Logics of Hierarchy

Logics of Hierarchy: The Organization of Empires, States, and Military Occupations

Alexander Cooley
Copyright Date: 2005
Edition: 1
Published by: Cornell University Press
Pages: 208
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7591/j.ctt7zf5k
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Logics of Hierarchy
    Book Description:

    Political science has had trouble generating models that unify the study of the formation and consolidation of various types of states and empires. The business-administration literature, however, has long experience in observing organizations. According to a dominant model in this field, business firms generally take one of two forms: unitary (U) or multidivisional (M). The U-form organizes its various elements along the lines of administrative functions, whereas the M-form governs its periphery according to geography and territory.

    In Logics of Hierarchy, Alexander Cooley applies this model to political hierarchies across different cultures, geographical settings, and historical eras to explain a variety of seemingly disparate processes: state formation, imperial governance, and territorial occupation. Cooley illustrates the power of this formal distinction with detailed accounts of the experiences of Central Asian republics in the Soviet and post-Soviet eras, and compares them to developments in the former Yugoslavia, the governance of modern European empires, Korea during and after Japanese occupation, and the recent U.S. occupation of Iraq.

    In applying this model, Logics of Hierarchy reveals the varying organizational ability of powerful states to promote institutional transformation in their political peripheries and the consequences of these formations in determining pathways of postimperial extrication and state-building. Its focus on the common organizational problems of hierarchical polities challenges much of the received wisdom about imperialism and postimperialism.

    eISBN: 978-0-8014-6249-8
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-vii)
  3. List of Figures and Tables
    (pp. viii-ix)
  4. Preface
    (pp. x-xiv)
    Alexander Cooley
  5. CHAPTER ONE UNDERSTANDING HIERARCHY IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICS
    (pp. 1-19)

    A central motivation of the United States in its 2003 invasion of Iraq was to topple the regime of Saddam Hussein and fundamentally change the domestic political institutions and political culture of an oil-rich Middle Eastern country. Proponents of the campaign argued that American military power could and should be wielded in order to promote democratization, speculating that a “free” Iraq would serve as an important model of political transformation for the surrounding region. Summarizing this view, on November 6, 2003, United States President George W. Bush declared that American foreign policy, as embodied by events in Iraq, had adopted...

  6. CHAPTER TWO FORMS OF HIERARCHY: THE U-FORM AND M-FORM
    (pp. 20-42)

    There are an array of forms associated with functional and territorial modes of hierarchical organization. Applying the U-form and M-form to various political actors and processes in international politics allows the drawing of connections among political organizations usually considered disparate. In both the security and the economic spheres, a common set of organizational forms structure and order hierarchical interactions. Chapter 3 will explore the organizational characteristics and causal effects of these organizational forms, but this chapter is concerned with identifying these organizational forms, applying them to various political settings, and demonstrating the conceptual advantages of thinking about political organization in...

  7. CHAPTER THREE THE GOVERNANCE OF HIERARCHY: PATHS OF INSTITUTIONAL FORMATION
    (pp. 43-63)

    Having defined the concepts of organizational form and applied them to political settings, this chapter examines the causal effects of the U-form and M-form on the governance and institutional formation of a periphery. Each of these organizational forms is characterized by a relatively different set of governance costs, information flow patterns, and opportunism types. Accordingly, these characteristics tend to create harmonizing political institutions in a U-form periphery and patrimonial institutions in an M-form periphery. All else being equal, the harmonizing tendencies of the U-form are more likely to produce real institutional change within peripheries than the patrimonial dynamics engendered by...

  8. CHAPTER FOUR AN EMPIRICAL ILLUSTRATION: SOVIET CENTRAL ASIA
    (pp. 64-94)

    Conceptual distinctions among different forms of hierarchy, their characteristics, and predictions about their causal effects on patterns of governance and institutional formation have been set forth. This chapter presents four sectoral cases—two in security and two in economy—in Soviet Central Asia as empirical illustrations of these conceptual claims. Applying the firm-type model to the Soviet case allows us to chart how these two distinct governance logics generated very different types of political institutions and state-building within the same political setting. Thus, the sectoral approach offered here captures internal variation in the development of the Soviet polity, a matter...

  9. CHAPTER FIVE THE LEGACIES OF HIERARCHY: DIVERGENT PATHS OF EXTRICATION
    (pp. 95-125)

    The natures of U-form and M-form governance and their effects impart varying legacies after a hierarchy collapses. Organizational forms generate different types of political institutions and downstream effects. After the original hierarchy collapses, peripheral U-form sectors will become institutional fragments, with no clear organizational ties to the new core; M-form sectors will tend to persist relatively intact (fig. 5.1) as part of a new, independent state.¹ This endogenous logic of organizational forms and posthierarchical collapse constitutes the theoretical basis for assessing the various modes of state-building in the postindependence era.

    The first part of this chapter presents the organizational logic...

  10. CHAPTER SIX COMPARATIVE APPLICATIONS: YUGOSLAVIA, KOREA, AND IRAQ
    (pp. 126-156)

    The previous chapters have sketched out an organizational theory of hierarchy and advanced the plausibility that it explains some significant dynamics of transnational hierarchies and their legacies. But generating a theory and illustrating it is not sufficient. As Ronald Rogowski observes, new theories should strive to generate empirically accurate explanations but should also engage with long-standing debates and topics so as provide fresh insights and perspectives.¹ The final two chapters in this study are designed to demonstrate that the firm-type model can be applied usefully to other settings and can offer new theoretical insights into current topics and debates across...

  11. CHAPTER SEVEN HIERARCHY IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD
    (pp. 157-180)

    This book has developed a theory of hierarchy and applied it to various political settings and theoretical issues in international politics. It has laid out a unifying theory for the study of political hierarchy across traditional subfields, used it to generate new explanations for certain empirical processes, and provided new explanations and insights into existing debates. This final chapter examines how the firm-type model might increase understanding of the contemporary international system and political trends in globalization, a phenomenon that has increasingly occupied the attention of social scientists with its bewildering array of issues, processes, and outcomes.

    Two theoretical trends...

  12. Index
    (pp. 181-192)