Edinburgh German Yearbook 2

Edinburgh German Yearbook 2: Masculinity and German Culture

Sarah Colvin
Peter Davies
Copyright Date: 2008
Edition: NED - New edition
Published by: Boydell and Brewer,
Pages: 284
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt7zst7m
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  • Book Info
    Edinburgh German Yearbook 2
    Book Description:

    Intended to encourage and disseminate lively and open discussion of themes pertinent to German Studies, viewed from all angles -- literary, artistic, musical, theoretical -- Edinburgh German Yearbook takes particular interest in cultural problems and issues arising out of politics and history. Each year, EGYB invites scholarly contributions on a topic of current challenge to German Studies. No other yearbook covers the entire field of German Studies while addressing a focused theme in each issue; by doing so, EGYB aims to encourage real debate around the issues at hand. Volume 2 examines the meanings and significance of "masculinity" in German culture, from medieval mystics to the cultural impact of young male immigrants living in Germany today. Other topics include medieval masculinity, the heroic Germanic ideal in the 16th and 17th centuries, masculinity in fairy tales, Jewishness and the masculine, toys for boys in Wilhelmine Germany, the science of sexology, and the masculine as it appears in photography, fashion, army magazines, terrorism, and prison culture. Contributors: Peter Davies, Cordula Politis, Theresia Heimerl, Franziska Ziep, Helen Watanabe-O'Kelly, Hanne Boenisch, Antje Roeben, Laura Martin, Kristiane Gerhardt, Michael Gratzke, Martin Lücke, Stephanie Catani, Bryan Ganaway, Jason Lieblang, David James Prickett, Katie Sutton, Elisabeth Krimmer, Franz Bokel, Andrew Bickford, Ingrid Sharp, Clare Bielby, Sarah Colvin, Elke Gilson, Frauke Matthes. Sarah Colvin is Professor and Eudo C. Mason Chair of German, and Peter Davies is Senior Lecturer in German, both at the University of Edinburgh.

    eISBN: 978-1-57113-731-9
    Subjects: Language & Literature, History, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Introduction: “Crisis” or “Hegemony”? Approaches to Masculinity
    (pp. 1-19)
    Peter Davies

    The essays collected in this volume propose new approaches to the study of masculinities in the cultural history of the German-speaking countries. In doing this, they engage with debates in which scholars have begun to think through the relevance for German Studies of theoretical approaches to masculinity that have been initiated and formulated in an English-language, Anglo-American context.¹ Questions are being asked about the sometimes tense relationship between overarching theories of the production and representation of gender identities — for example, in psychoanalytical or poststructuralist approaches — and the perhaps more traditional virtues of careful historical and sociological contextualization.

    The...

  4. Nach der mannesnamen site? Amazons and Their Challenge to Normative Masculinity in Herbort von Fritzlar’s liet von Troye
    (pp. 20-33)
    Cordula Politis

    Medieval definitions of masculinity take as their point of departure anatomical considerations, according to which men possess greater physical strength than women. Isidore of Seville’sEtymologiae, one of the most authoritative encyclopedias of the Middle Ages,¹ explains that the critical difference between men and women is in their bodily strength. In Book XI, Isidore states that the termvir(man) is a derivative ofvis(force), because man is stronger than woman and because he deals with her by force (XI.ii.17);mulier(woman), on the other hand, he claims is derived frommollitia(softness) (18). “These two are differentiated by...

  5. Konzepte männlicher Identität in der deutschen Mystik des Mittelalters am Beispiel von Meister Eckhart und Heinrich Seuse
    (pp. 34-49)
    Theresia Heimerl

    Die Mystik des Mittelalters und ihre Texte waren wie wenige andere literarische Genres in den letzten Jahrzehnten Gegenstand der Frauenforschung. Mechthild von Magdeburg, Juliane von Norwich, Marguerite Porete und andere wurden zum Beispiel weiblicher Autonomie, spezifisch weiblichen Sprechens über Gott und religiöse Erfahrung. Ihre Selbstwahrnehmung in der Gesellschaft, in Bezug auf ihren Körper, im Umgang mit dem anderen Geschlecht, und vieles mehr wurde wissenschaftlich (und mitunter auch populärwissenschaftlich) aufgearbeitet. Das Konzept weiblicher Identität, wie es in der mittelalterlichen (deutschsprachigen) Mystik repräsentiert wird, ist gut erschlossen.

