Fossil Mammals of Asia

Fossil Mammals of Asia: Neogene Biostratigraphy and Chronology

Xiaoming Wang
Lawrence J. Flynn
Mikael Fortelius
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 752
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7312/wang15012
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  • Book Info
    Fossil Mammals of Asia
    Book Description:

    Fossil Mammals of Asia, edited by and with contributions from world-renowned scholars, is the first major work devoted to the late Cenozoic (Neogene) mammalian biostratigraphy and geochronology of Asia. This volume employs cutting-edge biostratigraphic and geochemical dating methods to map the emergence of mammals across the continent. Written by specialists working in a variety of Asian regions, it uses data from many basins with spectacular fossil records to establish a groundbreaking geochronological framework for the evolution of land mammals.

    Asia's violent tectonic history has resulted in some of the world's most varied topography, and its high mountain ranges and intense monsoon climates have spawned widely diverse environments over time. These geologic conditions profoundly influenced the evolution of Asian mammals and their migration into Europe, Africa, and North America. Focusing on amazing new fossil finds that have redefined Asia's role in mammalian evolution, this volume synthesizes information from a range of field studies on Asian mammals and biostratigraphy, helping to trace the histories and movements of extinct and extant mammals from various major groups and all northern continents, and providing geologists with a richer understanding of a variety of Asian terrains.

    eISBN: 978-0-231-52082-9
    Subjects: General Science, Paleontology, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-xii)
  3. Introduction Toward a Continental Asian Biostratigraphic and Geochronologic Framework
    (pp. 1-26)
    XIAOMING WANG, LAWRENCE J. FLYNN and MIKAEL FORTELIUS

    Strategically located between North America, Europe, and Africa, Asia is at the crossroads of intercontinental migrations of terrestrial mammals. Asia thus plays a crucial role in our understanding of mammalian evolution, zoogeography, and related questions about first appearances of immigrant mammals in surrounding continents and their roles as major markers of biochronology. As the largest continent, Asia is the locus of origination for many groups of mammals and/or a site of significant subsequent evolution. The temporal and spatial distributions of these mammals in Asia thus provide a vital link to related clades in surrounding continents (figure I.1; see figure I.3)....

  4. PART I. EAST ASIA
    • Chapter 1 Neogene Land Mammal Stages/Ages of China: Toward the Goal to Establish an Asian Land Mammal Stage/Age Scheme
      (pp. 29-90)
      ZHAN-XIANG QIU, ZHU-DING QIU, TAO DENG, CHUAN-KUI LI, ZHAO-QUN ZHANG, BAN-YUE WANG and XIAOMING WANG

      Led mainly by European and North American geologists, the domain of stratigraphy entered into a state of rapid development after World War II. Foremost among these developments were the discoveries, improvements, and widespread uses of new dating methods (age determination by isotopes, magnetostratigraphy, geochemistry, sequence stratigraphy, and tuning of astronomical cycles), which greatly increased the accuracy and precision of age estimates. Also instrumental in this rapid development was the publication of theInternational Stratigraphic Guide(ISG; Hedberg 1976; Salvador 1994) and theRevised Guidelines for the Establishment of Global Chronostratigraphic Standards(Remane et al. 1996), which clarified the basic principles...

    • Chapter 2 North China Neogene Biochronology: A Chinese Standard
      (pp. 91-123)
      MICHAEL O. WOODBURNE, RICHARD H. TEDFORD and EVERETT H. LINDSAY

      It is readily apparent that the Neogene record of fossil mammals in China is both temporally extensive and representative as well as geographically diverse. The following discussion presents the thesis that Neogene chronologic analysis in China will be best served when an endemic standard is developed that is independent of other biochronologic systems, such as MN zones in Europe or NALMAs in North America. We propose that North China has the best stratigraphic record for this purpose and that such a biochronologic system should be developed first within a given biogeographic region, and then extended outward as justified, to integrate...

