Sources of Japanese Tradition, Abridged

Sources of Japanese Tradition, Abridged: Part 2: 1868 to 2000

Wm. Theodore de Bary
Carol Gluck
Arthur E. Tiedemann
Andrew Barshay
Albert Craig
Brett de Bary
Peter Duus
Andrew Gordon
Helen Hardacre
James Huffman
Marius Jansen
Donald Keene
Marlene Mayo
Fred G. Notehelfer
Richard Rubinger
Yŏngho Ch’ŏe
Van Gessel
Ann Stinson
Aida Yuen Wong
Copyright Date: 2006
Edition: 2
Pages: 672
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Sources of Japanese Tradition, Abridged
    Book Description:

    For almost fifty years, Sources of Japanese Tradition has been the single most valuable collection of English-language readings on Japan. Unrivalled in its wide selection of source materials on history, society, politics, education, philosophy, and religion, the two-volume textbook is a crucial resource for students, scholars, and readers seeking an introduction to Japanese civilization.

    Originally published in a single hardcover book, Volume 2 is now available as an abridged, two-part paperback. Part 1 covers the Tokugawa period to 1868, including texts that address the spread of neo-Confucianism and Buddhism and the initial encounters of Japan and the West. Part 2 begins with the Meiji period and ends at the new millennium, shedding light on such major movements as the Enlightenment, constitutionalism, nationalism, socialism, and feminism, and the impact of the postwar occupation. Commentary by major scholars and comprehensive bibliographies and indexes are included.

    Together, these readings map out the development of modern Japanese civilization and illuminate the thought and teachings of its intellectual, political, and religious leaders.

    eISBN: 978-0-231-51815-4
    Subjects: History, Philosophy

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-xxii)
    (pp. xxiii-xxiv)
    (pp. xxv-xxvi)
    W. T. de B.
    (pp. xxvii-xxx)
    (pp. xxxi-xxxiv)
  7. PART FIVE Japan, Asia, and the West
    • [PART FIVE Introduction]
      (pp. 1-4)

      Part V, covering the period from 1868 to 1945, begins with the so-called Restoration (ishin) of 1868 and ends with the devastation and surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945. The Japanese term ishin has connotations of both “restoration” and “renovation.” As the restoration of imperial rule, the events of 1868 marked the end of the military regimes that had dominated Japan since the twelfth century. This outcome, however, left an open question of whether the military might still play as great a role in the expected “Renovation” as it did in the Restoration itself....

      (pp. 5-29)
      Fred G. Notehelfer

      The Meiji Restoration, like the Taika Reform of the mid-sixth century, was a major turning point in Japanese history. Just as the Taika Reform opened Japan to the incorporation of new ideas and institutions from China, which led to a profound restructuring of the Japanese polity and society, so the Meiji Restoration opened Japan to similar influences from the West. While most scholars agree that the Meiji Restoration ushered in Japan’s modern age by creating the political, economic, and social institutions that governed Japanese lives until World War II, both the nature and the interpretation of this event remain controversial....

      (pp. 30-51)
      Albert Craig

      The Civilization and Enlightenment movement, which began during the late 1860s and continued into the early 1880s, was composed of samurai “intellectuals” who advocated the introduction of Western ideas, values, and institutions into Japan. Many were government officials. As perceived by its members, its goal was to raise Japan to the level of wealth and power that had been attained in the United States and the advanced nations of Europe. To reach this goal, they called for sweeping reforms in education as well as fundamental changes in many areas of government and society.

      The movement was partly an offshoot of...

      (pp. 52-80)
      James Huffman

      During the first years of the Meiji era, Japan’s political leaders were dogged by issues of every sort: the divisiveness of old class distinctions; the danger that regional power conflicts would pull the country apart; a dire shortage of revenues; the lack of efficient economic, military, and educational systems; a fear of being overwhelmed by Western imperialism. The historian Tōyama Shigeki says of the 1870s that “there was a real danger that Japan would become a colony”; the educator-journalist Fukuzawa Yukichi observed at the time that Japan was “a government, not a nation.” Among all the issues, none dominated the...

