Science as a Carreer Choice

Science as a Carreer Choice: Theoretical and Empirical Studies

Bernice T. Eiduson
Linda Beckman
Copyright Date: 1973
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 752
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7758/9781610441780
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Science as a Carreer Choice
    Book Description:

    How can we identify the young men and women who, as social and behavioral scientists of tomorrow, will do the needed research to resolve our burgeoning social problems? How can the most promising be attracted to an investigatory career? How can they become identified with the behaviors, attitudes and values that persons in science share?

    A provocative body of literature about the psychology of the scientist and his career emerged in the post-Sputnik era. Drs. Eiduson and Beckman bring together more than seventy of the most significant and representative studies. These range over childhood and family influences, academic experiences, motivations, interests, and intellectual and personality strengths that have been examined as precursors for choosing science as adult work. The psychological mechanisms involved in socializing a young person toward a scientific career are suggested in readings from the outstanding theoreticians in the field. Selections on scientific career lines, decisions and options at various stages of work, and factors influencing goals and career development contribute to the understanding of the psychological life of the highly endowed and well-functioning professional adult.

    Through showing the certain completeness of effort of what has been learned about the psychology of scientists to date, the authors anticipate a resurgence of interest in the creative individual, a renewed enthusiasm for application, and a refocusing of research on the issues unique to the social and behavioral research scientist.

    eISBN: 978-1-61044-178-0
    Subjects: Education, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. Preface
    (pp. xi-xvi)
    B.T.E. and L.B.
  4. PART ONE Psychological Aspects of Career Choice and Development in the Research Scientist
    (pp. 3-34)
    Bernice T. Eiduson

    If the last two decades were the decades of the physical sciences, the next two will be the decades of social and behavioral sciences. It is generally agreed that current social problems loom so large, and impinge so ponderously on the lives of all of us, that only massive and concerted efforts to understand and eradicate the problems will make tomorrow’s world a viable one. With this in mind, social scientists and planners have begun to confront the weighty problems involved in mobilizing the resources, expertise, and sophistication essential to social science research enterprises.

    In 1969 a Special Commission (National...

  5. Part II Variables Influencing Career Choice in Science

    • A. CHILD’S SOCIAL MATRIX

      • Introduction
        (pp. 37-39)

        Examination of early history and family background of fledgling scientists rests on the assumptions that (1) certain conditions in the family and home milieu are conducive to building interests, attitudes, values, and predispositions that would be felioitaus to a scientific career; and (2) that these can be agreed upon and identified at various early stages of individual development. These admittedly speculative statements have encouraged the approaches described in this section.

        The articles by Datta and West explore the saliency of single variables that have been implicated in the literature as conducive for a later choice of scientific career. They look...

      • Birth Order and Potential Scientific Creativity
        (pp. 39-46)
        Lois-ellin Datta

        The data discussed in this paper were collected during the initial phase of a study on the development of potentially creative scientists. The primary question during this phase was whether variables such as personality traits, early experiences with peers and parents, and certain demographic factors which had been reported either to characterize unusually eminent men or to distinguish more and less eminent persons would also be found as early as the senior year of high school to differentiate young men of high potential creativity in science from those who demonstrated less potential creativity in science; that is, whether hypotheses developed...

      • Sibling Configurations of Scientists
        (pp. 47-53)
        S. Stewart West

        For several decades it has been known that samples of gifted children² or eminent men³ show frequencies of first-born persons larger than chance expectation from their distributions in number of siblings. However, little attention has been given to other orders of birth or to the shape of the distribution in number of siblings and its relation to expectation from the general population. At least one large sample of eminent scientists⁴ has been described without computation of expected frequencies. Samples of psychotics⁵ and of neurotic patients⁶ are available for comparing failure in social adjustment with outstanding success.

        This report describes the...

      • Biographical Predictors of Scientific Performance
        (pp. 53-60)
        Calvin W. Taylor and Robert L. Ellison

        This paper will present a summary of research on the use of biographical infonnation to predict various criterion measures of successful perfonnance and accomplishments in science (1). In our studies of the relationship of biographical information to success in science, over 2,000 scientists have filled out one of our 300-item multiple choice questionnaires. The majority of this work has been conducted in conjunction with (2) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

        The term “biographical infonnation” is open to some possible misinterpretation when applied to the measuring instrument, the Biographical Inventory, (hereafter called the BI), which has been used in...

      • Scientists and Nonscientists in a Group of 800 Gifted Men
        (pp. 60-66)
        Lewis M. Terman

        The subjects in this study were the approximately 800 male members of a gifted group who were selected in childhood on the basis of an intelligence test and whose careers have been followed for 30 years. As children all had made intelligence scores that rated them in the top 1 per cent for their respective ages. Four field studies of the group have been made:(a)at the time most of them were selected in 1921–22;(b)in 1927–28;(c)in 1939–40; and(d)in 1950–51 (2, 7, 8). On each of these occasions field assistants...

    • B. PARENTAL INFLUENCES

      • Introduction
        (pp. 67-69)

        Science is an intellectual profession which demands high achievement, and aspiration toward intellectual goals. Science demands originality, a questioning of authority, an eagerness to examine the “taken for granted.” Thus it places a high premium on independence in thinking, autonomy, setting goals for oneself, and a willingness to work in isolation. What characteristics in a child’s early environmental milieu, what attitudes and values espoused by the family, would predispose him to such activity? The selections in this section have investigated family interests and practices, attitudes toward work, achievement, and accomplishment to establish the kind of milieu that encourages the attributes...

      • Class Origin of Scientists
        (pp. 69-75)
        S. Stewart West

        The study reported here examines effects of parental class in determining who will become research scientists, using a sample of persons employed in research. Its intent was two-fold: to discover what characteristics of personnel differentiate research organizations, and to identify mechanisms which govern the selection of individuals for training in science. A retrospective design was used because the phenomena of selection were of interest chiefly as they determine the characteristics of men who are ultimately employed by research organizations. One wishes to know primarily what kind of person produces new knowledge, in order to predict the nature and quantity of...

      • Social Class and Initial Career Choice of College Freshmen
        (pp. 75-81)
        Charles E. Werts

        In an excellent study of 33,982 recent college graduates, Davis found considerable variability with respect to the social class composition of freshman career preferences.¹ He found engineering and education to be overchosen by low SES students, whereas medicine, law, humanities and the social sciences were overchosen by high SES students. Preference for business, biological science and the physical sciences was not clearly related to SES in Davis’ study. This procedure could involve error due to faulty recall of freshman career preferences. Added to this problem is the fact that only about 60% of entering freshmen graduate. Thus, it is not...

