Bringing Outsiders In

Bringing Outsiders In: Transatlantic Perspectives on Immigrant Political Incorporation

Jennifer L. Hochschild
John H. Mollenkopf
Copyright Date: 2009
Edition: 1
Published by: Cornell University Press
Pages: 392
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  • Book Info
    Bringing Outsiders In
    Book Description:

    For immigrants, politics can play a significant role in determining whether and how they assimilate. In Bringing Outsiders In, leading social scientists present individual cases and work toward a comparative synthesis of how immigrants affect-and are affected by-civic life on both sides of the Atlantic. Just as in the United States, large immigrant minority communities have been emerging across Europe. While these communities usually make up less than one-tenth of national populations, they typically have a large presence in urban areas, sometimes approaching a majority.

    That immigrants can have an even greater political salience than their population might suggest has been demonstrated in recent years in places as diverse as Sweden and France. Attending to how local and national states encourage or discourage political participation, the authors assess the relative involvement of immigrants in a wide range of settings. Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf provide a context for the particular cases and comparisons and draw a set of analytic and empirical conclusions regarding incorporation.

    eISBN: 978-0-8014-6197-2
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
    J. L. H. and J. H. M.

    • CHAPTER ONE Setting the Context
      (pp. 3-14)
      John H. Mollenkopf and Jennifer L. Hochschild

      Over the last six decades, millions of immigrants have arrived in the wealthy democracies of Western Europe and North America. Despite increasing restrictions, the volume of arrivals remained high as families reunite, asylum seekers find safe havens, undocumented workers cross borders, and residents of the new accession states of the European Union travel west. The current economic crisis may slow these flows, but they will resume with recovery. Immigrants come from many different countries and have diverse motives: finding economic opportunity, escaping political conflict, and following kinship networks. Groups concentrate in specific places: Mexicans in California, Cubans in Florida, Turks...

    • CHAPTER TWO Modeling Immigrant Political Incorporation
      (pp. 15-30)
      Jennifer L. Hochschild and John H. Mollenkopf

      By definition, immigrants have always been included in some fashion or other in the states to which they permanently migrate. In some countries and at some times, immigrants have been granted or have seized a route from the political margins to the center, at least across generations. They have protested, voted, engaged in informal politics, and on occasion been welcomed and influential.

      So there is variation along several dimensions, many illuminating case studies, and a plethora of important outcomes—but few systematic or theoretically elegant analyses of the modes and trajectories of immigrant political incorporation (however, see Marco Martiniello, chap....


    • [PART II Introduction]
      (pp. 31-32)

      What is immigrant political incorporation? How does it differ from the political incorporation of minority groups or uninvolved native-born individuals in the majority population? Does political incorporation resemble economic or social incorporation? Does political inclusion take varied forms, follow different routes, or get blocked at predictable points along the way? Is political exclusion simply the mirror opposite of political incorporation for immigrants? For immigrant political incorporation to advance as a field of study, scholars must answer these questions; we need at least a rough consensus on what is distinctive about political (dis)incorporation for immigrants, what aspects of it are well...

    • CHAPTER THREE Immigrants and Their Offspring in Europe as Political Subjects
      (pp. 33-47)
      Marco Martiniello

      Academic, political, and policy debates have offered many insights about the position of immigrants and of their offspring in Europe. As Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf (chap. 2 in this volume) have outlined, the themes raised about immigrants depend on the local, national, and international context, in particular the orientation of those in power toward immigrants and the mobilization of the immigrants themselves. Since the 1980s, migration has been at the top of the political agenda in the European Union and North America. This politicization has led to an overdramatization, and sometimes a media saturation, of the issue, because many...

    • CHAPTER FOUR Lost in Translation? A Critical Reappraisal of the Concept of Immigrant Political Incorporation
      (pp. 48-60)
      Lorraine C. Minnite

      The return to high levels of immigration to the United States over the last forty years has generated a familiar concern for how immigrants are changing U.S. society. Sometimes this concern is motivated by a prickly nativism, a lingering anxiety about what “they” are doing to “us” and how much we might have to change to include, accommodate, or simply tolerate “them” (Huntington 2004). More broad-minded people who retain their faith in the power of democratic institutions to “make citizens” nevertheless worry that these institutions may not be up to the task of integrating so many more newcomers from so...