    • Chapter 3 A Single-Point Base Definition of the Xiejian Age as an Exemplar for Refining Chinese Land Mammal Ages
      (pp. 124-141)
      JIN MENG, JIE YE, WEN-YU WU, XI-JUN NI and SHUN-DONG BI

      The workshop “Neogene Terrestrial Mammalian Biostratigraphy and Chronology in Asia” was held June 8–14, 2009, in Beijing, with a goal “toward the establishment of a continent-wide stratigraphic and chronologic framework.” The vigorous discussions at the symposium illustrated diverse opinions on Asian stratigraphy and in particular how to build or refine a biochronologic system based on fossil mammals from terrestrial sediments. Discussions focused on both empirical and conceptual issues of the Asian Neogene, with implications applicable to similar issues for the Asian Paleogene. Unlike Europe and North America, where similar discussions have been in place for decades and have generated...

    • Chapter 4 Early Miocene Xiejiahe and Sihong Fossil Localities and Their Faunas, Eastern China
      (pp. 142-154)
      ZHU-DING QIU and ZHAN-XIANG QIU

      The Shanwang Basin, located about 20km east of the Linqu County seat in Shandong Province, is a classic Miocene locality in China (figure 4.1). Its abundant fossil animals and plants, as well as its diatomite mineral resources in the basin sediments, have attracted numerous scholars. Early studies can be traced to descriptions of fossil vertebrates by Matsumoto (1926). In the 1930s, C.C. Young’s works on the biostratigraphy of the basin resulted in the establishment of “Shanwang System” and “Shanwang Fauna,” then thought to be middle or late Miocene in age (Young 1936, 1937). Several scholars subsequently investigated the basin structure...

    • Chapter 5 Neogene Faunal Succession and Biochronology of Central Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia)
      (pp. 155-186)
      ZHU-DING QIU, XIAOMING WANG and QIANG LI

      The Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (or Chinese Inner Mongolia) contains some of the richest vertebrate fossil localities in the world. Its Neogene mammals are among the earliest in Asia described by pioneering explorers in the beginning of the twentieth century. Not surprisingly, vertebrate paleontology in Nei Mongol played some of the key roles in the establishment of a continental biochronological record in Asia. Such a role will continue to exert lasting influence in an Asiatic chronological framework in the foreseeable future.

      In a tectonically stable region, terrestrial sediments in Nei Mongol are often scattered in small basins that produce extraordinarily...

    • Chapter 6 Mammalian Biochronology of the Late Miocene Bahe Formation
      (pp. 187-202)
      ZHAO-QUN ZHANG, ANU KAAKINEN, LI-PING LIU, JUHA PEKKA LUNKKA, SEVKET SEN, WULF A. GOSE, ZHU-DING QIU, SHAO-HUA ZHENG and MIKAEL FORTELIUS

      The use of fossils, especially of terrestrial mammals, as “dragon bones” in Chinese traditional medicine gave early paleontologists in China a head start, since many rich fossil localities were already known and readily accessible. More than two hundred species of Late Miocene terrestrial mammals have by now been recorded from China (Teilhard de Chardin and Leroy 1942; Fortelius 2009), representing almost every terrestrial mammal family of that age known from Eurasia. However, for lack of precise provenance and/or detailed stratigraphic work, for many years fossils were clumped into broad faunal aggregates, such as the “Hipparionfauna” (Schlosser 1903; Kurtén 1952)....

    • Chapter 7 Stratigraphy and Paleoecology of the Classical Dragon Bone Localities of Baode County, Shanxi Province
      (pp. 203-217)
      ANU KAAKINEN, BENJAMIN H. PASSEY, ZHAO-QUN ZHANG, LI-PING LIU, LAURI J. PESONEN and MIKAEL FORTELIUS

      The study of Chinese Neogene mammals dates back to more than a hundred years ago (Koken 1885; Schlosser 1903). The first known scientific fossil collection in the Baode area was made in 1920 by Johan Gunnar Andersson (Qiu, Huang, and Guo 1987), the mining adviser of the Chinese government from 1914 to 1926. With the help of a considerable number of missionaries, J. G. Andersson tried to locate and identify the deposits that had yielded the rich fossils bought from drugstores and described by Schlosser (1903). In 1922, his cooperation with C. Wiman of the University of Uppsala, with financial...

