Pope Gregory X and the Crusades

Pope Gregory X and the Crusades

PHILIP B. BALDWIN
Copyright Date: 2014
Edition: NED - New edition
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 254
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt5vj7h4
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  • Book Info
    Pope Gregory X and the Crusades
    Book Description:

    Pope Gregory X stood at the very centre of the crusading movement in the later thirteenth century. An able diplomat, he showed himself adept at navigating the political waters of Europe and the Mediterranean World. His crusade gained the participation of virtually all of the leaders of Western Europe, and even the Byzantine emperor and the Ilkhan of the Mongols: crucial if his crusade were to have a chance of defeating the very formidable and successful Mamluk Sultan Baybars. However, Gregory's premature death put paid to his crusade plans. Perhaps because of this, Gregory has hitherto been somewhat neglected by historians - a gap which this book aims to fill. It provides a full account of his contribution to the Crusade, demonstrating that he left a lasting mark on how crusading would operate in the years to come. Philip Baldwin received his doctorate from Queen Mary, University of London.

    eISBN: 978-1-78204-271-6
    Subjects: Religion, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgements
    (pp. ix-ix)
  4. Abbreviations
    (pp. x-xi)
  5. [Illustration]
    (pp. xii-xii)
  6. Introduction
    (pp. 1-12)

    The papacy of Gregory X (September 1271–January 1276) stood at the very centre of the crusading movement in the later thirteenth century. Gregory was the last pope to come close to launching a traditionalpassagium generale¹ to the Holy Land, and the first pope to use thepassagium particulare,² which would come to be the common crusading form after his death. Gregory’s crusading efforts came at a time when the Christians had never been in a worse situation since the disaster of 1187, when Saladin had succeeded in conquering essentially all the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem except Tyre, with...

  7. 1 The Early Life of Pope Gregory X
    (pp. 13-39)

    Pope Gregory X, formerly Tedaldo Visconti,¹ was born near the beginning of the thirteenth century, though, as is often the case, the precise date of birth is not known.² As his anonymous biographer related, Tedaldo was born to a noble family of Piacenza, but more importantly, his nobility of birth was surpassed by his nobility of character.³ This particular form of nobility would come to mark the life and career of Tedaldo, and help propel the unordained archdeacon to the height of ecclesiastical power in the West. Indeed, even the Greek historian George Pachymeres remarked upon the renown of his...

  8. 2 ‘We Saw with Our Eyes and Felt with Our Very Own Hand’: the Importance of Understanding the Condition of the Holy Land
    (pp. 40-74)

    Upon returning to Italy after hearing of his papal election, Gregory immediately set about the task of organising relief for the Holy Land. Whatever the direction of the next crusade, its organisation required that the Franks were well acquainted with the condition of the Holy Land, and of Egypt, so that they could be appropriately prepared. Gregory X and Pope Urban IV stand alone as the only popes to have been to the Holy Land themselves in the time of the Crusades. Urban’s experience as patriarch of Jerusalem had made him, as Jean Richard has pointed out, ‘well informed about...

  9. 3 Interim Crusade Planning
    (pp. 75-103)

    Gregory’s own experience in the Holy Land, and the information that he gathered about it from others, made him acutely aware of Outremer’s needs. Once he was aware of them, the choice remained of what to do. It is clear that Gregory knew that the response to those needs had to be swift, although organising a crusade was not a quick affair. Linda Ross has argued that Gregory followed the thirteenth century’s conciliar approach, but added that he did not ‘take the initiative and personally launch a crusade.’¹ She noted that the disadvantage to this was that ‘the time that...

  10. 4 A Problem of Governance? Pope Gregory X, Charles of Anjou, and the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
    (pp. 104-136)

    Gregory’s time in the Holy Land did not simply give him an attachment to the place, which would lead him to launch a new crusade to reclaim it for the Christians. It also enabled him to see the manner in which the remaining crusader territories were being run. He could not have been pleased with what he saw, and this very likely contributed to the interim troops being placed under western captains, rather than under the permanent secular leaders of the East. That there were problems was indisputable. The Latin kingdom was chronically losing territory to the powerful Mamluk sultan,...

  11. 5 Political Exigencies and Gregory’s Crusade
    (pp. 137-167)

    There is no way of knowing with absolute certainty what Gregory’s crusading priorities would have been had he been forced to deal with, say, the Cathar heresy, or a hostile Holy Roman emperor, as other popes had before him. These conflicts had taken equal footing with the Holy Land in the past, and had more than once absorbed the efforts of the papacy. But they were not current issues in Gregory’s time. However, there had been other substantial theatres for crusade that had taken up significant resources and time: crusades against the Byzantines, crusades against ‘pagans,’ and the Iberian reconquest....

  12. 6 Imagining Gregory’s Crusade
    (pp. 168-220)

    Norman Housley has written that ‘the demise of any pope at such a critical point in crusade planning presents the historian with an insuperable problem of interpretation.’¹ Interpreting Gregory’s crusade is especially interesting, since he was the last pope to come close to launching a major crusade to rescue the Holy Land. Gregory stands alone as the pope able to gain the participation of virtually all of Europe’s major rulers: Germany and the Empire, France, Sicily, Aragon, Portugal, Sweden, and (in a way) Castile.² To this list, England and Bohemia could also potentially be added. The general recruitment for the...

  13. Conclusion
    (pp. 221-226)

    While crusade planning did undergo important changes during the pontificate of Gregory X, less emphasis should be placed on the general council of 1274. Instead, Gregory’s reign should be looked at as a whole to show the changing nature of crusade planning, since a crucial element in that change – thepassagium particulare– was taken up by Gregory himself from the very beginning of his tenure. Certainly, the general council demonstrated that this approach was endorsed by the Templars, Erard of Valery, and James of Aragon, but the strong element of papal control to crusade planning during Gregory’s time...

  14. Bibliography
    (pp. 227-240)
  15. Index
    (pp. 241-247)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 248-252)