      (pp. 81-116)
      Richard Rubinger

      Education in Meiji Japan (1868–1912) was both more and less than what it had been before. It was more in that the national school system eventually came to include nearly every child in the nation; the system had a central authority that provided uniform standards across the country; attendance became compulsory, seriously revising the lifestyles of children and parents throughout the country; teachers were trained at state-run facilities; and textbooks were authorized and even published by central authorities. By the end of the Meiji period, almost every school-age child was attending school, and very large numbers were staying for...

      (pp. 117-147)

      Nationalism as an element in Japanese tradition had been evident since ancient times in many forms: for instance, in the hegemonic claims of the early Yamato state; in the writings of Kitabatake Chikafusa; in medieval Shinto; in the imperialist ambitions of Toyotomi Hideyoshi;¹ in the popular literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (especially Chikamatsu’s Coxinga); and in the National Learning and Mito schools of the late Tokugawa period. We also encountered nationalism as a major component of the modernization movements in the Meiji period.

      In this chapter, we address two new forms of nationalism that appeared with the rise...

      (pp. 148-211)
      Arthur E. Tiedemann

      The prewar Japanese liberal movement reached its height in the 1920s, when, for a time, it appeared that the principles espoused by that movement had become the guiding light of Japanese political life. These principles might be roughly stated as follows:

      1. The government should be conducted by party cabinets responsible to the majority in the lower house of the Diet (legislature).

      2. The lower house should be elected by universal manhood suffrage.

      3. The people should be guaranteed the full exercise of their civil liberties.

      4. Japan should abandon its policy of force and aggression in China and do no more than maintain...

      (pp. 212-259)
      Andrew Barshay

      “There is no way,” wrote the Marxist economist Uno Kōzō, “to industrialize in the abstract.”¹ In Uno’s day, as in ours, the dominant mode of industrialization was capitalist. Capitalist industrialization, however, has occurred in various and complex ways. Timing and location are crucial, as is speed: the rapidity or compressed character of the transition reflects the urgent choice by some national elites to attempt industrialization without completely transforming the existing structure of society. Thus whether a nation came “early” or “late” to capitalism and where it was situated—within whose sphere of influence, and in what broader sociohistorical sense—formed...

      (pp. 260-287)
      Marius Jansen

      The Meiji period was marked by the rapid growth of Japanese nationalism. In the 1870s, except for the literate samurai, most Japanese were still not aware of and largely indifferent to national affairs. But by the end of the nineteenth century, the Japanese demonstrated striking national unity and determination on matters of national and international concern.

      This consciousness of belonging and participating on the part of the Japanese people was the product of many things. Mass education, which made Japan the first literate nation in Asia, made it possible to activate the populace by means of the press. Conscription broadened...

    • Chapter 43 EMPIRE AND WAR
      (pp. 288-320)
      Peter Duus

      The occupation of Manchuria, planned by Kwantung Army officers in 1931/1932, set in motion nearly a decade and a half of Japanese territorial expansion and military aggression on the Asian mainland and in the western Pacific. To be sure, Japan had already become an imperialist power in the late Meiji period. After winning wars with China in 1894/1895 and with Russia in 1904/1905, its colonial possessions stretched from Taiwan in the south through Korea to southern Sakhalin in the north, and under the provisions of the “unequal treaty” system Japan enjoyed the same rights and privileges in China as did...

  8. PART SIX Postwar Japan
    • [PART SIX Introduction]
      (pp. 321-322)

      At noon on August 15, 1945, the emperor of Japan announced the end of the war. With this unprecedented radio broadcast, Imperial Japan (1868–1945), too, came to an end, its military defeated, its empire in ruins, and its homeland in ashes. And yet within a few months, the moment of unconditional surrender had come to mean not only the end of a long and catastrophic war but also the bright beginning of a “new Japan,” whose people had turned resolutely away from aggression and empire toward peace and democracy. This is what John Dower calls “embracing defeat” in his...