      • Some Trends in the Social Origins of American Sociologists
        (pp. 81-94)
        Norval D. Glenn and David Weiner

        . . . The question of how sociologists’ backgrounds affect their perceptions of and orientations toward their subject matter is an important problem in the sociology of science that we are investigating in some of our current research.¹ So far we have uncovered little evidence that a sociologist’s pre-college background has much influence upon the kind of sociologist he becomes (Weiner, 1968). However, our analyses are incomplete, our negative findings may well result from a lack of sufficiently sensitive measures of orientations to sociology, and background factors on which we have no data may be influential.

        The purpose of this...

      • Family Religious Background and Early Scientific Creativity
        (pp. 94-102)
        Lois-ellin Datta

        The data discussed in this paper were collected during the initial phase of a longitudinal study on the development of potentially creative scientists.¹ The primary question during this phase was whether or not variables previously reported either to characterize unusually eminent men or to differentiate more and less eminent scientists would differentiate young men of high potential creativity in science from those who showed less potential creativity as early as the senior year of high school, that is, if hypotheses developed on the basis of adult data would apply to fledgling scientists.

        That achievement in the area of science varies...

      • Parental Attitudes of Mothers of Intelligent Adolescents and Creativity of Their Children
        (pp. 102-108)
        Robert C. Nichols

        Although knowledge of the relation between the early experience of a child and his adult personality is most important for psychological theory and the practical technology of childrearing, dependable information about this relation has, for practical reasons, been difficult to obtain. Most of what we know is based on experimentation with animals or clinical case studies. Thus, in spite of the shortcomings of retrospective studies in this area, there is still need for studies relating expressed childrearing attitudes of parents to the behavior of their children when both parent and child measures are obtained when the children are adolescents. More...

    • C. ACADEMIC INFLUENCES

      • Introduction
        (pp. 109-111)

        In the first two sections of Part II the search for precursors of scientific interests, capacities, and attitudes has proceeded in a highly speculative way. Not only has the identification of salient variables been problematic, but also the postulation of significance has been questionable, relying as it must on the dangerous tendency to establish correlations and to infer a continuous—and often causal—relationship between phenomena that are temporally widespread. Such correlations have a great likelihood to be spurious, since no study has been made of the role and contribution of the many other variables that intervene between t₁ and...

      • A Multiple Discriminant Analysis of High School Background Data for the Doctorates of 1958
        (pp. 111-123)
        Lindsey R. Harmon

        For many years the Office of Scientific Personnel of the National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council has collected data regarding holders of earned doctorate degrees from United States universities. In recent years this work has been supported in large part by the National Science Foundation. Since 1957, the method of data collection has Collsisted of a questionnaire completed by each doctoral graduate and forwarded by his graduate dean to the Office of Scientific Personnel. Among the questionnaire items is the name and address of the high school from which the Ph.D. graduated. The present study is an outgrowth of...

      • Undergraduate Origins of American Scientists
        (pp. 123-130)
        John L. Holland

        The role of undergraduate institutions in the production of scientists and scholars is ambiguous, despite two comprehensive studies by Knappet al.(1, 2). These studies suggest that certain colleges and universities are more productive of scientists and scholars than others—a kind of “institutional productivity” hypothesis. The results of the present study, however, argue for an opposed hypothesis, or a “student quality and motivation” hypothesis; namely, differential institutional productivity appears to be a function of the concentration of bright students at certain institutions and of differences in student motivation for scientific and scholarly achievement. Specifically, bright students congregate in...

      • Background and Early Training of Psychologists
        (pp. 131-136)
        K. E. Clark

        Every psychologist can provide an anecdote purporting to indicate how he happened to get into the field; many of our respondents did so in their replies to our inquiries about factors leading to their entry into psychology.¹ Attempts to categorize such responses have not been too successful; our classes have been crude and numerous. Yet, while our study of individual responses emphasizes uniqueness, a bit of sense seems to emerge as we examine the composite. This in spite of our having devoted a relatively small part of our schedule to these factors ....

        To what extent is psychology able to...

      • Undergraduate Institutions and the Production of Scientists
        (pp. 136-144)
        Alexander W. Astin

        The number of undergraduate students who abandon plans to pursue a career in science far exceeds the number who decide to enter science from other fields. Hence, the number of qualified individuals who are available to enter fields in which there is already a shortage of trained manpower tends to be reduced. The factors in the student’s undergrad uate college experience which affect his motivation to pursue a career in science therefore seem worthy of investigation.

        Among the factors which may influence a student’s decision to pursue a career in science at graduation are his personal characteristics at the time...

    • D. COGNITIVE RESOURCES

      • Introduction
        (pp. 145-148)

        Just as certain developmental events, background, and family milieu have been thought to predispose an individual toward a scientific career, so certain characteristics of thinking, motivation, and personality have been studied for the push that they give in this direction. The general strategy of these investigations has been to study the intellectual correlates of mature scientists who are actively performing in a research role. The assumption here is that since these are individuals who are successfully performing in work demanding originality and creativity, they are useful exemplars of the demands made on thinking processes. This approach has provided access to...

      • Intelligence and Creativity
        (pp. 148-152)
        Donald W. MacKinnon and Wallace B. Hall

        In our studies of several groups of highly creative persons (writers, mathematicians, research scientists, and architects), intelligence was measured by the Terman Concept Mastery Test (CMT) (1956), which is generally considered to be a test of general intelligence (g). It does not, however, yield a factorially pure or unidimensional measure of intelligence nor can scores on the test be precisely converted to IQs, especially in the upper range of scores.

        The CMT had previously been administered to several groups of highly effective individuals studied in our Institute (Institute of Personality Assessment and Research, IPAR) since 1950, and the norms on...

      • Factors of Importance for Creativity
        (pp. 152-157)
        John E. Drevdahl

        Despite the fact that creativity has been a matter of interest among psychologists for many years, most studies and discussions of the subject have been primarily speculative in nature. There have been three general approaches to the study of creativity: the historical-anecdotal approach, best illustrated by Kretschmer(6), the introspective personal report approach exemplified in Patrick's studies (7, 8), and the test approach, used by Terman (14) and Roe(10, 11). With the exception of less than a score of relatively recent studies, some reported and some still under way, the experimental or objective (test) approach to the study of creativity has...

