Anti-Americanisms in World Politics

Anti-Americanisms in World Politics

Peter J. Katzenstein
Robert O. Keohane
Copyright Date: 2007
Edition: 1
Published by: Cornell University Press
Pages: 368
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7591/j.ctt7zc83
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  • Book Info
    Anti-Americanisms in World Politics
    Book Description:

    Anti-Americanism has been the subject of much commentary but little serious research. In response, Peter J. Katzenstein and Robert O. Keohane have assembled a distinguished group of experts, including historians, polling-data analysts, political scientists, anthropologists, and sociologists, to explore anti-Americanism in depth, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The result is a book that probes deeply a central aspect of world politics that is frequently noted yet rarely understood.

    Katzenstein and Keohane identify several quite different anti-Americanisms-liberal, social, sovereign-nationalist, and radical. Some forms of anti-Americanism respond merely to what the United States does, and could change when U.S. policies change. Other forms are reactions to what the United States is, and involve greater bias and distrust. The complexity of anti-Americanism, they argue, reflects the cultural and political complexities of American society. The analysis in this book leads to a surprising discovery: there are as many ways to be anti-American as there are ways to be American.

    eISBN: 978-0-8014-6165-1
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-xiv)
    Peter J. Katzenstein and Robert O. Keohane
  4. Introduction: The Politics of Anti-Americanisms
    (pp. 1-6)
    ROBERT O. KEOHANE and PETER J. KATZENSTEIN

    In 1941 Henry Luce spoke of the coming of “the American Century.”¹ Today commentators across the political spectrum emphasize America’s dominant military capabilities and economic strength. Many observers have also argued that the United States uniquely benefits from the wave of economic liberalization and democratization that followed the end of the cold war. Joseph S. Nye has coined a catchy phrase, “soft power,” to suggest the importance of being admired, so that “others want what you want.”² Nye argued that the United States has commanded a lot of soft power. Indeed, with the end of the cold war it seemed...

  5. I ANTI-AMERICANISM AND AMERICANISM
    • 1 Varieties of Anti-Americanism: A Framework for Analysis
      (pp. 9-38)
      PETER J. KATZENSTEIN and ROBERT O. KEOHANE

      Anti-Americanism has a historical pedigree dating back to the eighteenth century. Since World War II such sentiment has waxed and waned in various parts of the world. American GIs were welcomed widely in the 1940s as liberators of a Europe occupied by Nazi Germany, and as protectors of a Europe that felt threatened by the Soviet Union in the 1950s. Yet a few years later the “ugly American” became an object of scorn and derision.¹ In the second half of the 1960s the U.S. war in Vietnam became a rallying cry for a powerful antiwar movement that fueled anti-American sentiments...

    • 2 Imagining America: The Promise and Peril of Boundlessness
      (pp. 39-54)
      DAVID M. KENNEDY

      The European imagination was already groping toward a meaning for America bien avant la lettre. Hope and anxiety alike attended the enterprise from the outset. When Dante’s Ulysses dared “to venture the uncharted distances” oceanward of the Pillars of Hercules, in search of “the uninhabited world behind the sun,” was it heroism or hubris, a valorous quest to broaden the sphere of human endeavor or an insolent rebellion against the will of the gods? In Dante’s account, Ulysses, after persuading his balky crew to slip the confines of the Mediterranean by sailing west of Gibraltar, roams the open ocean for...

  6. II PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARD THE UNITED STATES
    • 3 Anti-Americanism in Europe during the Cold War
      (pp. 57-92)
      PIERANGELO ISERNIA

      Anti-Americanism deservedly merits the label of an “essentially contested concept.”¹ It is difficult to pinpoint precisely its nature and characteristics, since anti-Americanism in Europe has taken the form of a recurrent set of themes, some of them going back to the American Revolution,² that have been played out over and over again in different tunes and rhythms. Indeed, the persistence of anti-Americanism is partly explained by its very contentious nature. It serves sometimes as an instrument for delegitimizing political opponents’ credentials to govern and sometimes “for mobilizing popular support and deflecting frustration away from the leadership toward a foreign, omnipresent...

    • 4 Disaggregating Anti-Americanism: An Analysis of Individual Attitudes toward the United States
      (pp. 93-126)
      GIACOMO CHIOZZA

      In the wake of the terrorist attacks on the United States, anti-Americanism—the opposition to America, its name, its ideals, and its actions—has become a central feature of public discourse in the United States and the world over. That anti-Americanism is spreading and deepening is taken as a matter-of-fact statement that does not deserve any further empirical validation. Charles Krauthammer, the influential Washington Post columnist, popularized this notion with harrowing words: “It is pure fiction that this pro-American sentiment was either squandered after Sept. 11 or lost under the Bush Administration. It never existed. Envy for America, resentment of...

