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Dinarchus, Hyperides, and Lycurgus

MICHAEL GAGARIN
Ian Worthington
Craig R. Cooper
Edward M. Harris
Copyright Date: 2001
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7560/791428
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  • Book Info
    Dinarchus, Hyperides, and Lycurgus
    Book Description:

    This is the fifth volume in the Oratory of Classical Greece. This series presents all of the surviving speeches from the late fifth and fourth centuries B.C. in new translations prepared by classical scholars who are at the forefront of the discipline. These translations are especially designed for the needs and interests of today's undergraduates, Greekless scholars in other disciplines, and the general public.

    Classical oratory is an invaluable resource for the study of ancient Greek life and culture. The speeches offer evidence on Greek moral views, social and economic conditions, political and social ideology, law and legal procedure, and other aspects of Athenian culture that have been largely ignored: women and family life, slavery, and religion, to name just a few.

    This volume combines the surviving speeches of three orators who stand at the end of the classical period. Dinarchus was not an Athenian, but he was called on to write speeches in connection with a corruption scandal (the Harpalus affair) that put an end to the career of Demosthenes. His speeches thus raise many of the vital issues surrounding the Macedonian conquest of Athens and the final years of Athenian democracy. Hyperides was an important public figure who was involved in many of the events described by Dinarchus and Lycurgus. His speeches open a window into many interesting facets of Athenian life. Lycurgus was one of the leading politicians in Athens during the reign of Alexander the Great and put Athenian public finances on a more secure footing. He was also a deeply religious man, who tried to revive Athenian patriotism after the crushing defeat at Chaeronea.

    eISBN: 978-0-292-78661-5
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. SERIES INTRODUCTION Greek Oratory
    (pp. ix-xxviii)
    Michael Gagarin

    From as early as Homer (and undoubtedly much earlier) the Greeks placed a high value on effective speaking. Even Achilles, whose greatness was primarily established on the battlefield, was brought up to be “a speaker of words and a doer of deeds” (Iliad9.443); and Athenian leaders of the sixth and fifth centuries,¹ such as Solon, Themistocles, and Pericles, were all accomplished orators. Most Greek literary genres—notably epic, tragedy, and history—underscore the importance of oratory by their inclusion of set speeches. The formal pleadings of the envoys to Achilles in theIliad, the messenger speeches in tragedy reporting...

  5. DINARCHUS
    • Introduction
      (pp. 1-10)

      Dinarchus, the son of Sostratus, was born in Corinth in about 361/0.¹ He moved to Athens, by then the leading city for the study of rhetoric, when he was relatively young. This was probably a little before 338, for he fought at the battle of Chaeronea, at which a combined force of Greek cities, including Athens, was defeated by Philip II of Macedon (see 1.78n). In Athens he was a pupil of Theophrastus, Aristotle’s successor as head of the Lyceum, and he also apparently attended the lectures of Demetrius of Phalerum. His career as a logographer would certainly have started...

    • 1. AGAINST DEMOSTHENES
      (pp. 11-44)

      The speech against Demosthenes is Dinarchus’ only complete speech, though even it has three minor lacunae at chapters 33/34, 64, and 82. Like the other two speeches, it was written for a trial in the notorious Harpalus affair (on which see the Introduction to Dinarchus).

      Demosthenes was the first to be tried (1.105). The charge was taking a bribe of twenty talents of gold from Harpalus. Ten men, including Himeraeus, Hyperides, Menesaechmus, Patrocles or Procles, Pytheas, and Stratocles, prosecuted him. Stratocles of Diomeia spoke first in the prosecution line-up, followed by Dinarchus’ client (either Himeraeus or Menesaechmus), but the remaining...

    • 2. AGAINST ARISTOGEITON
      (pp. 45-52)

      For the historical background, see the Introduction to Dinarchus. Aristogeiton was a minor orator and perhaps a descendant of the famous sixth-century tyrannicide of the same name, who in 514, along with Harmodius, had been responsible for murdering the tyrant Hipparchus, a son of Pisistratus (see above, 1.101n). Sometime after 338, he was prosecuted for failing to pay his debts; two prosecution speeches from that trial are preserved as Demosthenes 25 and 26, although the common opinion is that Demosthenes did not write them.

      In the present trial, Aristogeitonis accused by the Areopagus of taking twenty minas from Harpalus (Din....

    • 3. AGAINST PHILOCLES
      (pp. 53-58)

      For the historical background to this trial, see the Introduction to Dinarchus. Philocles was the general who had been charged by the Assembly with refusing Harpalus entry into Athens when he had first fled from Alexander the Great. Philocles obeyed this directive, but when Harpalus returned to Athens as a suppliant and with a much reduced force, Philocles allowed him into the city. Philocles was allegedly indicted three times (cf. 3.16). In this speech, he seems to be accused of disobeying the Assembly and taking a bribe from Harpalus, which would account for two of the three indictments. It is...

  6. HYPERIDES
    • Introduction
      (pp. 59-68)

      Hyperides, son of Glaucippus, of the deme Collytes was born in the year 389/8.¹ According to tradition, as a young man he studied under Plato and Isocrates, and since such education was expensive, we can assume that he came from a family of considerable means. Hyperides himself is known to have owned at least two or three pieces of property: an estate in Eleusis, a house in Athens, and possibly a house in Piraeus, where he kept one of his many women. He is also known to have leased sacred property at Eleusis and a mine in the mining district...

    • 1. IN DEFENSE OF LYCOPHRON
      (pp. 69-79)

      The papyri that contain the orationIn Defense of Lycophronsupply only the title but no author; but ancient references to and paraphrases of a speech by that title by Hyperides assures us of its authenticity. The preserved fragments each correspond to a new column of the papyrus, from which we can estimate the gaps in the text, which are large indeed. Between some fragments whole columns are missing.

      This is the first of at least two defense speeches that were delivered at the trial. A few fragments from a second speech are preserved in another papyrus. Hyperides may have...

    • 2. AGAINST PHILIPPIDES
      (pp. 80-86)

      The title and author’s name are not preserved in the papyrus, but a speech by Hyperides against Philippides is known from Athenaeus (12.552d), who quotes one line from it (Fr. 15b). The papyrus itself is extremely fragmentary; a few passages remain from the first part of the speech, and only the epilogue is preserved in its entirety. But from it we can reconstruct the charges against Philippides, as they were presented by the prosecution.

      He has been indicted for proposing an illegal decree (graphē paranomōn).¹ After Athens’ defeat at Chaeronea in 338, while peace negotiations were in process under the...

    • 3. AGAINST ATHENOGENES
      (pp. 87-101)

      This speech was noted by ancient critics particularly for its artistic merits, and what remains of it certainly does not disappoint. It shows that gift of characterization, wit, and charm that made Hyperides famous. (See the Introduction to Hyperides.) But the speech that has survived in papyrus was only one of two speeches written for the trial. As in many private suits, the litigants in this case had two opportunities to speak; the first and the more important of the two speeches, and the one that has survived in papyri, was delivered by the plaintiff himself; the second, of which...

    • 4. ON BEHALF OF EUXENIPPUS
      (pp. 102-114)

      This is the only complete speech of Hyperides we have. It is found on the same papyrus that contains the speech of Lycophron, but again the name of the author is not preserved. In fact, no speech by that title under the name of Hyperides has come down to us from antiquity, but there is enough internal evidence to conclude that the speech on Euxenippus was delivered, and thus written, by Hyperides. We learn that the speaker came from the tribe Aegeis (4.12) and that he once prosecuted Aristophon of Hazenia (28) and Philocrates of Hagnus (29). All these facts...

    • 5. AGAINST DEMOSTHENES
      (pp. 115-127)

      This speech was preserved on the same papyrus on which we find the first four fragments ofIn Defense of Lycophron. Although the speech itself is very fragmentary, substantial portions remain from the proem (1–7),¹ the prothesis (7–8), the narrative (8–14), and the peroration (37–38). The argument (15–36) that comprises over half of the speech is by far the most fragmentary, but enough of the text is preserved to get a clear sense of how Hyperides argued.

      In 323 Hyperides was one of the ten prosecutors appointed to prosecute Demosthenes and a number of other...

    • 6. THE FUNERAL ORATION
      (pp. 128-136)

      In 322 Hyperides was selected to deliver the funeral oration over the Athenian dead in the Lamian War. He was the natural choice: Demosthenes was still in exile; Demades, who had earlier been convicted of accepting bribes from Harpalus and later fined for proposing the deification of Alexander, was disenfranchised; and Phocion, who still advocated peace, had no credibility. Hyperides thus emerged not only as the leading politician in Athens but as a forceful advocate of resistance; he was also behind the choice of Leosthenes to lead that resistance against Macedon.

      Leosthenes, who had served in Alexander’s army in Asia...

    • FRAGMENTS
      (pp. 137-152)

      Aristagora is likely the same woman who, according to tradition, was a mistress of Hyperides (Pseudo-Plut.,Moralia849d). If this is true, it is strange to find him prosecuting her in court, though it is possible that Hyperides did not deliver the speech himself but composed it for a client. Aristagora, who was ahetaira(see the Introduction to Hyp. 3), was charged with not obtaining a sponsor or patron (prostates). Every metic (resident alien) was legally required to have an Athenian sponsor and register in his deme. Failure to do so could leave the metic open to an indictment...

  7. LYCURGUS
    • Introduction
      (pp. 153-158)

      Lycurgus, the son of Lycophron, was one of the most influential Athenian politicians in the period between the Athenian defeat at Chaeronea in 338 and the death of Alexander the Great in 323.¹ Despite his importance, relatively little is known about his life. He was born sometime in the 390s into the distinguished genos of the Eteobutadai,² and his family held the priesthood of Poseidon and traced its origins back to Erechtheus, one of the legendary kings of Athens.³ His ancestors may have included the Lycurgus who controlled the plain of Attica in the mid-sixth century and opposed Peisistratus⁴ and...

    • 1. AGAINST LEOCRATES
      (pp. 159-203)

      The facts of the case appear to be simple and straightforward. After their defeat at Chaeronea in late 338, the Athenians were terrified that Philip would soon invade Attica and passed several emergency measures (16; cf. 36, 39–42). During the crisis, Leocrates sailed to Rhodes (16–19; cf. 14–15), then later to Megara, where he lived as a metic (resident alien) for about six years (21). While in Megara, he sold his property in Attica and used the money to invest in the grain trade (21–27). Lycurgus presents documents and witnesses to support his account, and the...

    • FRAGMENTS
      (pp. 204-218)

      The ancient lexicon called theSudalists the titles of fourteen speeches attributed to Lycurgus, but theLife of Lycurgussays there were fifteen speeches attributed to him. Harpocration gives the titles of fourteen speeches by Lycurgus, one of which (Against Aristogeiton) may comprise two speeches. Harpocration mentions a speech (Defense of His Career in Politics) not found in the list of titles found in theSudaand a speech (Against Dexippus) that may actually have been written by Lysias. Most of the fragments are preserved in ancient lexica and are often very brief, sometimes only a word or a...

  8. INDEX
    (pp. 219-226)