    Anders verhält es sich mit den männlichen Vertretern mittelalterlicher deutschsprachiger Mystik. Wiewohl sie früher als...

  6. Männlichkeit ex negativo: Unsichere Romanhelden des 18. Jahrhunderts
    (pp. 50-64)
    Antje Roeben

    In einem Rückblick auf die männlichen Romanhelden des 18. Jahrhunderts stellt sich Therese Huber, die zu diesem Zeitpunkt im Jahr 1828 ihr eigenes umfangreiches Werk vor Augen hat, die Frage: „ist ein Mann zum Romanhelden zu brauchen?“¹ Ihre noch zu erläuternde Folgerung lautet, „daß kein Romanenheld ein Mann ist“ (Hu, 215).² Aber als was muss man ihn dann verstehen? In der deutschen Literatur des 18. Jahrhunderts befinden sich Konstruktionen von Geschlechterdifferenzen bzw. deren Narrativierung in einem tiefgreifenden Wandel. Huber hebt ein Darstellungsproblem hervor: Wirksame fiktive Männerfiguren seien nicht mit dem wirklichen Mann zu vergleichen. Der „ideale“ außerliterarische Mann ist nach...

  7. „Das Opfer war Gebot, war Leidenschaft“: Männlichkeit und Heldentum in Fontanes Wanderungen durch die Mark Brandenburg
    (pp. 65-80)
    Michael Gratzke

    In den Notizen zum nie geschriebenen RomanDie preußische Ideevon 1894 findet sich die Bemerkung des alten Fontane, dass diese „Idee“ der „Balancierkunst“ bedürfe (HA1.7:505).² An seinem Protagonisten Adolf Schulze wollte Fontane zeigen, wie sehr die jeweilige politische Situation und Schulzes Karrierewünsche seine Vorstellung vom wesensmäßigen Kern Preußens bestimmten. Schulze war zunächst Romantiker und März-Revolutionär, dann nationalliberaler Kulturkämpfer und später sogar Sympathisant der Sozialdemokraten. Der Autor plante Schulze satirisch zu überzeichnen und dem Spott des Lesepublikums preiszugeben.³ Dennoch zeigen sich in Fontanes Entwurf auch autobiografische Elemente und es wird deutlich, wie schwer es einem Verehrer des alten Preußen...

  8. Im Labor des Prometheus: Polare und integrative Männlichkeitskonstruktionen in der Sexualwissenschaft um 1900
    (pp. 81-96)
    Martin Lücke

    Im Zuge der Säkularisierung, dem vielleicht bedeutendsten Merkmal des Aufzugs der Moderne, erfuhr die Legitimation und Konstruktion von Männlichkeit einen entscheidenden Wandel.¹ Zu einer neuen Arena, in der Konzepte von Männlichkeit ausgehandelt wurden, konnte sich seit den 1860er Jahren die Sexualwissenschaft entwickeln: Zuvor von göttlichen Instanzen vorgegebene Erklärungsmuster über die Ordnung der Sexualität und der Geschlechter wurden hier allmählich durch die Überzeugungskraft der Beweisführungen empirischer Wissenschaft ersetzt. Indem Männlichkeit in den Diskursen dieser neuen Wissenschaftsdisziplin im engen Verhältnis zur physischen Kategorie der Sexualität ausgehandelt wurde, erhielt sie zudem jene Leiblichkeit, die sie aus dem Olymp der Götter in die Niederungen...

  9. Consuming Masculinity: Toys and Boys in Wilhelmine Germany
    (pp. 97-112)
    Bryan Ganaway

    In 1895, theWegweiser für die Spielwarenindustrie, the largest trade journal for toy producers, published a peculiar article about middle-class masculine values. The author compares the figure of the traditionalist social climber with that of the honorable entrepreneur: the former, he suggests, uses his money to findJunkerhusbands for his daughters and to get his son a reserve officer posting; but the entrepreneur is a virile man, a master of technology, dedicated to the betterment of his society.¹ This article for toy producers shows that by 1890 (far earlier than is generally accepted), consumer culture was allowing Germans to...

  10. Double Exposure: Photography, Hegemony, and Masculinity in Wilhelmine and Weimar Germany
    (pp. 113-129)
    David James Prickett

    This essay inquires into the development and use of aesthetic strategies — of “seeing” and “being seen” — in early twentieth-century photography. An analysis of photography in criminological studies and in the homosexual journalsDie InselandDie Freundschaftillustrate how photography contributed to developing cultural values, visual ideals, and alternative masculinities in Germany at that time. Photography taken by and for German homosexual men both overcame and underscored hegemonic constructions of masculinity.

    At the turn of the twentieth century, men of science saw every form of technical production as a realm between art (a product of masculinity) and science...

  11. From Dandies to Naturburschen: The Gendering of Men’s Fashions in Weimar Germany
    (pp. 130-148)
    Katie Sutton

    Scholars have often focused on the “New Woman” of Weimar Germany in her short skirts, sharp suits andBubikopfhaircut, attire considered fitting for the independent, politically emancipated and socially mobile representative of modern womanhood who emerged from the First World War. A trend toward increasingly polarized ideals of masculinity and femininity in the final years of the Republic, against a backdrop of growing cultural and political conservatism, has also been identified.¹

    Yet men’s fashions in 1920s Germany are deserving of closer attention. The decade witnessed new trends in styles for men which included a wave of feminine, “dandesque” models...

  12. Kultur in der Krise: Zur Konstruktion von Männlichkeit bei Alfred Döblin und Robert Musil
    (pp. 149-169)
    Stephanie Catani

    Literaturanthropologische Auseinandersetzungen mit Geschlechtermodellen entwickeln ihre Brisanz gerade dort, wo sie sich mit dem Dualismus von Kultur- und Naturbegriff auseinandersetzen und nach dessen geschlechterspezifischen Implikationen fragen.¹ Schließlich nehmen literarische Entwürfe, mit besonderem Nachdruck Texte der Moderne, Anteil an der Konstruktion von Geschlechteridentitäten, die Männer als Repräsentanten der Kultur und Frauen als Stellvertreterinnen der Natur inszenieren. Hat die feministische sowie Gender-Forschung der Gleichsetzung von Frau und Natur in gesellschaftlichen, aber auch spezifisch literarischen Entwürfen hinreichend Rechnung getragen, wurde die Parallelität von Männlichkeitsmodellen und dem Kulturbegriff deutlich weniger berücksichtigt, nicht zuletzt aufgrund der noch jungen Diszplin einer „Männlichkeitsforschung.“²

    An die literaturanthropologische Diskussion...

  13. A New Kind of Woman: The Feminization of the Soldier in Works by Remarque, Jünger, and Böll
    (pp. 170-187)
    Elisabeth Krimmer

    Warfare is commonly seen as one of the most gendered arenas of life. This holds true both historically and metaphorically. Joshua Goldstein’s survey of female warriors throughout history concludes that women made up approximately one percent of all fighters. Of the soldiers serving in today’s standing armies, approximately 97% are male.¹ Even women who serve in the army are frequently deployed in non-combat situations — or in situations that are labeled as non-combat. In light of this asymmetry, one may well surmise that woman’s banishment from the front is not a historical accident, but crucial for the smooth functioning of...

