The Subjunctive Substantive Clauses in Plautus, not Including Indirect Questions

The Subjunctive Substantive Clauses in Plautus, not Including Indirect Questions

CHARLES EDWIN BENNETT
GEORGE PRENTICE BRISTOL
Volume: 13
Copyright Date: 1901
Published by: Cornell University Press
Pages: 126
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7591/j.cttq45rm
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    The Subjunctive Substantive Clauses in Plautus, not Including Indirect Questions
    Book Description:

    Beginning with the assumption the original force of the subjunctive mood to be that of "will" or "determination," showing itself in the first person as "determined resolution" and in the second and third persons as "jussive," and that of the optative mood to be first "wish," and secondly, "contingent futurity" (the "should /would" idea), Charles L. Durham in this monograph endeavors to show that the subordinate subjunctives in the substantive clauses in the extant plays and fragments of Plautus can be referred for their origin and development to these original modal forces.

    For Durham, that while to the Latin mind a clear conception of this bifurcation, and feeling for it, in the origin of the mood-which was to it an integral one probably-was not present, it is possible with a wider knowledge of comparative grammar to go beyond this limited view and show which of these substantive clauses were in their origin Volitive (Determined Resolution, Jussive), and which were Optative (Wish, Contingent Futurity); to further show that that is the negative of the Volitive and the Optative, along with their developments, while non is the negative of the Subjunctive of Contingent Futurity and its several developments, and that the occurrence of the one or the other negative calls for an effort on our part to explain the modal phenomenon as going back definitely either to the Volitive or Optative on the one hand, or to the Subjunctive of Contingent Futurity on the other; and finally to show that this development as indicated by the negative employed is always capable of demonstration except in those rare cases where subsequent development on Latin soil can be definitely shown.

    eISBN: 978-0-8014-6655-7
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. INTRODUCTION.
    (pp. 1-7)

    That the inflectional forms which we call subjunctive are historically the result of a fusion of Indo-European subjunctive and optative formations is sufficiently obvious. Hence practically all investigators to-day are agreed in regarding the fundamental syntactical uses of the Latin subjunctive as an Indo-European inheritance, and as going back partly to the Indo–European subjunctive, partly to the Indo-European optative for their origin.

    The question concerning the original value of the Indo–European subjunctive and optative is one which has given rise to much debate. Eliminating from discussion, as no longer entitled to serious consideration, the ancient view¹ that the...

  4. CHAPTER I. SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES DEVELOPED FROM THE JUSSIVE.
    (pp. 8-82)

    Our first category in the treatment of the Subjunctive Substantive Clauses consists of those derived from the Indo-European Subjunctive of ‘Will ’ represented by that usage of the Latin Subjunctive which has received the name ‘Jussive ’

    In view of the fact that sentences of this type have been treated by different scholars in such various ways, it would seem necessary to justify, at the outset, our present basis of classification and its nomenclature.

    Many of the differences of opinion between leading scholars are doubtless to a greater or less extent due to failure in exact agreement as to the...

  5. CHAPTER II. SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES DEVELOPED FROM THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF DETERMINED RESOLUTION.
    (pp. 83-84)

    This original use of the volitive subjunctive in independent sentences is rare, and yet it seems to be necessary to recognize it, although its existence is questioned by some. There is a priori no reason why such a function should not belong to the first person of the subjunctive mood in its volitive use. If abeas, abeat meant originally, ‘You go away,’ ‘let him go away,’ abeam should mean, ‘I will (not ‘shall ’) go away.’ Thus Ter. Heaut. 273, enarrem should mean, ‘I will finish telling,’ ‘I’m determined to finish telling.’ The propriety of referring to this first person...

  6. CHAPTER III. SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES DEVELOPED FROM THE DELIBERATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.
    (pp. 85-91)

    Under this head fall clauses introduced by quin, cur, and quam ob rem.

    Without doubt most quin-substantive clauses with the subjunctive are to be referred for their origin to an original parataxis in which the quin-clause was a Deliberative Subjunctive.¹ An orignal quin ad diem decedam? Nulla causa est would naturally develop into the quin ad diem decedam nulla causa est of Cic. ad Fam., ii, 17, 1. Perhaps a more developed type is represented by PI. Pseud. 533, numquid causaest ilico Quin te in pistrinum condam?

    The material in Plautus that falls under this head is as follows:

    a)...

  7. CHAPTER IV. SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES DEVELOPED FROM THE OPTATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.
    (pp. 92-108)

    For the difficulty of a positive decision between a Jussive and an Optative origin after certain verbs, especially volo, see above on the Substantive Clause with volo, p. 20.

    A. Subjunctive alone.

    ORIGINAL USES.

    1. Subjunctive precedes.

    a) volo.

    Truc. 473 : inveniat volo.

    Pers. 832 : obsit volo.

    Poen. 279 : At ego elixus sis volo.

    Pers. 293 : eveniant volo tibi quae optas.

    b) velim.

    Cas. 559 : veniat velim.

    Men. 909 : Adeas velim.

    Aul. 670 : veniat velim.

    Cas. 234 : Vera dicas velim.

    Ps. 1061 : veniat velim.

    Rud. 877 : Verum sit velim.

    Truc....

  8. CHAPTER V. SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES DEVELOPED FROM THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF CONTINGENT FUTURITY.
    (pp. 109-115)

    These are introduced by ut and ut non, and, unlike the clauses with ut and ne considered in the earlier part of this investigation, are developed not from independent uses of the subjunctive, but from adverbial clauses that have secondarily taken on a substantive meaning, i. e., substantive clauses of result are a development of clauses of pure result.

    This category in Plautus is not a large one. From it I have rigidly excluded all clauses introduced by ne and all clauses introduced by ut after verbs that are ever followed by either a ne-clause or a simple subjunctive without...

  9. ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.
    (pp. 116-116)
  10. INDEX OF THE MORE IMPORTANT PASSAGES DISCUSSED.
    (pp. 117-117)
  11. INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND GOVERNING WORDS.
    (pp. 118-120)
  12. Back Matter
    (pp. 121-122)