁷⁶⁴在。在无所在、在非彼此之方。生无所生、生非有无之際。

      故釋迦文佛説十二部之分法、惣了於心、即説无所説。我和上指八万門 之塵積、直教見性、乃至⁷⁶⁵无所指。矧知法離言説法、非言説不明。法離 見聞、法非見聞不顕。『因言顕義、得義亡言。』是知⁷⁶⁶順言説者、言顕 而法亡、返見聞者、言亡而法顕。无言无我、无我无為。无為之體如如、 如如之理不一、不一不自、宴曰菩提。『勝浄明心、周於法界。』

      即我和上處其門傳其法。示无念之義、不動不寂。説頓悟之門、无憶无 念。每謂門人曰、『法即如是、非言説所及。吾祖師達摩多羅傳此法要、 嫡嫡相授。是諸佛之秘門、是般若波羅蜜。亦名第一義、亦名不二門、亦 名見性、亦名真如、亦名捏槃、亦名禅門。如是之名是過去諸如来之假 説、真實之義无有名字。』

      時門人得教如説脩行而味之。共相歎曰、『蕩蕩乎、如覩太虚之寥廓、 无⁷⁶⁷无纖无埃。洋洋乎、若視滄溟之浩[水+羔]、⁷⁶⁸无際无涯。深知道言不 及、微妙无名。感荷大師愍我迷愚、示我正法、不由階漸、真至菩提。若 遇諸學、我須轉示、不有師相、曷以顕諸?』

      遂嘿召良工、繪事真跡。容光煥然、相好成就。覩貌者可以摧邪、依法 者可以至妙。更深處而末測。稽首瞻仰、強為讃云、

      『最上乗法、无理非事。善説多門、皆歸不二。迦葉得之、西弘於佛 域。達摩授之、東流於漢地。事即千有餘載、聖乃卅有四、嫡嫡相承、代 代相次。得法契於道源、傳衣表於真偽。吾師密授、堂堂顕示、豁諸佛之 密秘門、啓大乗之了義。不順有為、不依无記、離性離相、不愚不智、義 非有无、有无非義。逆凡夫心、越賢聖意、行過三乗、頓超十地。非因非 果、无他无自。『用无生寂、』影體倶離。見无明暗、无念即是。

      遂召良工、潛為繪事。挫毫生相、覩巍巍之應身、離相窮言、見汪汪之 法器。得猶天錫、骨与世異。嘿妙良哉!宛得真氣、貌惶惶而欲言、目瞬 瞬而将視。「仰之弥高、瞻之弥貴。」不有吾師、此法将堕。』」

      大暦九年六月三日、告諸門徒、「与吾取新浄衣、吾欲沐浴。」沐浴訖 着衣、問第子、「齋時到未?」答、「到。」約束諸門徒第子、「若是孝 順之子、不得違吾言教。吾當大行。吾去後不得頻眉、不得同世間不脩行 人。哭泣着服及頻眉者、即不是吾第子。哭泣即是世間法、佛法即不然。 離一切諸相、即是見佛。」

      語已奄然坐化。大師春秋六十有一。

      暦代法寳記一卷

      The mountain man Sun Huan states: “ ‘The Dao is nameless,’ ⁷⁶⁹ those who awaken to the Dao only then know they have attained the origin. ‘The Dharma is without characteristics,’⁷⁷⁰ those who recognize the Dharma then penetrate its source. Attaining the origin is thus the Dao, and one knows that the substance of the Dao is wondrous being⁷⁷¹ and birthlessness. Recognizing the...

  6. Notes
    (pp. 407-510)
  7. Appendix
    (pp. 511-520)
  8. Abbreviations
    (pp. 521-522)
  9. Bibliography
    (pp. 523-556)
  10. Index
    (pp. 557-578)