    • Chapter 44 THE OCCUPATION YEARS, 1945–1952
      (pp. 323-381)
      Marlene Mayo

      In July 1945, the land, air, and sea forces of the United States were massed in the western Pacific, poised to invade a Japan already devastated by intensive aerial bombardments. On July 26, the Allied Powers issued the Potsdam Declaration, an ultimatum calling on the Japanese to surrender or face “utter destruction.” Then, in rapid succession, on August 6 the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima; on the eighth, the Soviet Union entered the war; on the ninth, the United States dropped another atomic bomb, this time on Nagasaki; on the tenth, the Japanese government opened communications with...

      (pp. 382-412)
      Andrew Gordon

      Japan’s postwar era was a long one. For decades, people grappled with the consequences of war, defeat, and the radical changes of the Occupation era. They struggled to define the proper relationship among citizens, state, and monarch and, at the same time, argued about the proper place of Japan in the global order of the Cold War era. Many of the documents in this section present the varied and evolving visions offered in the debate over these fundamental issues.

      Peace was embraced by many as the essence of Japan’s postwar reformation. This pacifism sprang primarily from a determination to never...

  9. PART SEVEN Aspects of the Modern Experience
    • [PART SEVEN Introduction]
      (pp. 413-416)

      The chronological order followed in this book makes it possible to show the relationship between thought and its historical context. No reader would miss the connection between the early Tokugawa efforts to secure the realm and the efflorescence of Neo-Confucianism or, similarly, the link between early Meiji discourse and the establishment of the modern nation-state. In each case, the language, concerns, and arguments are characteristic of the times, immersing us in the life-worlds of the past. These historical episodes are connected to one another across time, not only by temporal accumulation or influence, but also by conscious retrievals of earlier...

    • Chapter 46 THE NEW RELIGIONS
      (pp. 417-445)
      Helen Hardacre

      Japanese religions of the modern period are commonly divided into the “established religions” and the “new religions.” The term “established religions” refers to temple Buddhism, shrine Shinto, and older varieties of Christianity, while “new religions” refers to lay movements founded from around the beginning of the nineteenth century to the present. Because “new religions” can refer to religions that are two hundred years old, it is widely acknowledged that the term is problematic, but it has become firmly established in both scholarly usage and popular discourse. The doctrines of the new religions may derive from Buddhism, Shinto, or Christianity, or...

      (pp. 446-471)

      The relationship between Japan and the rest of the world expressed as a cultural divide between East and West is a subject as old as modern Japan itself, dating back at least to late Tokugawa times. Sakuma Shōzan’s famous formulation of “Eastern ethics, Western science” sought to combine the best of both worlds in an ultimately futile attempt to benefit from the material and technological superiority of Western ways without affecting the thought and values of Asian civilization. As it turned out—not only in Japan but around the world—such a separation was impossible. Foreign ideas and alien traditions...

      (pp. 472-504)
      Brett de Bary

      In Japan, as elsewhere, the upheavals and transformations accompanying the advent of modernity produced new identities and social formations while dismantling, excluding, and marginalizing others. Out of this conflictual and uneven process emerged possibilities for new social alliances and movements, as well as for the writing of new histories representing new perspectives. Indeed, the telling of these histories often meant creating new frameworks for understanding the temporal process of modernity itself.¹

      This was certainly the case for those who have tried to account for how gender, as a fundamental social division, has evolved with the formation of a modern social...

      (pp. 505-582)
      Carol Gluck

      Like all modern nations, Japan takes its history seriously, mobilizing the past in the service of national identity, cultural value, and political critique. Such uses of history are by no means new to modern Japan, which inherited the historical mindedness associated with East Asian Confucianism as well as a centuries-old habit of defining Japan against China by evoking a distinctive national past. This combination of new and old reasons for attending to history may help explain the prominence of historical concerns in contemporary Japan. From public politics to popular culture, from early Meiji to the beginning of the twenty-first century,...

    (pp. 583-594)
  11. INDEX
    (pp. 595-628)
  12. Back Matter
    (pp. 629-636)