      • Perceptual Organization in a Study of Creativity
        (pp. 157-160)
        Morris I. Stein and Bernard Meer

        The perception of goodGestaltenis a function of the perceiver, his needs, defense mechanisms, and integration, and the characteristics of the stimulus-field. When the stimulus is ambiguous, the perceiver has to draw more heavily on his own resources than when the stimulus is structured. Consequently, it was hypothesized that those who have such resources available to them (“more creative” suhjects) will develop more hypotheses and betterGestaltenunder varying conditions of ambiguity than those who may not have such resources available to them (“less creative” subjects).

        Eighteen industrial research chemists who were expected to be creative and had the...

      • A Study of Imagery in Research Scientists
        (pp. 160-166)
        Anne Roe

        The data reported here were gathered in the course of a study of personalities of research scientists as related to vocation. The 64 subjects of that study are eminent research scientists in the fields of biology, physics and physical chemistry, psychology, and anthropology. Most of the men are members of the National Academy of Sciences, or the American Philosophical Society, or both. Age range is 31 to 60, with a mean of 47.7 .... The research plan included intensive interviews on life history, discussion of their work and working habits, and three tests, the Rorschach, the Thematic Apperception Test, and...

    • E. PERSONALITY AND MOTIVATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

      • Introduction
        (pp. 167-169)

        Search for personality correlates which identify scientists rests on the assumption that certain personality and emotional characteristics are felicitous to scientific performance, while others are not. Studies of research performance, research milieu, and the institutionalization of scientific practices encourage us to look for persons whose needs and drives are homogeneous with those that optimize performance, and which are syntonic to research work.

        In the case of the personality of scientists, the questions of whether these needs and drives have been present early, influencing the socialization experiences which then directly lead to a choice of work in science, and of the...

      • A Comparison of the Personality Profile (16 P.F.) of Eminent Researchers with That of Eminent Teachers and Administrators, and of the General Population
        (pp. 169-179)
        R. B. Cattell and J. E. Drevdahl

        Research on research is a recent conception, but it has come none too soon. As the investigations of Wolfe (1952) indicate, the well-springs of professional talent never How too freely, and of all professional groups that of creative researchers is probably the most uncertain in its supplies of talent. Nevertheless, because of the importance of this small band to continued social prosperity and scientific advance, its occupational selection and conditions of working creatively need to be studied, despite their complexity, as soon as understanding of personality measurement and the mental processes of creativity (Kretschmer, 19.31; Spearman, 1933; Guilford, Wilson and...

      • Personality Factors Related to Creativity in Young Scientists
        (pp. 179-187)
        Dorothy Semenow Garwood

        The purpose of this investigation was to test some predicted relationships between creativity in young scientists and personality factors. These factors may be classified in three groups:(a)characteristics of intellectual processes, interests, interpersonal relationships, and intrapersonal relationships;(b)integration of nonconscious with conscious material; and(c)sexual identifications. While there exists a growing body of empirical evidence bearing on the validity of the hypotheses in Groupa(Garwood, 1961; Stein and Heinze, 1960), empirical support for the predictions in Groupsbandchas heretofore been lacking. This latter situation is particularly noteworthy with regard to Groupbhypotheses...

      • On the Psychodynamics of Creative Physical Scientists
        (pp. 187-195)
        David C. McClelland

        The persistent curiosity of the creative physical scientist presents a challenge to psychologists interested in human motivation. Why is it that some men spend their entire lives in an unceasing effort to penetrate the secrets of the universe? Certainly they must have brains and a good store of scientific knowledge to draw on, but so do many people in our day and age. Why are a few called to intense devotion to such a task? What turns them first to natural science? Is it a single common factor or several factors operating differently on different individuals? The path of least...

      • The Scientists’ Personalities
        (pp. 195-206)
        Bernice T. Eiduson

        Certain common notions about the personality of the scientist crop up repeatedly in psychological literature; they are shared by psychologists representing various theoretical backgrounds. These concepts have to do with the way scientists meet their emotional clmllenges, with the behavior patterns that are found regularly in their personality make-up, with their conflicts, with the motivations to which they respond. The interpretations are couched in hypotheses which may take the form of descriptive terms thought to be correlated with the fact of being a scientist, or they may be elaborate psychodynamic formulations which look for aprimum mobileto account for...

      • Explorations in Typology
        (pp. 206-214)
        Morris I. Stein

        Because of the potential significance a knowledge of types has for both research and theory but with full awareness that types are out of fashion, this exploration was begun. Its aim was to learn whether a typological system based on self-images could satisfy, at least initially, some minimal criteria and whether it could be useful in illuminating some problems that are encountered in applying psychological knowledge. Among the minimal criteria for useful types were the following: they should be internally meaningful and consistent; they should be relatively independent of each other; they should be differentially retated to other criteria; and...

  6. Part III Mechanism of Career Choice

    • A. THEORETICAL POSTULATIONS

      • Introduction
        (pp. 217-219)

        A loose developmental conceptual framework exists in the field of vocational choice. Within this framework movement into a work role has been regarded generally as a formal expression of a number of precursory early experiences, talents, interests, and values (Borow, 1966). Other characteristics, e.g., identification with parents, leading to choice have been studied either as isolated variables or as clusters of variables, and possible mechanisms by which such variables shape selection of an occupation have been postulated (Taylor and Ellison, in Section II A; Roe, in this section).

        Perhaps one of the most well-known theoretical conceptions of occupational choice is...

      • Early Determinants of Vocational Choice
        (pp. 220-225)
        Anne Roe

        This paper suggests some hypotheses about the relationships between early experience and attitudes, abilities, interests, and other personality factors which affect the ultimate vocational selection of the individual. Although the writer has drawn heavily upon the general literature, as well as some of the psychoanalytical studies, upon studies of early interest patterns, of parent-child relatiOlis, and of personality differences related to parent attitndes and to birth order, data from individual studies are not quoted. This is a speculative paper, and there is littledirectevidence for the hypotheses which are suggested. However, the writer does not know of any contradictory...

      • Perceived Parental Attitudes and Parental Identification in Relation to Field of Vocational Choice
        (pp. 225-234)
        Richard J. Brunkan

        Several theories of vocational psychology have proposed that parents have an important influence upon their child’s choice of a vocational field (Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Helma, 19.51; Roe, 1957; Super, 1957). According to these theories, parents influence their children not only by theirattitudes,but also through theidentificationsof their children with them. For example, Roe (1957) has hypothesized that the three predominant parentalattitudesof (1) emotional concentration upon the child, (2) acceptance of the child and (3) avoidance of the child, are related to vocational choices in specitic fields. Attempts to test her theory, however, have produced...