    • Chapter 8 Review of the Litho-, Bio-, and Chronostratigraphy in the Nihewan Basin, Hebei, China
      (pp. 218-242)
      BAO-QUAN CAI, SHAO-HUA ZHENG, JOSEPH C. LIDDICOAT and QIANG LI

      Famous for yielding the classic early Pleistocene Nihowan fauna and a number of paleolithic relics, the Nihewan (=Nihowan) Basin is located about 140km northwest of Beijing and about 55km southwest of Xuanhua (=Hsuan Hua Fu) (figure 8.1). Physiographically, the Nihewan Basin in its restricted sense is similar to the Yangyuan Basin (Barbour, Licent, and Teilhard de Chardin 1926; Teilhard de Chardin and Piveteau 1930). However, in a broader sense, the Nihewan Basin once was interpreted as the combination of the Yangyuan and Yuxian basins (Wu, Sun, and Yuan 1980; Lin 1984) and included even the Datong, Zhuolu, Huailai, and Xuanhua...

    • Chapter 9 Late Cenozoic Biostratigraphy of the Linxia Basin, Northwestern China
      (pp. 243-273)
      TAO DENG, ZHAN-XIANG QIU, BAN-YUE WANG, XIAOMING WANG and SU-KUAN HOU

      In the 1950s, the Geological Survey Team of Gansu Province found someHipparionfauna fossils in the Neogene red deposits widely distributed in the Linxia Basin, includingHipparion,Chilotherium,Palaeotragus, andGazella. This team also foundEquus,Lynx,Ochotona, andMyospalaxin Quaternary deposits of this area. Furthermore, local farmers in Hezheng County in the Linxia Basin had found some “dragon bones” during the 1950s. The local government reported to the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences about the farmers’ discoveries. In 1962, one of us (Z.-x. Qiu) visited Hezheng and went to...

    • Chapter 10 Neogene Mammalian Biostratigraphy and Geochronology of the Tibetan Plateau
      (pp. 274-292)
      XIAOMING WANG, QIANG LI, ZHU-DING QIU, GUANG-PU XIE, BAN-YUE WANG, ZHAN-XIANG QIU, ZHIJIE J. TSENG, GARY T. TAKEUCHI and TAO DENG

      In recognition of its unique importance as a prime example of continent–continent collisions and the resulting mountain building with profound impact on climates and environments, the Tibetan Plateau has become a focus of intense interest for its geologic history and paleoclimatic/paleoenvironmental evolution (e.g., Molnar 2005). Although paleontologic explorations represent some of the earliest studies of the geoscience of the plateau (e.g., Bohlin 1937, 1942, 1946), vertebrate paleontology has generally not been featured prominently in this debate, with the exception of the discoveries of the GyirongHipparionfauna at the foothills of the Himalayas (Huang et al. 1980; Ji, Hsu,...

    • Chapter 11 Hominoid-Producing Localities and Biostratigraphy in Yunnan
      (pp. 293-313)
      WEI DONG and GUO-QIN QI

      Yunnan Province is located in the southwestern part of China, north of Vietnam and Laos, and northeast of Burma. It is on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, with altitudes of 4000m in the northern mountain regions and 2000m on the southern highland. The most conspicuous mountains are the Hengduan Shan in the northwest and the Gaoligong Shan in the west. Over 90% of the province is mountainous. The relative height of mountain peaks above river valleys can reach as much as 3000m. The climatic features of today span three zones from north to south in the province, temperate, subtropical, and tropical. Annual...

    • Chapter 12 Miocene Land Mammals and Stratigraphy of Japan
      (pp. 314-333)
      YUKIMITSU TOMIDA, HIDEO NAKAYA, HARUO SAEGUSA, KAZUNORI MIYATA and AKIRA FUKUCHI

      Miocene terrestrial mammal fossils are never abundant in Japan, but the research on those fossils has a rather long history. The first descriptive paper on a Japanese Miocene mammal was the holotype skull ofDesmostylus japonicusby Yoshiwara and Iwasaki (1902). Considering desmostylians as marine mammals, the first descriptive paper on a terrestrial mammal from the Japanese Miocene was a cervid jaw (“Amphitragulus minoensis”) by Matsumoto (1918), although a few discovery reports were announced in Japanese before that (e.g., Yoshiwara 1899; Sato 1914; Matsumoto 1916). For nearly a century since then, many fossils have been discovered and described in research...

