The Columbia Documentary History of Race and Ethnicity in America

The Columbia Documentary History of Race and Ethnicity in America

Edited by RONALD H . BAYOR
Copyright Date: 2004
Pages: 1104
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7312/bayo11994
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    The Columbia Documentary History of Race and Ethnicity in America
    Book Description:

    All historians would agree that America is a nation of nations. But what does that mean in terms of the issues that have moved and shaped us as a people? Contemporary concerns such as bilingualism, incorporation/assimilation, dual identity, ethnic politics, quotas and affirmative action, residential segregation, and the volume of immigration resonate with a past that has confronted variations of these modern issues. The Columbia Documentary History of Race and Ethnicity in America, written and compiled by a highly respected team of American historians under the editorship of Ronald Bayor, illuminates the myriad ways in which immigration, racial, and ethnic histories have shaped the contours of contemporary American society.

    This invaluable resource documents all eras of the American past, including black--white interactions and the broad spectrum of American attitudes and reactions concerning Native Americans, Irish Catholics, Mexican Americans, Jewish Americans, and other groups. Each of the eight chronological chapters contains a survey essay, an annotated bibliography, and 20 to 30 related public and private primary source documents, including manifestos, speeches, court cases, letters, memoirs, and much more. From the 1655 petition of Jewish merchants regarding the admission of Jews to the New Netherlands colony to an interview with a Chinese American worker regarding a 1938 strike in San Francisco, documents are drawn from a variety of sources and allow students and others direct access to our past.

    Selections include

    • Powhatan to John Smith, 1609

    • Thomas Jefferson -- "Notes on the State of Virginia"

    • Petition of the Trustees of Congregation Shearith Israel, 1811

    Bessie Conway or, The Irish Girl in America

    • German Society in Chicago, Annual Report, 1857--1858.

    • "Mark Twain's Salutation to the Century"

    • W. E. B. DuBois, "Of Our Spiritual Strivings"

    • NAACP on Black Schoolteachers'Fight for Equal Pay

    • Malcom X speech, 1964

    • Hewy Newton interview and Black Panther Party platform

    • Preamble -- La Raza Unida Party

    • Lee lacocca speech to Ethnic Heritage Council of the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    • Native American Graves and Repatriation Act, 1990

    • L.A. riot -- from the Los Angeles Times, May 3, 15, 1992; Nov. 16, 19, 1992

    • Asian American Political Alliance

    • President Clinton's Commission on Race, Town Meeting, 1997

    • Louis Farrakhan -- "The Vision for the Million Man March"

    eISBN: 978-0-231-50840-7
    Subjects: History, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-xvi)
  3. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. xvii-xxii)

    “I thought to write a history of the immigrants in America. Then I discovered that the immigrants were American history.” Historian Oscar Handlin’s words convey some of the inspiration behind this book. To understand the development and complexity of contemporary American society, it is important to know the history of immigration, race, and ethnicity. Voluntary and involuntary immigrants; different races, religions, and linguistic groups; conflicting nationalities; the development of a sense of ethnicity; initial interaction with Native Americans; the emergence of a dominant culture all shaped an American identity and society.

    This book, then, seeks to explore that shaping, to...

  4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. xxiii-xxvi)
  5. CHAPTER 1 ETHNICITY IN SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLISH AMERICA, 1600–1700
    (pp. 1-88)
    CAROL BERKIN

    The English colonies of the seventeenth century were notable for their diversity of population, religious institutions, and government structures, a diversity arising in large part from the variety of purposes and methods that spurred their creation. Unlike the Spanish and French governments, the English Crown steadfastly refused to finance colonization, relying instead on private citizens to take the risks involved in establishing outposts in the Americas. The Crown was willing to grant charters to companies and bestow huge tracts of land on favorites in the Court, but it was not willing to deplete the royal treasury or provide military support...

  6. CHAPTER 2 ETHNICITY IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY NORTH AMERICA, 1701–1788
    (pp. 89-150)
    GRAHAM RUSSELL HODGES

    Ethnicity was a defining characteristic for early Americans. Among a plethora of New World societies where, except for Native Americans, few individuals could trace their residence back more than three generations, a person’s language, personal habits, and customs often derived directly from roots in old-world cultures. Continuing waves of voluntary and coerced immigration from Europe and Africa between 1700 and 1788, along with religious revivals and celebration of secularized rituals, refreshed old-world cultures among colonial Americans. Two historical views have shaped discussion of ethnicity in early America. One side holds firmly that eighteenth-century Americans soon became acculturated or “Anglicized” into...