      • An Articulated Framework for Vocational Development
        (pp. 234-243)
        Edward S. Bordin, Barbara Nachmann and Stanley J. Segal

        Over the past decade visible progress has been made toward a theory of vocational development which turns on early formative influences and links the adoption of occupational roles to personality organization. This article aims to further that progress by:(a)presenting a scheme which identifies the gratifications that varieties of work can offer,(b)tracing these gratifications to the physiological functions necessary to their achievement, and emphasizing the importance of early experiences that lead to investments in particular modes of obtaining gratification. We shall start by surveying existing fonnulations to establish wherein we extend or depart from these conceptions and...

      • Psychoanalysis and Scientific Creativity with Special Reference to Regression in the Service of the Ego
        (pp. 243-257)
        Marshall Bush

        The intent of this paper is to examine what contributions psychoanalysis may have to offer to an understanding of the creative process in the natural sciences as distinct from creativity in other fields. Of necessity some injustice will be done to the complexity of the problem. Which activities should be considered creative? Is creativity sufficiently uniform a process that it can be considered to be essentially the same in different branches of science, in different research approaches, and in different personality types? A broad spectrum of activity is all too often glibly subsumed under “scientific research,” overlooking the fact that...

      • A Theory of Vocational Development
        (pp. 257-264)
        Donald E. Super

        Two and one-half years ago a colleague of mine at Columbia, Dr. Eli Ginzberg, an economist, shocked and even unintentionally annoyed many members of the National Vocational Guidance Association by stating, at the annual convention, that vocational counselors attempt to counsel concerning vocational choice without any theory as to how vocational choices are made. A year later Dr. Ginzberg published his monograph onOccupational Choice,in which he stated:

        Vocational counselors are busy practitioners anxious to improve their counseling techniques . . . the research-minded among them devote what time they can to devising better techniques. They are not theoreticians...

      • The Occupational Role of the Child: A Research Frontier in the Developmental Conceptual Framework
        (pp. 264-272)
        Roy H. Rodgers

        The developmental conceptual framework has as its chief focus the analysis of change in family roles over time. In carrying out such an analysis attention is paid, primarily, to three areas: (1) the structure of the society in which the family exists, (2) the structure of the family per se, and (3) the role dynamics of the family viewed primarily as a consequence of specific age, sex, and plurality compositions. The details of the framework have been set forth elsewhere.¹ The concern of this paper is with the application of the framework to a specific research problem in an effort...

    • B. SEQUENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN A SCIENTIFIC CAREER:: CONTINUITIES AND DISCONTINUITIES

      • Introduction
        (pp. 273-275)

        The articles in this section empirically explore certain aspects of the sequential processes involved in the development process of vocational choice, the theoretical formulations of which were discussed in Section III A. They deal with continuity and discontinuity in personality and interests and with the continuities and discontinuities in the actual process of choice of a vocation.

        The Parloff, Datta, Kleman, and Handlon selection, like Garwood’s paper in Section II E, considers the problem of the causal relationship between personality and vocational choice. Researchers have tried to determine if creative young people interested in science have characteristics similar to those...

      • Personality Characteristics which Differentiate Creative Male Adolescents and Adults
        (pp. 276-285)
        Morris B. Parloff, Lois-ellin Datta, Marianne Kleman and Joseph H. Handlon

        ... The present investigation is addressed to two issues: (1) to test further the claim that creative adults, independent of field, share a common set of differentiating personality characteristics,¹ and (2) to test whether such personality characteristics may be interpreted as conducive to or consequent to creative performance.

        The first question was tested by a reanalysis of personality data obtained by investigators at the Institute for Personality Assessment and Research (IPAR) at the University of California, Berkeley. In their studies of creative adults—architects, mathematicians, research scientists, and professional writers—the IPAR researchers had given careful attention to the selection...

      • Development of Scientist Patterns of Interest in Boys
        (pp. 285-292)
        Leona E. Tyler

        On the basis of their final performance on the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, two contrasting groups of boys were selected. To be included in theScientistgroup, a subject was required to show aprimarypattern in Strong’s Group I, Group II, or in both. Seventeen boys qualified according to this criterion. To be included in theNonscientistgroup, a subject was required to show arejectpattern in Strong’s Group I, Group II, or in both. There were 22 boys in this group. Strong’s Group I consists of the scales for biological or human scientists: Artist, Psychologist, Architect, Physician,...

      • Development of a Realistic Vocational Choice
        (pp. 292-297)
        John W. Hollender

        Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma (1951) observed a trend for reality considerations to take priority over subjective considerations as a basis for vocational choice with advances in age during adolescence. From this evidence, they hypothesized that reality factors such as opportunities for education and employment, become the predominant factors upon which vocational choices are based in adolescence, replacing such subjective factors as interests, capacities, and values (Ginzberg et al., 1951). Small (1953) did not find the hypothesized relationship between age and reality of vocational choice in his sample of 100 boys from age 15 to 19, “but much evidence that...

      • Explorations of a Theory of Vocational Choice, Part IV: Vocational Daydreams
        (pp. 298-302)
        John L. Holland

        . . . A group of 360 boys and 278 girls were polled by mail just before they entered college. Students were obtained from a pool of 7,000 volunteers of high aptitude students, who were National Merit Finalists and Commended students. No case can be made for the sample as representative of any well defined sample. They are described best as students of superior scholastic aptitude who come largely from families in which the father’s occupation is managerial, semi-professional or professional.

        Students filled out a questionnaire which included questions about their vocational choices, an adjective check-list, self-ratings, multiple choice questions...

      • Persistence of Vocational Choice of the Merit Scholarship Winners
        (pp. 302-306)
        Aubrey L. Forrest

        Recent studies have reported the effectiveness of efforts to recruit top high school graduates into so-called “critical fields,” namely, engineering, scientific research, teaching, and medicine. . . . Only a few studies, however, have attempted to examine the persistence of vocational choice of highly talented youth.

        At least one study indicates that 50 per cent of the normal college population will change fields of major during the four years of undergraduate study [3]. . . . In a study based upon a questionnaire completed by scholarship winners in the 1956 National Merit Scholarship Program at the end of their freshman...

      • Career Changes in College
        (pp. 306-310)
        Charles E. Werts

        In studying factors related to changes in career plans during college, Davis found evidence of a trend toward “social homogeneity, the tendency for ‘birds of a feather to Hock together.’ Regardless (almost) of personal characteristics or occupational field, the ‘deviants’ switch out and students with traits characteristic of the field switch in. Career decisions in college tend to accentuate the occupational differences already present at the beginning of college.”¹ This result complements Wolfle’s finding that intelligence differences between those entering different vocational fields are relatively constant at all educational levels, viz., high school juniors, college undergraduates, graduates, graduate students, and...

