The Cum-Constructions

The Cum-Constructions: Their History and Functions, Part II: Constructive

WILLIAM GARDNER HALE
BENJAMIN IDE WHEELER
Volume: 1
Copyright Date: 1889
Published by: Cornell University Press
Pages: 200
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7591/j.cttq44kz
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  • Book Info
    The Cum-Constructions
    Book Description:

    An investigation into the history of the cum-constructions in Latin, guided by comparisons between the modal behavior of quom with that of various sets of words with which it has something in common.

    eISBN: 978-0-8014-6643-4
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-xii)
  3. CHAPTER I. THE SEARCH FOR A CLEW.
    (pp. 75-84)

    If the problem of the history of the cum-constructions is soluble, the clew by which we are to be guided to the course which the investigation should take must obviously be found through comparing the modal behavior of quom¹ with that of the various sets of words with which it has something in common. These are as follows :—

    1. Temporal (with or without accessory idea of cause): Postquam, simul atque, ubi, and ut temporal.

    2. Causal (originally temporal): Quando, quoniam.

    3. Causal (not originally temporal): Quod, quia.

    4. Adversative: Quamquam.

    5. Relative: Qui.

    1. Postquam, simul atque, ubi, and...

  4. CHAPTER II. A STUDY OF THE QUI-CONSTRUCTIONS.
    (pp. 85-107)

    Of the three offices of the indicative, — to assert something to be a fact, to assume something to be a fact, and to inquire whether something is a fact, — the relative indicative clause is, through the nature of the relative itself, excluded from the last, and from that alone. We have therefore to examine its functions under the first two heads.

    I. The determinative indicative qui-clause. The speaker makes in the qui-clause an assertion which, being carried back by the qui to the antecedent, enables the hearer to place, to identify that antecedent, to know who or what is meant....

  5. CHAPTER III. THE QUI-CONSTRUCTIONS (Continued): WORKING CATEGORIES AND TABLES.
    (pp. 108-136)

    If the view of the growth of the subjunctive characterizing-qualitative-classifying and causal-adversative qui-clauses here taken is correct, it is idle to expect an absolute fixity of mode in any of these constructions, except that original one in which the subjunctive is inherent in the nature of the idea, and so could equally well stand independently. Rather shall we find a development, more or less complete, with greater or less ultimate stability of mode. The evidence that such a development has in fact taken place is at once afforded upon an examination of the literature.

    Three categories appear, which follow.

    The...

  6. CHAPTER IV. APPLICATION OF THE RESULTS OF CHAPTER II TO THE QUI–AND QUOM–CONSTRUCTIONS TOGETHER. THE FURTHER (INDIVIDUAL) DEVELOPMENT OF THE LATTER.
    (pp. 137-167)

    We have obtained our desired equipment, and employ it at once by applying to the qui-clauses and the quom-clauses alike the categories under which we found the former to fall.

    The arrangement of examples will place the quom-clauses on the right, the qui-clauses on the left.

    Eo tempore, quo haec Canusii agebantur, Venusiani ad consulem ad quattuor milia et quingenti pedites equitesque, qui sparsi fuga per agros fuerant, pervenere. Liv., 22, 54, I.

    Quae precatus a dis immortalibus sum, iudices, more institutoque maiorum ilio die quo . . . L. Murenam consulem renuntiavi. . . . Cic, Mur., i, i....

  7. CHAPTER V. APPLICATION OF THE CATEGORIES OF CHAPTER III. TO THE QUI- AND QUOM-CONSTRUCTIONS TOGETHER. THE FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE LATTER IN CATEGORIES V. AND VIII.
    (pp. 168-244)

    We have learned that the presence of the subjunctive in the quom-constructions is due to that part of its nature which quom shares with qui, while the rise of the narrative and causal-adversative uses is due to that part of the nature of quom which is peculiar to itself. When, then, we apply to quom and qui alike, in the present chapter, the categories under which the qui-constructions have fallen in Chapter III., we shall expect to find, by reason of the essential identity of quom and qui, certain exact correspondences. But we shall also, by reason of the idiosyncrasies...

  8. CHAPTER VI. THE INFLUENCE OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE QUOM-CONSTRUCTIONS UPON THE CONSTRUCTIONS AFTER POSTEAQUAM, UBI, AND DUM.
    (pp. 245-246)

    When the quom-constructions have reached the extreme of their legitimate development, it would be natural that the use of the subjunctive should in sporadic cases be extended from the narrative quom-clauses to the clauses with postquam, dum etc., which, though not, like the original quom-clauses, replaceable by qui-clauses, and so not sharing in the peculiarities which led to the ingress of the subjunctive into the quom-clauses, and to their great subsequent development, yet in effect resemble the narrative quom-clauses, and share with them the qualitative tenses. I cite only cases in which all the Cdd. agree :

    In all these...

  9. CHAPTER VII. METHODS OF SYNTACTICAL INVESTIGATION, AND THE GENERAL RESULTS OF THEIR APPLICATION TO THE QUOM-CONSTRUCTIONS.
    (pp. 247-250)

    The older and still largely prevalent conception of syntax tacitly assumes a perfectly working, logically exact national mind as the creator of all forms of syntactical expression. It therefore sets up stiff fences between construction and construction, and, being naturally often baffled by facts, it invents, for some constructions, a priori principles which cannot be applied to others of the same class; witness, e.g., the principle that in Latin the idea of cause must be expressed by the subjunctive, which does very well for the qui- and quom-constructions, but does not do at all for the constructions with quod, quia,...

  10. CHAPTER VIII. SUMMARY.
    (pp. 251-263)

    It remains to state, in compendious form and from the pedagogical point of view, the principal results of the investigation, both as regards the classical usage, and as regards the history of the constructions under examination. In doing this, I shall return to the form cum, and shall also use the word characterizing, beside or in place of the more technical word qualitative, with the understanding that it shall be taken as including the idea of the condition or situation of the antecedent.

    Cum is simply a form of qui that came to be appropriated to antecedents indicating time.

    All...