Hispanic Population of the United States, The

Hispanic Population of the United States, The

Frank D. Bean
Marta Tienda
Copyright Date: 1987
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 480
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7758/9781610440370
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  • Book Info
    Hispanic Population of the United States, The
    Book Description:

    The Hispanic population in the United States is a richly diverse and changing segment of our national community. Frank Bean and Marta Tienda emphasize a shifting cluster of populations-Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, Spanish, and Caribbean-as they examine fertility and immigration, family and marriage patterns, education, earnings, and employment. They discuss, for instance, the effectiveness of bilingual education, recommending instead culturally supportive programs that will benefit both Hispanic and non-Hispanic students. A study of the geographic distribution of Hispanics shows that their tendency to live in metropolitan areas may, in fact, result in an isolation which denies them equal access to schooling, jobs, and health care.

    Bean and Tienda offer a critical, much-needed assessment of how Hispanics are faring and what the issues for the future will be. Their findings reveal and reflect differences in the Hispanic population that will influence policy decisions and affect the Hispanic community on regional and national levels.

    "...represents the state of the art for quantitative analysis of ethnic groups in the United States." -American Journal of Sociology

    A Volume in the Russell Sage Foundation Census Series

    eISBN: 978-1-61044-037-0
    Subjects: Sociology, Population Studies

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Foreword
    (pp. vii-xii)
    Charles F. Westoff

    The Hispanic Population of the United Statesis one of an ambitious series of volumes aimed at converting the vast statistical yield of the 1980 census into authoritative analyses of major changes and trends in American life. This series, “The Population of the United States in the 1980s,” represents an important episode in social science research and revives a long tradition of independent census analysis. First in 1930, and then again in 1950 and 1960, teams of social scientists worked with the U.S. Bureau of the Census to investigate significant social, economic, and demographic developments revealed by the decennial censuses....

  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  4. List of Tables
    (pp. xv-xxii)
  5. List of Figures
    (pp. xxiii-xxiv)
  6. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-6)

    Over the past two decades peoples of Hispanic descent have had an increasing impact on the ethnic, socioeconomic, and demographic features of the United States population. Persons whose national origin is Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, or any of the Central or South American or other Hispanic countries—any of some 23 different nations altogether—have captured the national attention as the public policy issues of immigration, population growth, bilingual education, discrimination, and unemployment have assumed a more prominent place on political agendas. Although the Hispanic presence in the United States predates the formation of the American nation, the impact of...

  7. 1 THE STRUCTURING OF HISPANIC ETHNICITY: THEORETICAL AND HISTORICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    (pp. 7-35)

    Although common ancestral ties to Spain and/or Latin America, as well as frequent usage of the Spanish language, might seem to imply an underlying cultural similarity among peoples of Hispanic origin, the diverse settlement and immigration experiences of Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and other Hispanic groups have created distinct subpopulations with discernible demographic and economic characteristics. Persisting socioeconomic differences among these groups not only challenge the idea that the term “Hispanic” is appropriate as an ethnic label, they also suggest that a careful scrutiny of the historical commonalities and divergencies among these groups as they have settled in the United...

  8. 2 THE HISPANIC POPULATION IN NUMBERS: CENSUS DEFINITIONS IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    (pp. 36-55)

    Increased interest in Hispanics heightened the need for current, reliable and detailed statistics about the people of Spanish origin residing in the United States.¹ Unfortunately, owing to changes over time in the definitions, labels, and procedures used to enumerate Hispanics, seemingly straightforward questions about the size, characteristics, and growth both of the population as a whole and of its constituent national origin subgroups pose challenging technical and operational problems for researchers. Thus, before addressing such questions, we discuss in this chapter the Census Bureau’s solutions to the challenge of enumerating Hispanics over time and our operational criteria for delineating groups...

  9. 3 A DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE HISPANIC POPULATION: PERSISTENCE, DIVERSITY, AND CHANGE OVER TWO DECADES
    (pp. 56-103)

    The growing awareness of the Hispanic presence in the United States during the 1960s and the 1970s can be traced largely to two demographic phenomena: the rapid growth of the population and a pronounced regional concentration which heightened the national visibility of Hispanics as an ethnic group. At the same time increased study of this population has revealed great diversity among the peoples of Spanish origin. One purpose of this chapter is thus to provide a summary overview of the size, growth, and residential distribution of the Hispanic populations over the past two decades. We also examine the extensive social,...

  10. 4 IMMIGRATION
    (pp. 104-136)

    The contemporary demographic, social, and economic situations of Hispanics in the United States, as we noted in Chapter 2, are molded to a considerable degree by the historical and current patterns of migration of Spanish-speaking groups to this country. The historical features of this immigration are important for understanding the origin and persistence of important demographic and socioeconomic differences both among the Hispanic groups and between these groups and non-Hispanic whites. The contemporary features of immigration—both its real and perceived volume and economic impact—have shaped recent debates about how to change the nation’s laws concerning immigration.¹ Other differences...