    • [PART III Introduction]
      (pp. 61-62)

      Whereas national laws govern the entry, legal status, and naturalization of immigrants to a host country, more local arenas shape their lives. The neighborhoods, cities, and regions in which immigrants live; the schools their children attend; the libraries they frequent; the police they encounter; and other civic services they use are, as they are for the native-born, the political entities most important in immigrants’ day-to-day activities. Localities can offer immigrants opportunity for participation in labor unions, neighborhood associations, school councils, public-sector service jobs, religious organizations, and town governance; they sometimes even grant local suffrage to noncitizens. Communities can harbor zones...

    • CHAPTER FIVE Swiss Citizenship: A Municipal Approach to Participation?
      (pp. 63-73)
      Gianni D’Amato

      “The Federal Council [Swiss Government] is directly responsible to the people. The sovereign has decided. Its vote should be applied and there is nothing else to be added.” With these words, Christoph Blocher, former minister of justice, endorsed the Swiss voters’ September 2004 defeat of measures that would have widened access to citizenship for the immigrant second generation and introduced jus soli principles for the third generation (D’Amato and Skenderovic forthcoming). This was contrary to Swiss tradition, under which members of the government are supposed to indicate feasible solutions in their areas of responsibility and build bridges to those who...

    • CHAPTER SIX The New Urban Politics of Integration: A View from the Gateway Cities
      (pp. 74-92)
      John H. Mollenkopf and Raphael Sonenshein

      Major population shifts have always affected local politics first in the United States, having an impact on national politics only after a long and winding trail. When a large number of people reach new destinations, established residents often react unfavorably to their arrival, which perturbs local politics. In time, the new entrants find their way into local politics through some combination of organizing themselves, being organized by others, challenging the status quo, and allying with established groups. The 36 million mainly European immigrants who migrated to the United States between 1840 and 1930 literally built its great cities and were...

    • CHAPTER SEVEN Political Institutions and Rainbow Coalitions: Immigrant-Minority Relations in New York and Hartford
      (pp. 93-110)
      Reuel Rogers

      Immigration has reshaped the demography of the metropolitan United States in the last half century. Cities, once largely a mix of blacks and whites, are now decidedly multiracial, with rapidly increasing numbers of immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. There are countless questions about how these demographic shifts will change the urban political landscape. One of the most important is whether these immigrants will engage in coalition building or conflict with native-born groups. Intergroup dynamics typically have had significant implications for the political-incorporation patterns of urban minority populations, such as African Americans, whose prospects for inclusion often hinge...


    • [PART IV Introduction]
      (pp. 111-114)

      We turn next to the national level. The interest groups, electoral system, political party incentives, statutory and constitutional structures, and cultural traditions of a country all emerge as critical influences on immigrants’ political incorporation. Both immigrants and native-born political actors have an array of choices to make and strategies to consider. Nevertheless, as at the local level, elites who support immigration and immigrants’ inclusion lack a free hand to foster their goals. They are constrained not only by deeply embedded laws and institutions but also by a fluctuating and occasionally uncontrollable hostility to immigrants that emerges from an interaction between...

    • CHAPTER EIGHT Successes and Failures of Muslim Integration in France and Germany
      (pp. 115-128)
      Christian Joppke

      If we compare immigrant integration in Europe and the United States, we immediately hit a paradox. In Europe, religion and how to deal with Muslim immigrants are indisputably the major topics. By contrast, in the United States the main problem seems to be language and how to deal with Hispanic immigrants (Zolberg and Woon 1999; Huntington 2004). This is despite the fact that it is the United States that has waged major wars against groups and regimes that are Islamic in claim or origins. The country that lamentably has become, together with Israel, the most hated country in the Islamic...

    • CHAPTER NINE A Multicultural Paradise? The Cultural Factor in Dutch Integration Policy
      (pp. 129-139)
      Jan Willem Duyvendak, Trees Pels and Rally Rijkschroeff

      Western European countries heatedly debate the issue of how much and what kind of cultural differentiation is to be allowed in the public domain. Many have witnessed the rise of right-wing populist parties that see migrants as a threat to social cohesion and national identity (Van Kersbergen and Krouwel 2003; Michael Minkenberg, chap. 10 in this volume). Whether the integration policy in the past has stressed accommodating immigrants’ cultural or religious identities, as in the Netherlands and Great Britain, or cultural monism or uniformity, as in Germany and France, the culture debate continues to rage widely (e.g., Brubaker 2001; Favell...