    • C. SCIENTISTS AS PERCEIVED ROLE MODELS:: PRECIPITANTS OF CHOICE

      • Introduction
        (pp. 311-313)

        Both perceptions of young people regarding the traits of scientists and the public’s stereotypes of the “typical scientist” appear to be closely related to the problem of recruiting young people into science. Imagery about scientists is important for a number of reasons. First, the image delineates the student’s belief about the scientist’s personality and lifestyle. It suggests that the potential recruit must, if he elects to become a scientist, have certain types of personality characteristics and live a certain type of life. If the features of the scientist’s personality and life do not mesh with the student’s interests, beliefs, and...

      • Image of the Scientist among High-School Students A Pilot Study
        (pp. 314-321)
        Margaret Mead and Rhoda Métraux

        This study is based on an analysis of a nation-wide sample of essays written by high-school students in response to uncompleted questions. The following explanation was read to all students by each administrator. “The American Association for the Advancement of Science, a national organization of scientists having over 50,000 members, is interested in finding out confidentially what you think about science and scientists. Therefore, you are asked to write in your own words a statement which tells what you think. What you write is confidential. You are not to sign your name to it. When you have written your statement...

      • The College-Student Image of the Scientist
        (pp. 322-328)
        David C. Beardslee and Donald D. O’Dowd

        The image of the scientist among high school students has been studied in detail in recent years. Remmers and Radler (1) have reported on some beliefs of teen-agers about scientists, and Mead and Metraux (2) have summarized the image of the scientist revealed in essays produced by a large sample of high school students.

        The beliefs of college students about the scientist are also of interest. Many students entering college seriously consider careers in science, and college students will eventually constitute an influential segment of the citizens whose views make up the public response to science.

        Exploration of the college-student...

      • College Student Stereotypes of the Personality Traits of Research Scientists
        (pp. 328-333)
        A. W. Bendig and Peter T. Hountras

        The extent of public support for scientific research and education is dependent upon the attitudes toward science and scientists which prevail in the culture. The development of these attitudes begins early in the elementary school (2). These attitudes are solidified by the time students reach the secondary school level (6, 8) where they influence the choice of a future career (7). The attitude ofthe public toward the current Man-Into-Space program is at least partially influenced by a general attitude of both respect for and a fear of the influence of scientific advances upon our society. Stated somewhat differently, this ambivalent...

      • Stereotypes of the Scientist as Seen with the Gordon Personal Profile and Gordon Personal Inventory
        (pp. 334-335)
        John R. Braun

        Bendig and Hountras (1) investigated the stereotypes of the personality characteristics of research scientists held by University of Pittsburgh students. Ss had to indicate whether typical members of various paired occupations (including research scientists, lawyers, businessmen, and engineers) would be equal or unequal on a number of characteristics. They found that the research scientist, as compared with the other three occupations was regarded as “. . . more intellectual, logical, orderly, persistent, studious, thorough, and also as being less charming, friendly, humorous, poised, and self-confident.”

        The present investigation dealt with the stereotypes of the personality characteristics of scientists held by...

      • Science as a Vocational Preference among Junior High School Pupils
        (pp. 335-340)
        Stanley Krippner

        It is commonly observed that some careers have more respect, money, and prestige associated with them than do others. These occupations usually demand longer periods of education; material and non-material rewards are therefore needed to recruit new members [4]. As a result, high school students frequently have been reported to state interests in these high-level occupations despite the fact that relatively few will be capable of completing the required training [8].

        Unfortunately, parents often encourage unrealistic vocational planning on the part of their children, indicating that they too have been influenced by the prestige and status of professional careers [5]....

  7. Part IV Psychological Aspects of Professional Role Behaviors

    • A. CHOICE OF DISCIPLINE WITHIN THE SCIENCES

      • Introduction
        (pp. 343-345)

        The first papers in this section are characteristic of a number of studies aimed at determining the relationship of personality and biographical variables to occupational choice which have compared diverse groups of professions in hopes of finding clear-cut personality differences between professions (e.g., Siegelman and Peck (1960) on chemists, ministers, and military officers; Nachmann (1960) on law, dentistry, and social-work students). Despite some obvious weaknesses of these studies, they are included because they are among the few studies (together with Cattell and Drevdahl’s in Section II E) that compare persons in the behavioral sciences with those in the physical and...

      • Relating Personality and Biographical Factors to Scientific Creativity
        (pp. 345-359)
        J. A. Chambers

        This study is concerned with the differences in personality and biographical factors between mature scientists who are highly creative research men and those who are much less creative in research.

        One of the earlier and better studies of this problem (Visher, 1948) presented biographical factors of starred men of science. It was not until Guilford’s presidential address to the American Psychological Association in 1950 on the topic of creativity, however, that systematic attacks on the problem began in earnest around the country. Summaries of the studies in this area to date may be found by consulting Anderson (1959), Roe (1953a)...

      • Prediction of College Majors by Personality Tests
        (pp. 359-365)
        Marcel L. Goldschmid

        Although some relationship certainly exists between personality and the choice of a major, just as between personality and occupational preferences, studies of these phenomena have come to few conclusions.

        The clarification of the relationship between vocational and educational choice and personality would enhance both the development of more adequate personality theories and our understanding of the counselee’s problems in the areas of vocational and educational adjustment. With the continued expansion of education in ali directions and at all levels, a better comprehension of educational choice might result in a lowered attrition rate in colleges and universities and heightened satisfaction with...

      • A Psychological Study of Eminent Psychologists and Anthropologists, and a Comparison with Biological and Physical Scientists
        (pp. 365-378)
        Anne Roe

        This is the third . . . in a series of clinical studies of research scientists. The series of studies was designed to investigate the existence of relationships between life history, intellectual functions or personality characteristics, and the selection and pursuit of a particular science as a profession. This has been the first series of its kind in this field, and hence the major approach has had to be observational and diffuse. In so complex a problem, the first need is to get some idea of the nature of the relationships, if any exist, the points at which a direct...