    • Chapter 13 Pliocene Land Mammals of Japan
      (pp. 334-350)
      RYOHEI NAKAGAWA, YOSHINARI KAWAMURA and HIROYUKI TARUNO

      Pliocene land mammal fossils from Japan are rather poor in number and taxonomic diversity in comparison with those from China, but most of them occur in marine and fluvio-lacustrine sediments that are well investigated stratigraphically and well dated by marine microfossils, magnetostratigraphy, and fission-track and tephrochronological methods. Kamei, Kawamura, and Taruno (1988) attempted to arrange Pliocene and Quaternary fossil mammal records hitherto known from all over Japan in a chronological framework with numerical and geomagnetic polarity time scales and proposed a mammalian biozonation of the Pliocene and Quaternary of Japan. This work treated both terrestrial and marine mammals, but it...

  5. PART II. SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA
    • Chapter 14 The Siwaliks and Neogene Evolutionary Biology in South Asia
      (pp. 353-372)
      LAWRENCE J. FLYNN, EVERETT H. LINDSAY, DAVID PILBEAM, S. MAHMOOD RAZA, MICHÈLE E. MORGAN, JOHN C. BARRY, CATHERINE E. BADGLEY, ANNA K. BEHRENSMEYER, I. U. CHEEMA, ABDUL RAHIM RAJPAR and NEIL D. OPDYKE

      The extensive, superposed stratigraphic record of the Siwaliks of southern Asia applies broadly to questions in evolutionary biology. In coordination with Barry et al. (chapter 15, this volume), this chapter focuses on the distribution of fossiliferous terrestrial deposits of late Cenozoic age across the Indian Subcontinent, the development of a chronostratigraphic framework in Pakistan and India, and the significance of the Siwalik deposits as a window on a subtropical ecosystem of the Miocene world, a window that was open during the late Paleogene and most of the Neogene. Retrievable information is paleontological, sedimentological, and geochemical, and it is relevant to...

    • Chapter 15 The Neogene Siwaliks of the Potwar Plateau, Pakistan
      (pp. 373-399)
      JOHN C. BARRY, ANNA K. BEHRENSMEYER, CATHERINE E. BADGLEY, LAWRENCE J. FLYNN, HANNELE PELTONEN, I. U. CHEEMA, DAVID PILBEAM, EVERETT H. LINDSAY, S. MAHMOOD RAZA, ABDUL RAHIM RAJPAR and MICHÈLE E. MORGAN

      The Siwalik formations of the Indian Subcontinent comprise fluvial sediments of Miocene through Pleistocene age deposited in a series of basins along the southern margin of the collision zone between peninsular India and Asia. The deposits are thick and fossiliferous, with a diverse fauna of terrestrial and freshwater vertebrates and for well over 170 years they have been the subject of considerable scientific interest.

      Research on Siwalik fossils and sediments has touched on diverse subjects, but a recent focus has been on a fundamental problem in paleobiology, the relationship between biotic evolution and environmental change. This is a line of...

    • Chapter 16 Mammalian Neogene Biostratigraphy of the Sulaiman Province, Pakistan
      (pp. 400-422)
      PIERRE-OLIVIER ANTOINE, GREGOIRE MÉTAIS, MAEVA J. ORLIAC, J.-Y. CROCHET, LAWRENCE J. FLYNN, LAURENT MARIVAUX, ABDUL RAHIM RAJPAR, G. ROOHI and JEAN-LOUP WELCOMME

      The Sulaiman Range is a north–south-trending band of rugged mountains rising 1000–3400m above sea level that defines the modern political boundary between Balochistan and Punjab provinces and extends northward into North-West Frontier Province (figure 16.1). Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks here are primarily marine and accumulated in the Tethys Sea in what is now the Indus Basin, bounded to the northwest by the Axial Belt (Shah 1977), or Bela–Waziristan Ophiolite Zone (Bannert et al. 1992), and to the southeast by the Indo–Pakistani Subcontinent. The east side of the Sulaiman Range is of particular interest since...

    • Chapter 17 Indian Neogene Siwalik Mammalian Biostratigraphy: An Overview
      (pp. 423-444)
      RAJEEV PATNAIK

      Almost 6000m thick, Siwalik freshwater deposits exposed all along the Himalayan foothills are famous for their great wealth of mammalian fossils ranging in age from ~ 18 Ma (Johnson et al. 1985) to 0.22 Ma (Ranga Rao et al. 1988). These deposits were formed by rivers that were precursors to the present-day mighty Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra of the Indian subcontinent. The excellent fossil and sediment record of the Siwaliks has attracted the interest of earth scientists and palaeoanthropologists for the past 150 years. Medlicott (1879) followed by Pilgrim (1910, 1913) classified the Siwaliks as Lower, Middle, and Upper Siwaliks,...