    • CHAPTER TEN Anti-Immigrant Politics in Europe: The Radical Right, Xenophobic Tendencies, and Their Political Environment
      (pp. 140-157)
      Michael Minkenberg

      Today’s European societies are characterized by socially and economically marginal immigrant communities. Political elites—largely divided on this issue—respond mainly when the media report or public outcries push them, rarely in immigrants’ favor. More established parties compete with old and new radical right parties, which now regularly strive to push the political agenda on immigration and multiculturalism in many countries to the right, sometimes with violence.

      This chapter examines the rise of radical right-wing anti-immigrant politics and violence in several European democracies, and their impact on established parties, mainstream debate, and public policies affecting immigrant political incorporation. It underscores...

    • CHAPTER ELEVEN Immigrants’ Incorporation in the United States after 9/11: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back
      (pp. 158-175)
      Peter H. Schuck

      The last decade has been momentous for immigrants to the United States and for the course of their integration into U.S. society. If we look for a smooth trajectory, we will be sorely disappointed. Instead, immigrants’ path to integration has been characterized by forward progress interrupted by setbacks and new obstacles. The bitter debate over immigration legislation that has roiled the U.S. Congress since 2005 might seem evidence of another sharp detour in this path.

      At a deeper socioeconomic level, however, the powerful U.S. assimilatory machine has continued to churn out millions of new citizens and legal permanent residents (LPRs...

    • CHAPTER TWELVE Building through Exclusion: Anti-Immigrant Politics in the United States
      (pp. 176-192)
      Luis Ricardo Fraga

      In January 2004, President George W. Bush called for comprehensive immigration reform in launching his reelection campaign. Immigration became a high profile issue in U.S. national politics in late 2005, received unprecedented attention in spring 2006, and remained significant through parts of the 2008 presidential election. Usually, this pattern happens during major economic downturns but this focus on immigration occurred well before the economic meltdown of September 2008. Nor was there a major immigration scandal, albeit there were some arguments that several of the 9/11 perpetrators had overstayed their visas.

      No one predicted, however, that the House of Representatives would...


    • [PART V Introduction]
      (pp. 193-194)

      In previous chapters in this volume, Marco Martiniello (chap. 3) and Lorraine Minnite (chap. 4) call for greater attention to transnationalism in understanding immigrants’ political behavior; the chapters in Part V respond. In chapter 13, Eva Østergaard-Nielsen takes a bottom-up approach to this issue, looking at how Turkish and Kurdish immigrants to Western Europe balance mobilization around issues in their new countries against mobilization around issues in their country of origin. In chapter 14, Gallya Lahav takes a top-down approach to the question of movement across borders, examining the attitudes of EU political elites regarding immigration policy and immigrant incorporation....

    • CHAPTER THIRTEEN The End of Closet Political Transnationalism? The Role of Homeland Politics in the Political Incorporation of Turks and Kurds in Europe
      (pp. 195-210)
      Eva Østergaard-Nielsen

      In the Danish local elections in the early 1990s, a Turkish-origin candidate was listed for the Social Democratic Party in one of the Copenhagen constituencies. He was running in an area with a high concentration of migrants, especially Turkish-origin migrants, who had gained the right to vote in local elections more than a decade earlier. Then, as now, the support for the Social Democratic Party, which was in government up through the 1980s, was high among Turkish-origin voters. Still, to help out the candidate, party officials offered to invite a prominent Turkish social democrat from Turkey to boost the campaign....

    • CHAPTER FOURTEEN Organizing Immigration Interests in the European Union: Constraints and Opportunities for Supranational Migration Regulation and Integration
      (pp. 211-230)
      Gallya Lahav

      Assuming that immigrant incorporation is affected by host-country reception and policy environments, attitudinal and institutional norms reveal how Europeans reconcile their diverse interests around migration. Moreover, they provide key insights about how democratic societies may accommodate immigrant groups in their midst—a question driving the rationale of this book. In a global era of new security threats, western democracies are increasingly caught between their political and security pressures to protect their borders and their rights-based and global market norms—what has elsewhere been described as “the migration-security-rights trilemma” (Lahav 2005, 1). On the one hand, the realist pursuit of state...