      • Personality Development and Vocational Choice of Clinical Psychologists and Physicists
        (pp. 379-385)
        M. David Galinsky

        Studies by Segal (1961) and Nachmann (1960), utilizing psychoanalytic theory and job analyses, have shown that testable hypotheses about the relationship between personality and vocational choice can be generated, tested, and confirmed. In both of these studies hypotheses derived from psychoanalytic theory were tested. Segal studied creative writers’ and accountants’ current personality structure by means of projective tests, while Nachmann compared the life histories of lawyers with those of social workers and dentists, employing biographical interviews. Roe (1957) has offered some provocative speculations about the relationship between early experience, personality and vocational choice.

        The study is grounded in Nachmann’s assumption...

      • Vocational Interests of Sociologists
        (pp. 385-388)
        Jack E. Rossmann, Orville Lips and David P. Campbell

        Counseling psychologists in the college setting are being increasingly called upon to discuss graduate school plans with undergraduate students. Whatever the motivations might be, a higher proportion of seniors is seeking admission to graduate school each year.

        Some students know from the day they enroll as freshmen that graduate school is their goal. For them, the purpose of entering graduate school is the desire to pursue a particular academic discipline, and vocational choice is no problem. For others, however, the possibility of graduate school is not considered until they are well along in their college careers, and then this choice...

    • B. CAREER ACTIVITIES

      • Introduction
        (pp. 389-391)

        During the course of his career, the scientist will adopt one or more of a number of possible work roles or work activities. The activity which he adopts, either volitionally or nonvolitionally, can influence his level of productivity and recognition. Andrews, examining the relationship between allocation of time to technical research, teaching, and administrative activities and productivity, finds that scientists who spent their full time on technical work performed more poorly than did those also involved in teaching and administration. The optimal division of time for Ph.D. scientists seemed to be 75 percent for research with the majority of the...

      • Scientific Performance as Related to Time Spent on Technical Work, Teaching, or Administration
        (pp. 391-396)
        Frank M. Andrews

        Many scientists and engineers spend full time on their technical work, that is, on research or development. Other scientists devote a portion of their time to teaching or administration. If research were similar to operating a machine, one would expect that the scientific contributions of those who spend full time on their technical work would surpass the contributions of those who spend only part time. But in many ways research is different.

        In analyzing data from a nationwide study of 4,000 physiologists, Meltzer found that those who spent about three-quarters time on technical activities had the highest rate of publication...

      • Patterns of Mobility of New Ph.D.’s among American Academic Institutions
        (pp. 397-408)
        Lowell L. Hargens

        In their discussions of the institutions of higher education in the United States, sociologists have emphasized the fact that various colleges and universities commonly are ranked in a hierarchical fashion.¹ The basis of this ranking is usually expressed in terms of notions of institutional “quality” or “prestige,” but it is clear that the hierarchy consists of more than existing social evaluations. For example, there is a high positive correlation between the rank of an institution and the average salary of its faculty members,² and recent studies suggest that, even when the scholarly merit of their work is the same, members...

      • Social Structure in a Group of Scientists: A Test of the “Invisible College” Hypothesis
        (pp. 408-416)
        Diana Crane

        One type of social group which has received relatively little attention from sociologists is the group comprised of scientists who work on similar research problems. This neglect is probably due to the amorphous character of this type of group. Its members are highly individualistic and widely separated geographically. Participation is voluntary. Turnover is very high; the majority of scientists have only one or two publications in any research area (Price, 1963). Even the boundaries of research areas are difficult to define since most scientific work can be classified in numerous ways, and, often, agreement among scientists regarding the categorization of...

      • Stylistic Variations among Professional Research Scientists
        (pp. 417-424)
        Harrison G. Gough and Donald G. Woodworth

        It is a matter of common observation in most fields of endeavor where high-level or professional talents are involved, e.g., in music, writing, artistic creation, athletics, etc., that stylistic differences as well as competence dif ferences exist among practitioners. One would certainly expect to find similar stylistic variations among research scientists, although there seems to be very little research work by psychologists that one can turn to for evidence bearing on this anticipation. In our study at the Institute of Personality Assessment and Research of the research originality and general competence of professional workers in the physical sciences and engineering...

      • The Ideology of Academic Scientists
        (pp. 424-435)
        S. S. West

        It is commonly believed that persons engaged in scientific research adhere to a set of moral values representing ideal types of behavior which facilitate the production of new knowledge. However, the many listings of these values which may be found in the literature range from intuitive to, at best, speculative. Few attempts have been made to discover whether a majority of scientists actually holds them as they are stated. This paper presents data obtained in interviews with academic researchers of faculty status, which outline the distributions of scientific values for one university. These men are engaged for the most part...

      • The Federal Scientist-Administrator
        (pp. 435-442)
        Eugene S. Uyeki and Frank B. Cliffe Jr.

        A number of interesting questions can be asked about the scientist who is employed as an administrator by the federal government (1). Some of these are very practical questions. Others have relevance for theoretical concerns in the social sciences. For instance, exactly what is the professional distribution of scientists in government who hold supervisory and administrative positions? From what backgrounds do they come? What sorts of careers have they had, in and out of government? What is the correlation between the rank of the scientists and their fields of research? How does the scientific elite in government compare with other...

      • Scientists as Advisors and Consultants in Washington
        (pp. 442-450)
        Bernice T. Eiduson

        This article, dealing largely with the relationship of the research scientist to Washington, is based on a follow-up investigation of a group of research scientists, carried out in 1964. The general aim of the follow-up was to study the course of their scientific careers, establish the main trends in development, and identify some of the factors influencing these trends.

        Scientists: Their Psychological World(Eiduson, Basic Books: New York, 1962) describes the 1958-59 sociopolitical study of these forty research scientists. This investigation followed a psychological study of artists who had been compared with a group of non-artists (businessmen) acting as a...

    • C. PRODUCTIVITY

      • Introduction
        (pp. 451-453)

        How can we predict at what periods of their lives scientists will be most productive? The studies in the present section all relate to the problem of the correlation between aging and productivity. Some (Dennis, Lehman, Pressey) try to directly determine the relationship between these two events, while others (Roe, Cook and Hazzard) are primarily concerned with the effects of aging and only indirectly consider productivity.

        It is well known that research scientists differ in productivity. The first Dennis selection examines the productivity of four groups of psychologists, active at different periods of time from 1887 to the present day....

      • Productivity among American Psychologists
        (pp. 453-457)
        Wayne Dennis

        That scientists differ greatly in regard to the number of their publications can readily be demonstrated. The question that we wish to examine here is whether the aggregate publications of any generation of scientists are made up primarily of the work of the highly productive minority or are composed chiefly of the contributions of the less productive majority.

        Our data come from four groups of American psychologists. Because they were chosen from different periods of time, there is very little overlap in the membership of these groups.