    • Chapter 18 Paleobiogeography and South Asian Small Mammals: Neogene Latitudinal Faunal Variation
      (pp. 445-460)
      LAWRENCE J. FLYNN and WILMA WESSELS

      Our purpose is to present the Neogene small mammal record of South Asia in its biogeographic context. Within the Indian Subcontinent, we observe high faunal similarity among local small mammal assemblages distributed on a scale of 1000km, and these are distinct from assemblages to the west and northwest and northeast, beyond the subcontinent. Eastward into Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), and Yunnan, China, faunal similarity with the Indian Subcontinent is apparent but weaker than within the subcontinent. This pattern mimics the distribution of the present-day Oriental biogeographic province. Our goal is to study to what extent we can define this paleozoogeographic pattern...

    • Chapter 19 Advances in the Biochronology and Biostratigraphy of the Continental Neogene of Myanmar
      (pp. 461-474)
      OLIVIER CHAVASSEAU, AUNG AUNG KHYAW, YAOWALAK CHAIMANEE, PAULINE COSTER, EDOUARD-GEORGES EMONET, AUNG NAING SOE, MANA RUGBUMRUNG, SOE THURA TUN and JEAN-JACQUES JAEGER

      Chronology has always played a critical role in the perspective of interpreting the fossil record. In the Cenozoic, fossil mammals have long demonstrated their particular usefulness for establishing chronological frameworks for paleontologists and geologists. The Neogene is a particularly rich period that witnessed the appearance of several extant mammalian groups (e.g., giraffids, bovids, suids, murids, cervids) and major evolution in some preexisting groups (e.g., hominoids, rhinocerotids, proboscideans). In southern Asia, numerous Neogene paleontological challenges are in need of answers. For mammals, the evolution of the hominoid primates in this region of the world is perhaps the most important of them....

  6. PART III. NORTH AND CENTRAL ASIA
    • Chapter 20 Miocene Mammal Biostratigraphy of Central Mongolia (Valley of Lakes): New Results
      (pp. 477-494)
      GUDRUN DAXNER-HÖCK, DEMCHIG BADAMGARAV, MARGARITA ERBAJEVA and URSULA BETTINA GÖHLICH

      The Valley of Lakes is one of the Pre-Altai depressions in Mongolia. It is situated between the Gobi Altai Mountains in the south and the Khangai Mountains in the north. It extends ~500km in the east–west direction in Central Mongolia and is filled, above a Proterozoic and Paleozoic basement, with continental sediments ranging from the Cretaceous to the Quaternary. A Cenozoic sedimentary sequence interlayered with several basalts is exposed in the Taatsiin Gol and Taatsiin Tsagaan Nuur area. Basaltic volcanism is restricted to a relatively small, approximately south–north corridor in Central Mongolia between 98°E and 104°E longitude (Kepezhinskas...

    • Chapter 21 Late Cenozoic Mammal Faunas of the Baikalian Region: Composition, Biochronology, Dispersal, and Correlation with Central Asia
      (pp. 495-507)
      MARGARITA ERBAJEVA and NADEZHDA ALEXEEVA

      The Baikalian region is located in the middle of the continental interior of Asia and includes two areas—Prebaikalia to the west and Transbaikalia to the east of Lake Baikal. At present, the modern mammal faunas of these territories differ significantly because they belong to different zoogeographical subregions, a modern Europe-Siberian subregion (Prebaikalia) and a central Asian subregion (Transbaikalia).

      Comparative analysis of the assemblages from Transbaikalia and Prebaikalia (including Olkhon Island) demonstrates that the faunas included a number of taxa in common with central Asia and Europe. This indicates significant interchange of Europe an and Asian elements during the Miocene...

    • Chapter 22 New Data on Miocene Biostratigraphy and Paleoclimatology of Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, Siberia)
      (pp. 508-518)
      GUDRUN DAXNER-HÖCK, MADELAINE BÖHME and ANNETTE KOSSLER

      Lake Baikal, located in the East Siberian Baikal Rift System, is the deepest, most voluminous, and oldest freshwater body on Earth. Its morphology is characterized by three basins, the older Southern and Central basins and the younger Northern Basin. The Southern and Central basins are thought to have existed permanently since the Paleogene, whereas the Northern Basin did not develop before the Miocene. Olkhon Island (Irkutsk region, Russia) is located in the transitional zone between the Central and the Northern basins of Lake Baikal. It is separated from the mainland in the west by a shallow bay of the Northern...