  7. III ANTI-AMERICANISM IN DIFFERENT SOCIETIES
    • 5 The Distinctiveness of French Anti-Americanism
      (pp. 129-156)
      SOPHIE MEUNIER

      “The French president has no rivals as global spokesman on anti-Americanism,” the Economist recently wrote.¹ Between taking the lead in the anti-globalization movement in the late 1990s and in the movement against a war in Iraq in 2003, France confirmed its image as the “oldest enemy” among America’s friends.² After all, even before the days of Chirac and de Gaulle, France had always seemed to be at the forefront of animosity toward the United States—from eighteenth-century theories about the degeneration of species in the New World to twentieth-century denunciations of the Coca-Colonization of the Old World.³

      In recent years,...

    • 6 Chinese Attitudes toward the United States and Americans
      (pp. 157-195)
      ALASTAIR IAIN JOHNSTON and DANIELA STOCKMANN

      The conventional wisdom in the United States is that anti-Americanism is on the rise in China, particularly among Chinese youth, as the state fosters nationalism to replace Marxism-Leninism as the basis of its legitimacy.¹ This particular conventional wisdom about China has not been subject to careful empirical analysis.² Part of the problem is that the conventional wisdom has come from three sources that are methodologically problematic: anecdotal evidence based on U.S. media reporting, selective attention to certain popular publications in China, and conversations with a relatively small group of Chinese scholars and officials. For instance, the sources used by the...

    • 7 Anti-Americanisms in the Arab World
      (pp. 196-224)
      MARC LYNCH

      The findings of the 2003 Pew Global Attitudes Project survey that the bottom had fallen out of support for the United States in the Muslim world galvanized official and popular attention around the threat to national security posed by rampant anti-Americanism in the Arab world. Does this crisis of anti-Americanism really exist? As Timothy Mitchell puts it, most analysis of anti-Americanism in the region portrays it as “something elusive and yet ubiquitous . . . elusive because we are given no concrete evidence of it.”¹ Marching crowds of protestors burning American flags tell us little about their motivations or the...

  8. IV DYNAMICS OF ANTI-AMERICANISM
    • 8 Anti-Americanism as Schemas and Diacritics in France and Indonesia
      (pp. 227-250)
      JOHN R. BOWEN

      The phrase “anti-Americanism” suggests a set of individual, irrational attitudes toward Americans, U.S. society, or the U.S. government. We can view the matter in a slightly different way, however: in terms of the ideas, images, and theories (or “schemas,” a concept I develop below) held concerning the United States. These ideas might be negative, positive, or relatively neutral. People often hold a number of such ideas. They may be in tension with, or even contradict, one another. Some of these ideas will be more salient at some times rather than others, possibly because of current events. People also may deploy...

    • 9 Legacies of Anti-Americanism: A Sociological Perspective
      (pp. 251-270)
      DOUG MCADAM

      Anti-Americanism is generally treated as yet another instance of American exceptionalism. Yet as the editors point out in the introduction, anti-imperial sentiments have a long history. The Roman Empire would surely have aroused fear, envy, and enmity among the peoples subject to or threatened by its rule. Even if we restrict ourselves to the contemporary world, anti-Americanism has been studied only rarely and then seemingly as a phenomenon unto itself. That is, it has not been seen as a specific, if extreme, example of any more generic social phenomenon. No doubt there are features of anti-Americanism that mark it as...

  9. V CONSEQUENCES AND CONCLUSIONS
    • 10 The Political Consequences of Anti-Americanism
      (pp. 273-305)
      ROBERT O. KEOHANE and PETER J. KATZENSTEIN

      When one of us recently told a U.S. passport control officer about having just given a lecture in Canada on anti-Americanism, the officer commented, “We could just say we don’t care.” When told that such an option had deficiencies, the officer replied, “It would send a wake-up call to the rest of the world.”

      Should we care about anti-Americanism? To persuade Americans that it should not be so easily shrugged off, one would have to provide evidence that anti-Americanism either has direct political effects that damage U.S. interests and values, or that its indirect effects would be harmful. This chapter...

  10. Conclusion: Anti-Americanisms and the Polyvalence of America
    (pp. 306-316)
    PETER J. KATZENSTEIN and ROBERT O. KEOHANE

    When we think about the varieties of anti-Americanism, two puzzles are readily apparent. First, why does such a rich variety of anti-American views persist? Second, why do persistent and adaptable anti-American views have so little direct impact on policy and political practice? Anti-Americanism reflects opinion and distrust, and sometimes bias. Often it generates expressive activity: demonstrating, marching, waving banners, even symbolically smashing the windows of a McDonald’s restaurant in France. But it is not a political force that frequently overturns governments, leads American multinational firms to disguise their origins, or propels the U.S. government to make major policy changes.

    We...

  11. References
    (pp. 317-340)
  12. List of Contributors
    (pp. 341-342)
  13. Index
    (pp. 343-354)