        From Murchison’s Psychological Register, Vol. III, we obtained the names of all psychologists...

      • Toward Earlier Creativity in Psychology
        (pp. 457-461)
        S. L. Pressey

        Clark states inAmerica’s Psychologists(1957, p. 109) that only some 4% of his significant contributors had thought of psychology as a career when in high school and only 23% when in the first two years of college. The first figure seems congruent with Visher’s finding (1947, p. 527) that only 9% of the starred psychologists (those voted by a panel of their fellows as most eminent) inAmerican Men of Sciencefrom 1903 through 1943 had before the age of 19 decided to specialize in their field; however, 59% of the starred chemists, 48% of the astronomers, and 31%...

      • The Psychologist’s Most Creative Years
        (pp. 461-468)
        Harvey C. Lehman

        It seems obvious that man’s most creative years cannot be very adequately investigated under the restricted and relatively shortlived conditions of the laboratory. Just as in physics no single observation can yield a generalization applicable to all subsequent observations, similarly, in the heterogeneous field of creativity, and more specifically within the field of psychology, the chronological ages at which one individual displays his most important creativity provides little information regarding the ages at which others will do so.

        My book,Age and Achievement(Lehman, 1953), contains information obtained from just one book that has to do with notable contributions to...

      • Age and Productivity among Scientists
        (pp. 469-470)
        Wayne Dennis

        This paper is concerned with the output of scientific papers among a group of scientists all of whom reached the age 70 and many of whom lived to age 80 or beyond. Among the topics examined are the following: What is the relative productivity of a scientist at various decades of life? What percentage of his total bibliography is produced by age 30, age 40, and so forth? How many contributions are made during the additional decade that is allotted to the octogenarians?

        Because my bibliographic source provided data only for the 19th century, it was necessary to choose for...

      • The Productivity of Sociologists at 45 American Universities
        (pp. 471-481)
        Norval D. Glenn and Wayne Villemez

        Two recent articles inThe American Sociologistdeal with the productivity of sociology departments in the United States (Lewis, 1968; Knudsen and Vaughan, 1969), and it is likely that measures of departmental productivity will continue to be published with some regularity. These measures are interesting and may be useful to professional sociologists, graduate students in sociology, and prospective graduate students. As Knudsen and Vaughan stress, they are a needed supplement to the subjective measures of departmental quality published by the American Council on Education (Cartter, 1966). Among other functions, they help promote rivalry among departments and aid prospective students in...

      • Changes in Scientific Activities with Age
        (pp. 481-487)
        Anne Roe

        In the years 1947 to 1949 I studied a group of eminent research scientists (1). My reasons for seeking them out then were to find out if scientists differ in any consistent ways from nonscientists, or if different kinds of scientists differ consistently from each other, and to find out why they became scientists rather than something else.

        In 1962 and 1963 I interviewed these same men again. I was concerned to learn what changes had taken place in the nature or amount of their scientific work, in the pattern of their lives generally, and in their opinions about such...

      • Mature Research Institutions and the Older Scientist
        (pp. 487-490)
        Leslie G. Cook and George W. Hazzard

        Scientific research as a full-time profession, instead of as merely part of an academic career, is a phenomenon largely of the last few decades. Since World War II the number of large industrial laboratories in this country has increased by 50 percent, and the total number of scientists in these laboratories has doubled (1).

        The number of males who graduate from college with degrees in science and engineering has been increasing at the rate of 12 percent per year, as compared with 5 percent for college graduates generally and only 2 percent for people of age 22 in the total...

    • D. ACHIEVEMENT OF EMINENCE

      • Introduction
        (pp. 491-493)

        Although eminence and recognition within a scientific field is thought to be directly proportional to the quality (and to a lesser extent to the quantity) of scientific productivity, other psychological and sociological variables interact with productivity to determine not only the attainment of eminence, but also the effects of eminence upon the eminent. Among the important influencing factors discussed in the articles in this section are personality traits, type of work pattern, location within the stratification system, prestige of university, and patterns of collaboration.

        Wispé compares trait ratings of 239 eminent psychologists and 136 noneminent psychologists through factor-analytic techniques. Results...

      • Traits of Eminent American Psychologists
        (pp. 493-499)
        Lauren G. Wispé

        Psychologists attending a conference on education for research in psychology (1) concluded that “research is learned by doing and taught mainly by contagion,” and that in this process “the senior man serves as a teacher and also ... as a model.” Additional studies of psychologists by psychologists have shown that, in the teacher-student relationship, eminence begets eminence—that is, eminent teachers train more students who, themselves, eventually become eminent (2, 3). This phenomenon is by no means confined to psychologists. For example, the chemistry department at the University of California, at Berkeley. before the advent of Gilbert N. Lewis in...

      • Professional Standing and the Reception of Scientific Discoveries
        (pp. 499-512)
        Stephen Cole

        . . . Progress in science depends upon the rate of discovery and the efficiency with which discoveries are evaluated, diffused, and incorporated into the body of scientific knowledge. For this reason, the sociology of science analyzes the social or “external” conditions which affect the processes of discovery, evaluation, and diffusion.¹ This paper presents data from a series of studies of the diffusion of scientific ideas.

        We have started with the null hypothesis that sociological variables have no influence on the processes of science. Indeed, it is this hypothesis which is probably held by many working scientists. The development of...

      • Nobel Laureates in Science: Patterns of Productivity, Collaboration, and Authorship
        (pp. 512-522)
        Harriet Zuckerman

        This paper examines certain aspects of the work patterns and publication practices of the topmost elite in contemporary science: recipients of the Nobel prize. Nobel laureates occupy a status of highest prestige and visibility, not only among scientists but also among the better-educated segment of the general population.

        In part, their prestige derives from the small absolute and relative number of laureates.¹ There are just 55 in the entire population of American scientists. This prestige is reflected in the open pride populations and organizations take in counting them among their number. Since the prize is granted on the basis of...

      • Scientists at Major and Minor Universities: A Study of Productivity and Recognition
        (pp. 522-532)
        Diana Crane

        Relations between the social order and cultural phenomena are a traditional concern of sociology, recently expressed in the study of science as an institution. Related studies have attempted to discover the effects of different types of organization on scientific activity,¹ raising the question: Are scientific productivity and recognition entirely the result of achievement, or does the scientist's environment significantly influence his performance and the extent to which he receives credit for it?

        Previous studies have shown that scientists located at major universities² are more likely to be highly productive and more likely to receive recognition than those located at minor...

