Evangelicalism and the Church of England in the Twentieth Century

Evangelicalism and the Church of England in the Twentieth Century: Reform, Resistance and Renewal

ANDREW ATHERSTONE
JOHN MAIDEN
Copyright Date: 2014
Edition: NED - New edition
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 333
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt6wp88k
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  • Book Info
    Evangelicalism and the Church of England in the Twentieth Century
    Book Description:

    This volume makes a considerable contribution to the wider understanding of twentieth-century Anglicanism and evangelicalism, both major international movements. With an expansive introduction which engages with recent scholarship, the book locates the study of twentieth-century Anglican evangelicalism in the wider fields of both the history of English Christianity and the globalisation of evangelicalism. The book argues that evangelicalism could both engage constructively with the wider Church and display a greater internal party unity between liberals and conservatives than has previously been supposed. While bringing new insights on the rise of conservative 'neo-evangelicalism', it also recognises the diversity of the movement and thereby redresses an imbalance in the recent historiography. Additionally, the book explores 'secularisation'; the laicisation of both parish ministry and social campaigns, highlighting, for example, the significance of lay leaders like Mary Whitehouse and Raymond Johnston; shifts in conceptualisations of 'nation' and national identity; the role of organizations, conferences and networks; and the key importance of generational shifts within the Anglican evangelical movement. ANDREW ATHERSTONE is tutor in history and doctrine, and Latimer research fellow at Wycliffe Hall, Oxford. JOHN MAIDEN is lecturer in the Department of Religious Studies at the Open University. He is author of National Religion and the Prayer Book Controversy, 1927-1928 (The Boydell Press, 2009).

    eISBN: 978-1-78204-306-5
    Subjects: Religion, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgements
    (pp. ix-ix)
  4. Contributors
    (pp. x-x)
  5. 1 Anglican Evangelicalism in the Twentieth Century: Identities and Contexts
    (pp. 1-47)
    Andrew Atherstone and John Maiden

    South Kensington, London, has a long association with Anglican evangelicalism. The imposing building of St Paul’s, Onslow Square, was built for Capel Molyneux, who apparently desired ‘a great preaching box’ and was dutifully provided one by architect Charles James Freake.¹ The building was consecrated in 1860, seating up to 1800 people, and from the beginning the congregation was decidedly evangelical. Molyneux’s anti-ritualist convictions led to his secession from the Church of England in 1872 when the judicial committee of the privy council pronounced the innocence of W. J. E. Bennett’s eucharistic doctrines.² Molyneux’s successor, C. D. Marston, had a short...

  6. 2 The Islington Conference
    (pp. 48-67)
    David Bebbington

    The Islington Conference (usually called in earlier years the Islington Clerical Meeting or Clerical Conference) existed for over a century and a half, beginning in 1827. Every year it was a central meeting place for Anglican evangelicals, rivalling the May Meetings of the religious societies in the Exeter Hall. According to an editorial in their own newspaper,The Record, in 1872, the gatherings at Islington contained ‘the very essence of Evangelicalism’. It was recognised in the newspaper that the addresses given at this annual event, held each January, provided the opportunity for evangelical leaders in the Church of England to...

  7. 3 The Anglican Evangelical Group Movement
    (pp. 68-88)
    Martin Wellings

    ‘Never was Evangelicalism weaker than in the 1920s – in vigour of leadership, intellectual capacity, or largeness of heart.’¹ Adrian Hastings’ damning verdict epitomises the conventional view of the period and summarises the master-narrative of Anglican evangelicalism in the twentieth century as a tale of decline and revival. Many historians of the twentieth-century Church of England have followed this line, and have thus neglected the history and ignored the influence of the liberal evangelicals, whose experience from the 1920s to the 1960s was the inverse of the familiar trajectory.² Indeed, the anonymous author ofThe Looking-Glass of Lambeth(1928) suggested...

  8. 4 The Keswick Convention and Anglican Evangelical Tensions in the Early Twentieth Century
    (pp. 89-108)
    Ian Randall

    In the early decades of the twentieth century the moderate holiness spirituality of the annual convention held in the English Lake District – the Keswick Convention – was, for many conservative evangelicals in England, particularly in the Church of England, the accepted expression of evangelical experience. David Bebbington notes that by the dawn of the twentieth century Keswick teaching ‘went unchallenged’ at the Islington Clerical Conference, and ‘so had clearly triumphed in Anglican Evangelicalism’.¹ Hundreds of Anglican clergy as well as Free Church ministers were known to attend the convention. In the 1870s there had been much suspicion of Keswick’s...

  9. 5 The Cheltenham and Oxford Conference of Evangelical Churchmen
    (pp. 109-135)
    Andrew Atherstone

    The Conference of Evangelical Churchmen met annually, first at Cheltenham, then at Oxford, throughout the middle decades of the twentieth century. Launched at the height of the First World War, it brought together Anglican evangelicals for three days each spring or autumn, for theological discussion and policy formation concerning the issues of the moment in the Church of England. It functioned in parallel to the Islington Clerical Conference, though with a high premium on discussion and action, rather than listening in silence to the teaching of the evangelical magisterium. The Conference of Evangelical Churchmen’s golden jubilee coincided with the Keele...

  10. 6 Evangelical and Anglo-Catholic Relations, 1928–1983
    (pp. 136-161)
    John Maiden

    An important historical theme of Anglican evangelicalism has been its troubled relations with the Catholic party. In the nineteenth century anti-ritualism became an ‘all-consuming passion for many Evangelicals’.¹ Indeed, the weight of anti-ritualism fractured the unity of the party in the 1870s when ‘moderates’ rejected the Church Association’s strategy of litigation.² One historical survey appropriately uses the term ‘neurosis’ to describe ongoing evangelical anxieties in the early twentieth century.³ In 1928 Leonard Elliott Binns’ survey of evangelicalism suggested that the party had become ‘associated with the refusal to take the Eastward position in the Eucharist or with a morbid fear...

  11. 7 Archbishop Michael Ramsey and Evangelicals in the Church of England
    (pp. 162-182)
    Peter Webster

    Should Michael Ramsey, archbishop of Canterbury from 1961 to 1974, appear in a volume concerning evangelicalism in the Church of England? After all, Ramsey was no evangelical, and was indeed strongly associated with Anglo-Catholicism. However, his time at Lambeth spans a key period for the evangelical constituency in the Church of England, since two parallel stories often told about the movement converge in the late 1960s. The story of the liberal evangelical movement, as represented by the Anglican Evangelical Group Movement, reaches a terminal point in 1967 with the disbandment of the group. The decline of liberal influence is mirrored...

  12. 8 Anglican Evangelicals and Anti-Permissiveness: The Nationwide Festival of Light, 1971–1983
    (pp. 183-205)
    Matthew Grimley

    The Nationwide Festival of Light got off to a bad start. Its press launch on 9 September 1971 was disrupted by members of the Gay Liberation Front dressed as nuns, who released white mice and stink bombs in Central Hall, Westminster. ‘This is real pornography’, chanted the demonstrators. ‘People are dying in India in their thousands. What about Vietnam? Not this hypocritical bullshit.’¹ One of the speakers, Malcolm Muggeridge, was unable to make himself heard above the protests, complaining, ‘I think it is a waste of time to try to develop any sort of cogent thought in the presence of...

  13. 9 Evangelical Parish Ministry in the Twentieth Century
    (pp. 206-226)
    Mark Smith

    The narrative of Anglican evangelicalism in the twentieth century has become contested ground in recent years. The familiar story of decline from about 1868 to 1945 followed by the post-war recovery associated with John Stott and Billy Graham and symbolised by the Keele Congress has been problematised in a number of ways. David Bebbington, for example, has traced the roots of conservative resurgence in the lively Christian Unions and Public School Camps of the interwar period.¹ Ian Randall and Martin Wellings have drawn attention to the spiritual vitality and evangelical credentials of much of liberal evangelicalism in the 1920s and...

  14. 10 Evangelical Resurgence in the Church in Wales in the Mid-Twentieth Century
    (pp. 227-247)
    David Ceri Jones

    In 1968 Glyn Simon, the Anglo-Catholic bishop of Llandaff and soon to be appointed archbishop of Wales, was reported to have confessed in private conversation that ‘we need earnest evangelicals in this diocese’.¹ His comments contrasted sharply with the much lower view of evangelicals which he seems to have held just a short time earlier, when he protested that although he was ‘very glad that there was one evangelical church in Cardiff … he did not wish for more’.² His fluid and evolving opinion of evangelicals is an indication that the profile of evangelicals within the Church in Wales, which...

  15. 11 What Anglican Evangelicals in England Learned from the World, 1945–2000
    (pp. 248-267)
    Alister Chapman

    In 2000 Graham Kings published an article on the theology of Max Warren, general secretary of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) from 1942 to 1963 and a leading Anglican evangelical. Kings’ starting point was to look at the major theological influences on Warren, and he identified four: three were CMS missionaries to the Middle East – Temple Gairdner, Constance Padwick and Kenneth Cragg – while the fourth was Warren’s son-in-law, Roger Hooker, who was a missionary in North India. Kings then commented that ‘these four influences were all English’, and raised the question of possible influences from overseas. He mentioned...

  16. Appendix 1: The Islington Conference
    (pp. 268-296)
  17. Appendix 2: The Cheltenham and Oxford Conference of Evangelical Churchmen
    (pp. 297-310)
  18. Index
    (pp. 311-325)
  19. Back Matter
    (pp. 326-329)