  7. PART IV. WEST ASIA AND ADJACENT REGIONS
    • Chapter 23 Late Miocene Mammal Localities of Eastern Europe and Western Asia: Toward Biostratigraphic Synthesis
      (pp. 521-537)
      ELEONORA VANGENGEIM and ALEXEY S. TESAKOV

      Numerous localities of the “fauna of Hipparion” are known in the Northern Black Sea region (Ukraine, Moldova, Russia) and in the Transcaucasus (Georgia). They are associated with shallow marine deposits of the Eastern Paratethys spanning the middle Sarmatian through Pontian regional stages, and with synchronous terrestrial formations. Many of these sites have a paleomagnetic record and can be correlated with the magnetochronological time scale based on relatively complete marine sections of the Eastern Paratethys.

      The mammal-based biochronological zonation of Pierre Mein (1975, 1989) originally established for the continental Neogene of western and central Europe (MN zones) is widely used in...

    • Chapter 24 Late Miocene (Turolian) Vertebrate Faunas from Southern European Russia
      (pp. 538-545)
      VADIM V. TITOV and ALEXEY S. TESAKOV

      Compared with a relatively rich and continuous record of Late Miocene mammals in the southwestern parts of the North Black Sea region, mainly Ukraine and Moldova (Korotkevich 1988; Topachevsky, Nesin, and Topachevsky 1998; Nesin and Nadachowski 2001; Vangengeim and Tesakov, chapter 23, this volume), the fossil record of more eastern areas, including the eastern coast of the Sea of Azov, the lower Don River area, and Northern Caucasus, is very patchy and relatively unstudied. The rare occurrence of fossil vertebrates is due in part to widespread marine deposits of the Eastern Paratethys and a limited distribution of synchronous continental sediments....

    • Chapter 25 Recent Advances in Paleobiological Research of the Late Miocene Maragheh Fauna, Northwest Iran
      (pp. 546-565)
      MAJID MIRZAIE ATAABADI, RAYMOND L. BERNOR, DIMITRIS S. KOSTOPOULOS, DOMINIK WOLF, ZAHRA ORAK, GHOLAMREZA ZARE, HIDEO NAKAYA, MAHITO WATABE and MIKAEL FORTELIUS

      The fossil localities of Maragheh are located in the eastern Azarbaijan province, northwest Iran, between 37°20'–37°30' N latitude and 46°10'–46°35' E longitude. The Maragheh fauna has long been considered one of the three most preeminent western Eurasian Late Miocene Pikermian faunas, along with those of Samos and Pikermi in Greece. As with Pikermi and Samos, Maragheh is a true “Lagerstätte” because of the shear abundance and diversity of its fauna. It is unique among the three classical Pikermian faunas in its clear layer-cake stratigraphy with several, laterally continuous volcanic ashes that are readily amenable to radioisotopic dating.

      A...

    • [Illustrations]
      (pp. None)
    • Chapter 26 A Review of the Neogene Succession of the Muridae and Dipodidae from Anatolia, with Special Reference to Taxa Known from Asia and/or Europe
      (pp. 566-582)
      HANS DE BRUIJN, ENGIN ÜNAY and KEES HORDIJK

      This overview of the Neogene Muridae and Dipodidae from Anatolia is an illustrated, updated, and emended version of an earlier biozonation (Ünay, de Bruijn, and Saraç 2003a). It aims at making the specialized scattered literature accessible for a larger group of geoscientists, to enhance long-distance correlations and detect migration patterns. In contrast to our earlier zonation, the associations presented here originate from single localities or from sites that are situated near to each other in the same formation. This procedure has the disadvantage that the content and composition of the assemblages is influenced by local biotopes and taphonomical conditions, but...

