The Attalids of Pergamon

The Attalids of Pergamon

Esther V. Hansen
Volume: 36
Copyright Date: 1971
Edition: 2
Published by: Cornell University Press
Pages: 552
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  • Book Info
    The Attalids of Pergamon
    Book Description:

    This is a comprehensive political and cultural history of the Hellenistic Attalid dynasty established in 282 B.C. in present-day southwest Turkey after the collapse of the Lysimachian Empire. Originally published in the Cornell Studies in Classical Philology series in 1947, the second edition has been substantially revised to take into account scholarship in the intervening years. Esther V. Hansen addresses the principates of Philetaerus Eumenes I; the reigns of Attalus I and Eumenes II; the last years of the Attalid dynasty; the kingdom of the Attalids, their building activities, art, coinage, and patronage of learning; and the cults of Pergamon.

    eISBN: 978-0-8014-6676-2
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Preface to Second Edition
    (pp. vii-viii)
    E. V. H
  3. Preface to First Edition
    (pp. ix-x)
    E. V. H
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. xi-xiii)
  5. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. xiv-xvi)
  6. Introduction
    (pp. xvii-xxi)

    Of the large circle of scholars and writers who enjoyed the patron- age of the Attalids only a few seem to have directed their attention to the history of the dynasty. Lysimachus, the tutor of Attalus I, wrote an account of the education of his royal pupil (περί παιδείας Aттáλου), a work the historical value of which was, however, compromised by its strong tendency to adulation (Athen. VI 252c; FHG. III, p. 2 = F. Gr. Hist. II B, p. 895). Another member of the same literary group, Neanthes, who came from Cyzicus, the birthplace of the wife of Attalus...

  7. [Illustrations]
    (pp. xxii-xxii)
  8. CHAPTER I The Valley of the Caïcus
    (pp. 1-13)

    Four main rivers drain the western slope of Asia Minor, the Caïcus, the Hermus, the Caÿster, and the Maeander. The Caïcus, the northernmost, now called the Bakir-Tschaï, is also the shortest, its total course measuring only about fifty miles. The fertile plain through which the river flows, forming the southwestern part of ancient Mysia, is enclosed on all sides by mountains. On the north rises the great massif of the Madaras-Dag, a spur from which, projecting to the southwest, was known in antiquity as the Pindasus. To the west of this ridge a broken mountain mass extends to the coast,...

  9. CHAPTER II The Principate of Philetaerus and of Eumenes I
    (pp. 14-25)

    As soon as Alexander obtained control of Asia Minor he installed Macedonian officers in most of the Persian satrapies. Lydia he entrusted to Asander, Parmenio’s brother, and later, in 331 B.C., to Menander, to whose province Pergamon and the neighboring regions were added.¹ At the redistribution made at Triparadeisos in 321 Lydia was assigned to the admiral Cleitus, but two years later the province was seized by Antigonus, who had been put in charge of Greater Phrygia. By the peace of 311 Antigonus was recognized as ruler of all of Hither Asia,² but when he lost his life at the...

  10. CHAPTER III The Reign of Attalus I
    (pp. 26-69)

    Attalus I, the son of Attalus and Antiochis, was born in 269 B.C.¹ during the reign of his granduncle, the founder of the dynasty.² His father, together with the latter’s uncles, Philetaerus and Eumenes, is mentioned in the decrees of the Delphians as a benefactor of the city and as the recipient of the outstanding privileges which were given to the other two.³ The elder Attalus was also victor in a chariot race at Olympia during the reign of Philetaerus and was honored in Pergamon by monuments.⁴ To the same contest or to others won by him may also refer...

  11. CHAPTER IV The Reign of Eumenes II
    (pp. 70-129)

    Eumenes succeeded his father, says Polybius, “in a kingdom reduced to a few petty little towns, but this he raised to the level of the largest dynasties of his day.”¹ Again, Philip, when urging his sons to live in harmony and good will, cited as examples their contemporaries Eumenes and Attalus, who “inheriting a small kingdom, increased it so much, simply by their concord and agreement and mutual respect, that it is now inferior to none.”² Strabo also, defining more accurately the boundaries of Eumenes’ inheritance, states that before the war with Antiochus “the territory of Pergamon did not include...