      • Eminence, Productivity, and Power of Sociologists in Various Regions
        (pp. 532-538)
        Murray A. Straus and David J. Radel

        The recent revision of the constitution of the American Sociological Association (ASA) was stimulated in part by the objections of sociologists in certain regions to what was believed to be a regional bias in the control of the association. During the several-year period of the gestation and birth of this new constitution, it is remarkable that the controversy was carried on without benefit of empirical data on this aspect of the need for constitutional revision. Although it is obviously past the time (if it ever existed) when empirical data might influence the process of constitutional revision, the issue of a...

    • E. ALTERNATE CAREER PATTERNS

      • Introduction
        (pp. 539-541)

        Some minority groups of scientists are limited in their career development simply because they belong to a particular subgroup. While some constraints occur because the entire group is discriminated against as a visible minority, other constraints may develop because individual members of a group cannot adopt the expected patterns and obligations of the professional role or adjust to the given social environment.

        The majority of articles dealing with career-limiting factors involve women. The selection by Wispé, Ash, Awkard, Hicks, Hoffman, and Porter is one of the few that considers other minorities, in this case Negro psychologists. The black psychologists differ...

      • The Negro Psychologist in America
        (pp. 541-551)
        Lauren Wispé, Philip Ash, Joseph Awkard, Leslie H. Hicks, Marvin Hoffman and Janice Porter

        Little is known about the origins, education, and training of Negro psychologists. Even less is known about the discrimination they have faced in the course of their professional careers. To obtain this kind of information, which would be valuable in itself and could also serve as a basis for recommendation to the Board of Directors of the APA, the Committee on Equality of Opportunity in Psychology undertook to survey psychologists in America who are Negro.¹ The findings reported below are the results of this survey. Because of the difficulty in obtaining information about race and discrimination, these findings must be...

      • Personality Profiles of Gifted Women: Psychologists
        (pp. 551-563)
        Louise M. Bachtold and Emmy E. Werner

        In two recent studies of personality factors of talented boys and girls in middle childhood and adolescence by the authors (Werner, 1966; Werner and Bachtold, 1969), the personality profile of the gifted boys showed a striking resemblance to that of recognized creative persons (artists, writers, and scientists) in the adult population (Cattell and Drevdahl, 1955; Drevdahl and Cattell, 1958) and of college students nominated for creative potential (Drevdahl, 1956). The findings, for the gifted boys, were generally applicable, regardless of age group, method of selection, type of educational program, and special area of interest.

        This trend did not hold for...

      • Women Mathematicians and the Creative Personality
        (pp. 563-574)
        Ravenna Helson

        Women mathematicians are rare. It has been suggested by both mathematicians and psychologists, informally, that acreativewoman mathematician would have a brain different from that of other women. A normal woman, others say, could not so reject the life of feeling and concreteness without stifling her originality in the process.

        Yet creative women mathematicians do exist. It seemed possible that these women, if they were not “mutants,” might show conspicuously the essential traits of the creative personality, without which they would not have overcome whatever barriers make their numbers so small. A study of these Ss, then, might contribute...

      • Psychological and Social Barriers to Women in Science
        (pp. 574-579)
        Martha S. White

        Talented and educated women with family responsibilities often face special problems of identity and self-esteem when they attempt to continue their professional activity. Although many do so successfully and encounter few problems, others find it more difficult. I first became aware of some special aspects of these problems when I interviewed women scholars at the Radcliffe Institute—women with outstanding intellectual and creative ability who had been awarded fellowships so that they might continue their professional interests on a part-time basis (1).

        The Institute members were particularly questioned about their feelings of identity as a professional. Did they feel any...

      • Minority Status and the Pursuit of Professional Careers: Women in Science and Engineering
        (pp. 579-588)
        Carolyn Cummings Perrucci

        Minority status, whether based on sex, race, ethnicity, or religion, is an important influence upon occupational placement, even in high-status professional occupations (Hall, 1946, 1948; Carlin, 1962, 1966; Ladinsky, 1963; Smigel, 1964; Bock, 1967). With respect to sex, it is found that many professions are sex-typed (Epstein, 1967), resulting by and large in the continuation of either male or female predominance among the practitioners therein (Gross, 1968). Consistent with the minority status of women, female-dominated professions tend to be of lower status than those dominated by men (Epstein, 1967).

        Investigation of the relative integration of minorities into the world of...

  8. Part V Role Conflicts and Alternative Roles

    • A. CONFLICTS IN ROLE ACTIVITY

      • Introduction
        (pp. 591-592)

        The now classic Kubie articles (1953; 1954) on irrational factors at work in the scientist has apparently served as a stimulus for work on personal, often emotionally laden behaviors, which were at one time considered antithetical to the rational processes of science. Once seen in appropriate context, however, this area has led to some lively and revealing writing, much of which has served to strip away the idealized stereotypes of science and to show that scientists share universal behaviors, motivations, and attitudes. Kubie’s contribution shows the many points at which scientific activity is invaded and affected by unconscious irrational pressures...

      • Social Control in Science
        (pp. 593-601)
        W. O. Hagstrom

        The study of social control in science involves the search for characteristic types of behavior that produce confonnity to or deviance from scientific nonns and values. Many scientists would assert that the study of social control is of little importance because there is no problem of deviation in science—no significant tendencies by scientists to deviate or to induce confonnity in others. Let us consider how such a position may be developed before attempting to discover the sources of social control in science; it is unprofitable to study inherently trivial fonns of behavior.

        The socialization of scientists tends to produce...

      • Behavior Patterns of Scientists
        (pp. 601-611)
        Robert K. Merton

        The history of science indelibly records 1953 as the year in which the structure of the DNA molecule was discovered. But it is 1968 that will probably emerge as the year of the double helix in the history that treats the behavior of scientists, for James Watson’s deeply personal account of that discovery, now in its ninth printing, has evidently seized the public imagination ....

        To judge from the popular reviews, the essential message of the book was taken to be that scientists are human, after all. This phrasing, it turns out, does not mean that scientists can be assigned...

      • The Competitive World of the Pure Scientist
        (pp. 611-619)
        Fred Reif

        The “pure scientist” is likely to be pictured as a person who devotes himself to the study of natural phenomena without regard to their possible practical or technological applications. Motivated by intellectual curiosity and immersed in his abstract work, he tends to be oblivious of the more mundane concerns of ordinary men. Although a few older scientists have become active in public affairs in recent years, the large majority who remain at work in their university laboratories lead peaceful lives, aloof from the competitive business practices or political manipulations of the outside world.

        There is some truth in this stereotyped...

      • