China's Aid and Soft Power in Africa

China's Aid and Soft Power in Africa: The Case of Education and Training

KENNETH KING
Series: African Issues
Copyright Date: 2013
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 256
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt2tt1tp
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  • Book Info
    China's Aid and Soft Power in Africa
    Book Description:

    Why does China run one of the world's largest short-term training programmes, with plans to bring 30,000 Africans to China between 2013 and 2015? Why does it give generous support to 31 Confucius Institutes teaching Mandarin and Chinese culture at many of Africa's top universities from the Cape to Cairo? Why is China one of the very few countries to increase the number of full scholarships for Africans to study in its universities, a total of 18,000 anticipated between 2013 and 2015? China claims to have been involved for 60 years in South-South cooperation of mutual benefit to China and Africa. While its dramatic economic and trade impact, particularly on Africa, has caught global attention, little focus has yet been given to its role as an education donor - and especially to the critical role of China's support for training and human resource development for Africans in China, and within Africa itself. It is vital that we understand what is going on, and why education is so important in China-Africa relations. Here is hard evidence from Ethiopia, South Africa and Kenya of the dramatic growth of China's soft power and increasing impact in capacity-building, and of the implications of this for Africa, China and the world. Kenneth King is Professor Emeritus, University of Edinburgh, where he was Director of the Centre of African Studies for 20 years. Since 2007, he has been international advisor for China's largest Institute of African Studies.

    eISBN: 978-1-78204-158-0
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. PREFACE
    (pp. ix-xii)
  4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    Kenneth King
  5. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. xv-xviii)
  6. 1 China & Africa Origins, documents & discourses in relation to human resource development
    (pp. 1-28)

    Just over forty years ago, in 1971, I published my first book about educational aid to Africa (King, 1971). It was a critical account of the two famous educational aid missions to Eastern, Western and Southern Africa undertaken by the Phelps-Stokes Fund of New York, and it looked particularly at the Commission’s recommendations for Kenya as well as at the institutional developments in that country following Education in Africa and Education in East Africa (Jones, 1922; 1924). The choice of the topic was partly coincidental, derived from stumbling by chance upon the two extraordinary volumes of the Phelps-Stokes Commissions of...

  7. 2 China’s Higher Education Partnerships with Africa Modalities for mutual cooperation?
    (pp. 29-67)

    Most of China’s support for education and training in Africa is at the higher education level. The same is probably true of many of the middle-income countries which are not part of the OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC). These non-DAC donors (NDDs) such as Brazil, India, South Africa, and Turkey are not in this way making a statement about the importance of basic education which has been central to the educational aid of many OECD donors since the World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA) of March 1990 put it so powerfully on the world’s agenda. Indeed, the NDDs do...

  8. 3 African Students in China Changing characteristics contexts & challenges
    (pp. 68-103)

    African students are clearly a key foreign policy issue for China. Indeed, ‘Exchanging students between China and Africa is one of the oldest forms of China-African cooperation’ (China, MOE, 2005: 12).

    In the White Paper on China’s Foreign Aid they are mentioned as having been part of the aid agenda since the 1950s. The total number of students trained by 2009 is mentioned precisely as 70,627, and the total number on China scholarships in 2009 was 11,185 (China, 2011a: 14).

    Students from Africa were not referred to as a category in Zhou Enlai’s eight principles of foreign aid, enunciated in...

  9. 4 Chinese Enterprise & Training in Africa A theatre for win-win cooperation?
    (pp. 104-143)

    In many contemporary accounts of Western aid and capacity-building in Africa, there would not be a close connection between aid and trade. The deliberate links between aid and trade provision, once very common, were broken in the UK, for example, with the 1997 White Paper on Development (DFID, 1997).¹ By contrast, in Japan, there still seems to be an expectation that there be a close connection between official development assistance (ODA) and trade. In the 2003 ODA Charter, for instance, it is stated clearly that:

    Japan will endeavor to ensure that its ODA, and its trade and investment, which exert...

  10. 5 China’s Aid & Traditional Donors Convergence or divergence?
    (pp. 144-171)

    The view of many traditional donors towards China’s role as a development partner in Africa was that it was ‘unclubbable’; it did not want to be part of the donor club or the very large number of donor working groups, or donor task forces found at the country level in Africa. This was thought to be because China did not want to present itself to Africa as a donor. As has been mentioned in earlier chapters, China preferred to see itself much more as the largest developing country helping, to the extent it could manage, the continent with the largest...

  11. 6 China’s Soft Power in Africa Past, present & future
    (pp. 172-207)

    The different elements of China’s human resources development with Africa have traditionally been embedded in the discourse of cooperation, mutual benefit and political equality, reinforced by the focus upon South-South cooperation. As we mentioned briefly in Chapter 1, the discussion of soft power seems to come out of a different universe – one of competition for cultural and public relations influence rather than of collaboration for development. Whether the rise in the use of the term soft power points to any evolution in China’s aid policy, we shall need to examine, but also how the many different modalities of China’s human...

  12. CONCLUSION
    (pp. 208-212)

    This safari to Africa with China and from Africa to China has been one of our main preoccupations for these last six years. In this final very short section, we raise just a few of the larger questions that will need more attention if we are to understand China’s reach into Africa, both centrally directed and more or less completely uncontrolled.

    We have discussed versions of soft power that are competitive, about winners and losers, about Hollywood versus Confucius. But there is a Chinese policy view about the world situation that recognises, in Zhou Enlai’s terms, that we are all...

  13. APPENDIX
    (pp. 213-214)
  14. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 215-228)
  15. INDEX
    (pp. 229-238)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 239-239)