  12. CHAPTER V The Last Years of the Dynasty
    (pp. 130-165)

    When Attalus II succeeded his brother Eumenes in 159 B.C., he was already sixty-one, an experienced general and statesman. To strengthen his position Attalus married Stratonice the queen, a circumstance which may account for the conduct imputed to him at the time of the attack upon Eumenes at Delphi.¹ Plutarch states that several children were born of this marriage; this was, of course, possible if Stratonice was only in her early or middle thirties at the time.² Since C. Julius Severus of Ancyra, who had a distinguished career under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, claimed to be a descendant of King...

  13. CHAPTER VI The Kingdom of the Attalids
    (pp. 166-233)

    The kingdom of Pergamon, as defined by the Senate in 189 B.C. and inclusive of the islands Aegina and Andros, comprised an area of about 66,750 square miles, or slightly more than that of New England. Its population has been estimated as five and a half millions.¹ Whether or not the Attalids retained the territorial divisions corresponding to the Persian and Seleucid satrapies and hyparchies is one of the questions which cannot be answered without more epigraphical evidence,² although inscriptions have been found which indicate that some portions of the kingdom were administered on a geographical basis. Thus there was...

  14. CHAPTER VII The Building Activity of the Attalids
    (pp. 234-298)

    Both European and Asiatic Greece are rich in commanding heights, the citadels of their leading cities, but few in either country are more impressive than the hill of Pergamon. Rising to a height nearly eleven hundred feet above sea level and nine hundred above the surrounding plain, it could dominate an extensive area. But Pergamon was also singularly favored in the contour of its hill ; for the north and east sides, swept by the cold northeast winds, drop sharply to the bed of the Cetius, rolling far below the highest point, while the south and southwest sides, facing the...

  15. [Illustrations]
    (pp. None)
  16. CHAPTER VIII The Art of Pergamon
    (pp. 299-389)

    From the beginning of the dynasty until its end sculptors were active at the court of Pergamon. Those who worked under the founder are known from their signatures on the bases of statues and from literary notices; marble copies exist of the bronze statues in which sculptors celebrated the military achievements of Attalus I; but not until the reign of Eumenes II are there extant in any considerable number the original creations of artists who worked at Pergamon. Yet the only marble statue found there which can be dated with certainty in the third century is a statue of Demeter,...

  17. [Illustrations]
    (pp. None)
  18. CHAPTER IX Attalid Patronage of Learning
    (pp. 390-433)

    The gymnasium of Pergamon, the largest and most complete of its kind known from antiquity, is itself a monument of the Attalids’ interest in education.¹ For the organization of the school system, the officers, teachers, calendar, and participation of the schools in the state religious festivals, there is, however, more evidence for the period immediately following the end of the dynasty than for the kingship itself. Most of the information is obtained from copies of decrees passed in honor of several gymnasiarchs who contributed generously to the maintenance and repair of the gymnasium, thus assuming some of the responsibilities which...

  19. CHAPTER X The Cults of Pergamon
    (pp. 434-470)

    “The country of the Pergamenes is said to have been sacred to the Cabiri of old,” wrote Pausanias.¹ Aristides also, in his Panegyric on the Water of Pergamon, states that there the oldest of the daimones were said to be Cabiri and that to them belonged initiation rites and mysteries effective against violent storms.² The statement of Demetrius of Scepsis, that these gods received their name from the mountain Cabeirus in the land of the Berecyntes, an extinct tribe of Phrygians;³ the story of Nicolaus of Damascus, that two youths came to Miletus from Phrygia, bringing in a cista the...

  20. APPENDIX I The Parentage and Date of Birth of Attalus III
    (pp. 471-474)
  21. APPENDIX II Coin Types of the Pergamene Kingdom
    (pp. 475-484)
  22. Bibliography
    (pp. 485-502)
  23. Index of Names and Subjects
    (pp. 503-527)
  24. Index of Inscriptions
    (pp. 528-531)
  25. Back Matter
    (pp. 532-532)