Until recently, struggles for justice proceeded against the
background of a taken-for-granted frame: the bounded territorial
state. With that "Westphalian" picture of political space assumed
by default, the scope of justice was rarely subject to open
dispute. Today, however, human-rights activists and international
feminists join critics of structural adjustment and the World Trade
Organization in challenging the view that justice can only be a
domestic relation among fellow citizens. Targeting injustices that
cut across borders, they are making the scale of justice an object
of explicit struggle.
Inspired by these efforts, Nancy Fraser asks: What is the proper
frame for theorizing justice? Faced with a plurality of competing
scales, how do we know which one is truly just? In exploring these
questions, Fraser revises her widely discussed theory of
redistribution and recognition. She introduces a third, "political"
dimension of justice-representation-and elaborates a new, reflexive
type of critical theory that foregrounds injustices of
"misframing." Engaging with thinkers such as Jürgen Habermas, John
Rawls, Michel Foucault, and Hannah Arendt, she envisions a
"postwestphalian" mapping of political space that accommodates
transnational solidarity, transborder publicity, and democratic
frame-setting, as well as emancipatory projects that cross borders.
The result is a sustained reflection on who should count with
respect to what in a globalizing world.
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