    • [PART VI Introduction]
      (pp. 231-232)

      Individual migrants and immigrant groups are neither passive recipients of native-born politicians’ actions nor helpless victims of extant political institutions and practices. Earlier chapters in Bringing Outsiders In have already pointed to immigrant agency. At a theoretical level, Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf (chap. 2), Marco Martiniello (chap. 3), and Lorraine C. Minnite (chap. 4, all in this volume) insist that incorporation is a two-way street of influence and change. At an empirical level, Luis Fraga (chap. 12), Eva Østergaard-Nielsen (chap. 13), Mollenkopf and Raphael Sonenshein (chap. 6), and Reuel Rogers (chap. 7, all in this volume) have attended to...

    • CHAPTER FIFTEEN The State and Ethno-Religious Mobilization in Britain
      (pp. 233-249)
      Tariq Modood

      The migration into western democratic nation-states of the last few decades has seen an assertive politics in several countries on the part of the migrants and second-generation immigrants, explored here with particular reference to Britain. Of course, migrants and members of minorities do not have to participate in politics as migrants or as minorities; they may even eschew such categorization and the exoticness that implies, and certainly they may participate in politics in a variety of ways typical of nonmigrants. My concern here, however, is ideologies of identity and mobilization that have been present under certain racialized conditions prevailing in...

    • CHAPTER SIXTEEN Differences in the City: Parallel Worlds, Migration, and Inclusion of Differences in the Urban Space
      (pp. 250-259)
      Sandro Cattacin

      The city attracts diversity: different ways of life, different trajectories, and different socioeconomic positions. Its anonymity promises liberty and attracts people who are searching for new opportunities. The city simultaneously combines the promise of indifference toward diversity (as outlined by Simmel 2001 [1900]) and of a possible social ascension, thereby particularly attracting people on the move. Cities draw both the elite of the “creative class” (Florida 2004) and the poor of society in search of a better future. In this sense, the city, par excellence, attracts migrants.

      Traditionally, urban sociology has analyzed how migrants become included in urban life in...

    • CHAPTER SEVENTEEN In Pursuit of Inclusion: Citizenship Acquisition among Asian Immigrants
      (pp. 260-276)
      Janelle Wong and Adrian D. Pantoja

      For immigrants in the United States, the acquisition of U.S. citizenship is a critical prerequisite for political inclusion because naturalized citizens enjoy many of the same rights and privileges afforded to individuals born on U.S. soil, including the right to vote and hold elective office (with the exception of the presidency). For much of history of this country, race (which was often synonymous with national origin) was the key factor determining who was eligible for admission into the country and eligible for citizenship. “Whiteness” became the legal moniker dividing those who were eligible for inclusion in the national community from...

    • CHAPTER EIGHTEEN Entering the Precincts of Power: Do National Differences Matter for Immigrant Minority Political Representation?
      (pp. 277-294)
      Richard Alba and Nancy Foner

      The 2005 riots in the French suburbs brought to the fore in a dramatic way our need to better understand how immigrants and their descendants are integrated into European societies and how European patterns compare with those that have developed in the United States. The riots also made clear the need to revisit comparative perspectives that have been prominent in the scholarly literature. Much of the comparative literature that looks at immigration in Europe and the United States has focused on the political sphere, particularly state policy regarding immigrants and immigration. A frequent concern is the question of convergence—whether...


    • CHAPTER NINETEEN Understanding Immigrant Political Incorporation through Comparison
      (pp. 297-316)
      Jennifer L. Hochschild and John H. Mollenkopf

      About 200 million individuals, approximately 3 percent of the world population, live outside the country where they were born. Over 100 million migrants live in the more developed regions of the world, including 9 million in Northern Europe, 22 million in Western Europe, 6 million in Canada, and 38 million in the United States. Proportionally, 9 percent of the residents of Northern Europe, 12 percent of those in Western Europe, 19 percent of those in Canada, and 13 percent of residents of the United States are immigrants (United Nations 2006). (These figures include refugees displaced by conflict as well as...

  11. Notes
    (pp. 317-324)
  12. References
    (pp. 325-362)
  13. Contributor Biographies
    (pp. 363-366)
  14. Index
    (pp. 367-382)