Gary L. Francione is a law professor and leading philosopher of
animal rights theory. Robert Garner is a political theorist
specializing in the philosophy and politics of animal protection.
Francione maintains that we have no moral justification for using
nonhumans and argues that because animals are property-or economic
commodities-laws or industry practices requiring "humane" treatment
will, as a general matter, fail to provide any meaningful level of
protection. Garner favors a version of animal rights that focuses
on eliminating animal suffering and adopts a protectionist
approach, maintaining that although the traditional animal-welfare
ethic is philosophically flawed, it can contribute strategically to
the achievement of animal-rights ends.
As they spar, Francione and Garner deconstruct the animal
protection movement in the United States, the United Kingdom,
Europe, and elsewhere, discussing the practices of such
organizations as PETA, which joins with McDonald's and other animal
users to "improve" the slaughter of animals. They also examine
American and European laws and campaigns from both the rights and
welfare perspectives, identifying weaknesses and strengths that
give shape to future legislation and action.
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