Ethnic Bargaining

Ethnic Bargaining: The Paradox of Minority Empowerment

Erin K. Jenne
Copyright Date: 2007
Edition: 1
Published by: Cornell University Press
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    Ethnic Bargaining
    Book Description:

    InEthnic Bargaining, Erin K. Jenne introduces a theory of minority politics that blends comparative analysis and field research in the postcommunist countries of East Central Europe with insights from rational choice. Jenne finds that claims by ethnic minorities have become more frequent since 1945 even though nation-states have been on the whole more responsive to groups than in earlier periods. Minorities that perceive an increase in their bargaining power will tend to radicalize their demands, she argues, from affirmative action to regional autonomy to secession, in an effort to attract ever greater concessions from the central government.

    The language of self-determination and minority rights originally adopted by the Great Powers to redraw boundaries after World War I was later used to facilitate the process of decolonization. Jenne believes that in the 1960s various ethnic minorities began to use the same discourse to pressure national governments into transfer payments and power-sharing arrangements. Violence against minorities was actually in some cases fueled by this politicization of ethnic difference.

    Jenne uses a rationalist theory of bargaining to examine the dynamics of ethnic cleavage in the cases of the Sudeten Germans in interwar Czechoslovakia; Slovaks and Moravians in postcommunist Czechoslovakia; the Hungarians in Romania, Slovakia, and Vojvodina; and the Albanians in Kosovo. ThroughoutEthnic Bargaining, she challenges the conventional wisdom that partisan intervention is an effective mechanism for protecting minorities and preventing or resolving internal conflict.

    eISBN: 978-0-8014-7180-3
    Subjects: Political Science, History, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-xii)
    Erin K. Jenne
  4. Abbreviations
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  5. Introduction
    (pp. 1-18)

    The vast majority of violent conflicts in the past half-century have taken place at the substate level, including the recent or ongoing wars in Congo, Colombia, Palestine, India, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Myanmar, Yugoslavia, Angola, Nigeria, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Russia, and Georgia.¹ In the 1990s, only 8 of the 110 armed conflicts around the world were between states. Most of the remaining wars were waged between minorities and their governments over demands for national self-determination.² In prosecuting these campaigns, the leaders of resistance movements have used terrorism and guerilla warfare to achieve autonomy for the minorities they claim to...

  6. CHAPTER ONE The Origins of Ethnic Bargaining
    (pp. 19-37)

    The contemporary discourse of ethnic bargaining combines Westphalian integrationist rights with a newer brand of segregationist rights born in the age of nationalism.¹ While there is no obvious link between the two discursive traditions, minority leaders can be seen to use them interchangeably in the course of bargaining with their centers. The ethnic bargaining framework thus serves as a kind of master “toolbox” containing all the devices available to minority elites in mobilizing popular challenges against their governments and attracting external support for their cause.² These devices have their origins in three distinct, yet overlapping, historical phases: (1) the post-Westphalian...

  7. CHAPTER TWO The Theory of Ethnic Bargaining
    (pp. 38-53)

    This chapter sets forth the micro-level dynamics of ethnic bargaining. In doing so, it addresses two empirical puzzles in minority politics. First, why do group leaders variously radicalize and moderate their demands against the state center over time? As noted in the introduction, relatively static features such as historical grievances, cultural differences, and underlying economic disparities cannot account for sudden shifts in the claims put forward by minority representatives. Second, contrary to the expectations of ethnic fears accounts, why do minorities sometimes mobilize when security threats diminish butfailto mobilize when they intensify?¹

    The theory of ethnic bargaining seeks...

  8. CHAPTER THREE A Full Cycle of Ethnic Bargaining: Sudeten Germans in Interwar Czechoslovakia
    (pp. 54-90)

    The victorious Allied Powers completely reconfigured the map of central Europe after the First World War, establishing boundaries that gave statehood to some groups while denying it to others. The ethnic Germans of Bohemia and Moravia were among those who found themselves on the wrong side of the new national borders. In a few short years, the Sudeten Germans¹ lost their privileged status under the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and became a mere national minority in a binational Czechoslovak state. In the years directly after World War I and before World War II, they supported annexation by Austria and/or Germany. It is...

  9. CHAPTER FOUR Triadic Ethnic Bargaining: Hungarian Minorities in Postcommunist Slovakia and Romania
    (pp. 91-124)

    After the Treaty of Trianon stripped Hungary of two-thirds of its land and population in 1920, a national mythology developed around the nearly 2.5 million Hungarians now residing in contemporary Serbia, Slovakia, and Romania—the primary beneficiaries of the postwar border adjustments. Hungarian revanchism led Budapest to join the Axis Powers in World War II, allowing it to regain some of its lost territories before losing them again at the end of the war. Although Hungary’s involvement with its diaspora was limited during the Cold War, the fall of communism in 1989 led politicians and opinion leaders to revisit Trianon...

  10. CHAPTER FIVE Dyadic Ethnic Bargaining: Slovak versus Moravian Nationalism in Postcommunist Czechoslovakia
    (pp. 125-158)

    The 1989 Velvet Revolution gave rise to not one but two regional movements in Czechoslovakia: one in Slovakia and the other in Moravia (see map 5.1).¹ Although their beginnings were similar in many ways, the two movements yielded remarkably different outcomes. Slovak nationalism continued to grow in strength and culminated in the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, whereas the Moravian regional movement quickly lost momentum and ultimately disappeared from the political map. A number of scholars have investigated the causes of the Slovak secession. Explanations for the 1993 Czech-Slovak split range from latent Slovak nationalism² to economic incentives³ to elite opportunism⁴ to...

  11. CHAPTER SIX Ethnic Bargaining in the Balkans: Secessionist Kosovo versus Integrationist Vojvodina
    (pp. 159-183)

    This chapter serves as an initial test of the applicability of the ethnic bargaining model outside central Europe. Yugoslavia provides a useful laboratory for this plausibility probe because it differs in important ways from its northern neighbors while having many other characteristics in common. Yugoslavia, like Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Hungary, experienced forty years of communist rule that denied all unofficially sanctioned forms of national expression. Unlike these other countries, however, Yugoslavia has a recent history of internecine warfare—with violent rather than peaceful secessionist conflicts. Hence, this probe into the Balkans holds many regional factors more or less constant while...

  12. CHAPTER SEVEN Conclusion and Policy Implications
    (pp. 184-198)

    What are the lessons of this book for resolving ethnic conflict? This question is of paramount importance in a world where sectarian divides do not observe political boundaries. Many of the most intractable conflicts in the postwar period have been fought over group claims for greater political autonomy or independent statehood, including the decades-long conflicts in Palestine, Sri Lanka, Northern Ireland, Kashmir, Sudan, Turkey, and Myanmar, to name but a few. Nearly always waged in the name of national emancipation or historical injustice, it is tempting to view these wars as somehow predetermined or fated to happen. We might, then,...

  13. Notes
    (pp. 199-246)
  14. Interviews
    (pp. 247-250)
  15. Selected Bibliography
    (pp. 251-264)
  16. Index
    (pp. 265-274)