  7. CHAPTER 3 THE LIMITS OF EQUALITY: RACIAL AND ETHNIC TENSIONS IN THE NEW REPUBLIC, 1789–1836
    (pp. 151-222)
    MARION R. CASEY

    In the wake of the ratification of the Constitution, the United States ventured forth into a democratic experience without any road map and with a wary eye on the French version evolving across the Atlantic. By the time Andrew Jackson’s presidency was coming to a close, the republican ideal of equality for all had been put to the test on several fronts. Four overlapping spheres—broadly labeled citizenship, religion, language, and segregation—dominated political and social intercourse during this half-century. An increasingly multiethnic, multiracial population pushed at their interstices, forcing Anglo-Americans to attemt reconciliation between policy and practice.

    The constitution...

  8. CHAPTER 4 RACIAL AND ETHNIC IDENTITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 1837–1877
    (pp. 223-308)
    MICHAEL MILLER TOPP

    In recent years the specter of identity politics—of people identifying themselves and organizing themselves around their ethnicity or race, for example—has created enormous concerns in American society. Critics, from Michael Kazin and Todd Gitlin on the Left to Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., and Lynne Cheney on the Right, have raised alarms across the political spectrum about the dangers of splintering American reform efforts or American society as a whole. In an age when accusations of reverse discrimination, ethnic and racial separatism, and even Balkanization and tribalism are ubiquitous, we would do well to remember that identity politics—that racial...

  9. CHAPTER 5 RACE, NATION, AND CITIZENSHIP IN LATE NINETEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA, 1878–1900
    (pp. 309-412)
    MAE M. NGAI

    In the summer of 1893 the World’s Columbian Exposition was held in Chicago, celebrating the four hundredth anniversary of Columbus’s arrival in the New World. It was a huge exposition, with gleaming neoclassical buildings that housed triumphant displays of American science, industry, and commerce as well as exhibits from other nations of the world. More than 27.5 million Americans visited the fair. Dubbed the “White City,” it was projected as a utopian dream that marked America’s progress since 1492 and called the nation to its future.

    Myriad symbols and practices of racial exclusion and hierarchy pervaded the ideas of nation...

  10. CHAPTER 6 THE CRITICAL PERIOD: ETHNIC EMERGENCE AND REACTION, 1901–1929
    (pp. 413-598)
    ANDREW R. HEINZE

    The presidency of Theodore Roosevelt and the collapse of Wall Street form the most conventional endpoints of the 1901–1929 period. But we may also think of the era in terms of Louis Armstrong and Al Smith. Born in 1901 into a poor African American family in New Orleans, Armstrong emerged in the 1920s as America’s most influential musician. Smith hailed from a poor family in New York City, and in 1928 he became the first man of Irish Catholic descent to run for the presidency on the ticket of a major party. Armstrong and Smith symbolized a new era...

  11. CHAPTER 7 CHANGING RACIAL MEANINGS: RACE AND ETHNICITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 1930–1964
    (pp. 599-666)
    THOMAS A. GUGLIELMO and EARL LEWIS

    In the early 1940s, as Nazi theories on Jewish inferiority received greater attention and censure worldwide, a small controversy was fast developing around the U.S. government’s own racial categorization of Jews. It became clear at this time that some immigration officers were instructing Jews wishing to naturalize to fill in “Hebrew”—and not “white,” as some applicants wished—in response to the race question on naturalization forms. Such directives rankled some members of American Jewish organizations like the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith and individuals like Arthur Hays Sulzberger, publisher of the New York Times. Formal letters of protest to...

  12. CHAPTER 8 RACIAL AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN AMERICA, 1965–2000
    (pp. 667-948)
    TIMOTHY J. MEAGHER

    On March 21, 1965, Martin Luther King, Jr. led a march across the Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, on the road to Montgomery, the state’s capitol. The march capped a brutal battle between police and black protesters, including a vicious assault on marchers on this very bridge by local and state police just weeks before. As with other demonstrations of the era, most notably in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, the whole world was watching this confrontation on television. Black protesters may thus have been bloodied, but ultimately, they, not the police, the city of Selma, the city of Selma, nor...

  13. CONCLUSION
    (pp. 949-954)

    All historians would agree that America is a nation of nations. But what does that mean in terms of the issues that have moved and shaped us as a people? Contemporary concerns such as bilingualism, incorporation/assimilation, dual identity, ethnic politics, quotas and affirmative action, residential segregation, and the level of immigration itself resonate with a past that dealt with variations of these modern factors. American history is particularly complex because it is not the history of just one people but of many—some who strived to become one people and some who resisted. And as this book indicates, there was...

  14. CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. 955-958)
  15. INDEX
    (pp. 959-992)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 993-996)