  14. Moving Men: Women’s Discursive Engagements with the 1930s and 1940s
    (pp. 188-200)
    Franz Bokel

    Sybille Steinbacher has recently pointed out that, because men’s and women’s gendered experience of everyday life in Nazi Germany were closely interwoven, they need to be discussed in relation to each other.¹ If a housewife, for instance, enjoyed listening to Zarah Leander while her husband objected to the deep (unfeminine) voice and turned off the radio, questions about men’s and women’s expectations and relative understandings of femininity and masculinity arise.²

    In Nazi Germany, as elsewhere, “constructions of masculinity are interwoven with constructions of femininity.”³ This essay discusses three women in Nazi Germany and their discursive engagement with “moving men”: sportsmen...

  15. Representations of Male Inadequacy in the Geschlechtertausch Stories of the German Democratic Republic
    (pp. 201-213)
    Ingrid Sharp

    In 1971, the German Democratic Republic’s head of state, Erich Honecker, made a speech to the eighthParteitagof the ruling SED claiming,

    [e]s ist in der Tat eine der größten Errungenschaften des Sozialismus, die Gleichberechtigung der Frau in unserem Staat sowohl gesetzlich als auch im Leben weitgehend verwirklicht zu haben. Kein kapitalistisches Land der Welt kann gleiches von sich behaupten.¹

    On the same occasion he pronounced an end to state control of the arts along rigid ideological lines, and to the insistence on the model character of protagonists that had characterized the policy up to that point; in short,...

  16. Revolutionary Men and the Feminine Grotesque in the West German Media of the 1960s and 1970s
    (pp. 214-229)
    Clare Bielby

    In an article written shortly after the arrest of the Red Army Faction (RAF) terrorist Andreas Baader in June 1972, the tabloid newspaperBild am Sonntagpublished three images of Baader in various “disguises.”¹ The images are arranged to resemble one of the famous “wanted” posters that appeared in the Federal Republic in the 1970s. Striking is the photograph placed in the middle, which depicts Baader with pouting lips, bare shoulders, and a long platinum blonde wig superimposed on his head. Baader is being styled as a drag queen; his masculinity and, by extension, his sexual orientation are radically called...

  17. Masculinity, Madness, and Religion: The Patriarchal Legacy of the Bible in Sibylle Lewitscharoff’s Pong
    (pp. 230-249)
    Elke Gilson

    Thus far, Sibylle Lewitscharoff has (unlike most female authors) invariably inventedmaleprotagonists for her prose works.¹ This is not the only reason why Lewitscharoff (b. 1954), the daughter of an orthodox Bulgarian immigrant, is hard to compare with her contemporaries. She grew up amongst quarreling Protestant sects in Stuttgart, and her interest in the force of closed belief systems led her first to the famous Institute of Comparative Religious Studies at Berlin’sFreie Universität, later to Argentina. There she studied the works of Latin America’s Catholic conquerors, whose lives were spent in “Bemühungen, auch das kleinste und ihnen fremdeste...

  18. Of Kanaken and Gottes Krieger: Religion and Sexuality among Feridun Zaimoğlu’s Young Muslim Men
    (pp. 250-261)
    Frauke Matthes

    In his most recent writing, the novelLeyla(2006) and the dramaSchwarze Jungfrauen(world première 2006), Feridun Zaimoğlu focuses on women: on those who later becameGastarbeiterinnenand on young, self-confident (German) Muslim women. In his earlier writing, however, Zaimoğlu paid particular attention to German Turkish men. The media image of young and radical German Turks — men who are still widely perceived as trouble-makers and who, according to Zaimoğlu, therefore live “at the margins of society”¹ — caught the writer’s creative attention.²

    In contemporary German literature Feridun Zaimoğlu has occupied the role of the radical writer. In the...

  19. Abziehen oder Abkacken? Young Men in German Prisons: Fiction and Reality
    (pp. 262-277)
    Sarah Colvin

    Prisons are closed communities and use the language of closed communities: a subculture jargon that defines the speaker, rather literally, as an “insider.” The verbsabziehenandabkackendescribe two modes of being behind bars: the former what we might call an “identity mode” (which gives a sense of self embedded in a context, like a football fan at a match), the latter an unbearable sense of loss of self.Abkackencan be loosely translated as “to be totally at a loss”; as a state of being it is too harmlessly defined in one glossary as “auf der Zelle sitzen...