    • Chapter 27 Late Miocene Fossils from the Baynunah Formation, United Arab Emirates: Summary of a Decade of New Work
      (pp. 583-594)
      FAYSAL BIBI, ANDREW HILL, MARK BEECH and WALID YASIN

      The region of Al Gharbia (previously known as the Western Region) comprises much of the area of Abu Dhabi Emirate west of the city of Abu Dhabi and bears the only known late Miocene terrestrial fossil biota from the entire Arabian Peninsula. Driving along the Abu Dhabi-As Sila’ highway, which runs parallel to the Gulf coast and connects the United Arab Emirates to Saudi Arabia, one encounters a landscape of low dunes to the south, and sabkha (supratidal salt flats) and the sea to the north. Interspersed on both sides of the highway are low-lying jebels (hills), at most rising...

    • Chapter 28 Neogene Mammal Biostratigraphy and Chronology of Greece
      (pp. 595-626)
      GEORGE D. KOUFOS

      The Neogene continental deposits of Greece are expansive, include several mammal fossiliferous sites, and provide useful information for their chronology and biostratigraphy. One of the first discovered Greek Neogene mammal localities is Pikermi (Attica, near Athens) found in 1835; its fauna is very rich and includes several new taxa, found subsequently in Eurasia and Africa. During the end of the nineteenth century, the mammal localities of Samos found by Forsyth Major yielded a great amount of fossils housed in various museums and institutes (Forsyth Major 1894). In 1993, a new series of excavations started in Samos, and the results are...

  8. PART V. ZOOGEOGRAPHY AND PALEOECOLOGY
    • Chapter 29 Continental-Scale Patterns in Neogene Mammal Community Evolution and Biogeography: A Europe-Asia Perspective
      (pp. 629-655)
      MAJID MIRZAIE ATAABADI, LI-PING LIU, JUSSI T. ERONEN, RAYMOND L. BERNOR and MIKAEL FORTELIUS

      Spatial diachrony is a key question in stratigraphic correlation. If taxa appear at different times in different places, their first occurrences obviously will not represent useful time horizons. For terrestrial mammals, diachrony is closely intertwined with the question of faunal provinciality, including how provinces have themselves developed over time.

      For Eurasia, the modern phase of research into diachrony and provinciality may be said to have begun with the 1975 Regional Committee on Mediterranean Neogene Stratigraphy meeting in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. There, Pierre Mein produced his first iteration of his famous European Mammal Neogene (MN) zones (Mein 1975). This biochronologic system recognized...

    • Chapter 30 Intercontinental Dispersals of Sicistine Rodents (Sicistinae, Dipodidae, Rodentia) Between Eurasia and North America
      (pp. 656-675)
      YURI KIMURA

      The early definitive sicistine,Allosminthus, first appeared in the late Late Eocene of Qujing, Yunnan Province, China (Wang 1985). Sicistines became abundant and diverse during the Oligocene and the Miocene of Asia, with recent accounts listing nine genera in the Oligocene to early Miocene (Tatalsminthus,Shamosminthus,Gobiosminthus,Parasminthus,Plesiosminthus,Litodonomys,Sinodonomys,Omoiosicista, andArabosminthus) and five genera in the Miocene (Sicista,Heterosminthus,Lophocricetus,Lophosminthus, andSibirosminthus) (Holden and Musser 2005; Kimura 2010). The fossil record of the Sicistinae illustrates their paleogeographic ranges in both the Old and New World. Nevertheless, of all living and fossil sicistines, onlyPlesiosminthus-...

    • Chapter 31 Paleodietary Comparisons of Ungulates Between the Late Miocene of China, and Pikermi and Samos in Greece
      (pp. 676-692)
      NIKOS SOLOUNIAS, GINA M. SEMPREBON, MATTHEW C. MIHLBACHLER and FLORENT RIVALS

      Extant ungulates occupy a great diversity of Recent habitats such as forests, woodlands, savannas, grasslands, steppe, deserts, steep mountain slopes, and arctic tundra. They also exhibit a diverse array of morphological adaptations that are suited to these varied ecological conditions. Many modern ungulates, particularly ruminants, are descended from lineages that adaptively radiated during the Middle and Late Miocene, a time of dramatic climate cooling during which open grassy and more arid habitats appeared and began to spread. The C₄ grasslands had a sudden rise and spread to ecological dominance 8–3 Ma (Edwards et al. 2010). The new Late Miocene...

  9. List of Contributors
    (pp. 693-700)
  10. TAXONOMIC INDEX
    (pp. 701-722)
  11. GENERAL INDEX
    (pp. 723-732)