  11. 5 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION, INTERNAL MIGRATION, AND RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION
    (pp. 137-177)

    Data presented in previous chapters have documented recent increases in levels of Hispanic immigration to the United States. Together with high fertility, these increases have resulted in substantial growth in the size of the Hispanic population during the 1970s, thus contributing to a growing awareness in this country that Hispanics constitute an important and increasingly discernible ethnic group. Historically concentrated in the Southwest, the New York metropolitan area, and Florida, the Hispanic population is likely to become an even more visible part of American society as its members disperse more widely throughout the country. The purpose of this chapter is...

  12. 6 MARRIAGE, FAMILY, AND HOUSEHOLD
    (pp. 178-204)

    Patterns of marriage, family, and household behavior have changed substantially in the United States in recent years.¹ In fact, a considerable debate has arisen about whether or not the institutions of marriage and the family are in irrevocable decline. Increases in divorce rates, declines in first-marriage rates for women, and increases in the median age at first marriage² have led some observers to conclude that marriage and the family are losing their social importance. For example, Thomas Espenshade writes: “In recent years there have been considerable shifts in the decisions made by American adults regarding family formation and dissolution, and...

  13. 7 FERTILITY PATTERNS WITHIN THE SPANISH ORIGIN POPULATIONS
    (pp. 205-232)

    One of the most important characteristics of a population is the rapidity with which it reproduces itself over time.¹ Despite high levels of both legal and undocumented immigration to the United States since 1965, what demographers call “natural increase,” or the excess of a population’s births over deaths for a given period of time, has constituted a larger share of the growth of most of the Spanish origin groups from 1970 to 1980 than has immigration.² The study of factors affecting reproductive patterns within the Spanish origin populations is thus relevant to the issue of how long these groups will...

  14. 8 THE EDUCATIONAL STANDING OF HISPANICS: SIGNS OF HOPE AND STRESS
    (pp. 233-279)

    This chapter documents the past and present Hispanic experience in the United States school system and, for the school-age population in 1980, analyzes the impact of socioeconomic background and ethnic characteristics on educational outcomes. Our main goals are (1) to document differentials in educational attainment and enrollment levels among Hispanic adults, (2) to examine enrollment patterns and sociodemographic characteristics of the school-age population of Hispanic origin, and (3) to analyze the determinants of the high rates of grade delay and high school noncompletion of Hispanic youth.

    We organize this chapter into three sections corresponding to these broad objectives. First we...

  15. 9 HISPANICS IN THE U.S. LABOR FORCE
    (pp. 280-337)

    From the vast number of studies documenting the labor market position of Hispanic origin workers,¹ three broad generalizations emerge. First, the social and demographic heterogeneity of the population (see Chapter 3) is mirrored in varied employment and earnings profiles according to national origin. Second, Puerto Ricans are the most socially and economically disadvantaged of the Hispanic origin groups, with poverty, labor force participation and unemployment rates, and average earnings comparable to those of Native Americans and southern blacks.² Cubans and Central/South Americans fare much better in these respects, and in some instances even better than native whites, although recent immigrants...

  16. 10 EARNINGS AND ECONOMIC WELL-BEING
    (pp. 338-396)

    This chapter documents the relative economic well-being of the Hispanic population in terms of money income, poverty status, and earnings. We are interested in both period differentials and interperiod changes in the relative positioning of Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Central/South Americans, and Other Hispanics. Our analyses of family and personal income document the major dimensions of income differentiation among the national origin groups and trace changes in income according to market (wages and salaries) and non-market sources (transfer payments, social insurance, and other income).

    While seemingly straightforward, the concept of economic well-being is complicated because its meaning hinges on several...

  17. 11 EPILOGUE
    (pp. 397-400)

    Our major purpose in writing this book has been to study in as much detail as possible the social, demographic, and economic situations of the various groups of Hispanic origin living in the United States. In the course of pursuing this objective we have examined the growth and structure of the subpopulations, including the ways in which these have been affected by changing patterns of immigration. We have also scrutinized the geographic distribution and residential patterns of the groups, as well as their family/household characteristics, fertility behavior, educational attainment, patterns of labor force participation, and income and earnings characteristics. In...

  18. APPENDIX A SELECTION CRITERIA USED TO IDENTIFY HISPANICS 1960, 1970, AND 1980
    (pp. 401-408)
  19. APPENDIX B
    (pp. 409-411)
  20. APPENDIX C DATA AND FILE CONSTRUCTION
    (pp. 412-418)
  21. Bibliography
    (pp. 419-434)
  22. Name Index
    (pp. 435-439)
  23. Subject Index
    (pp. 440-456)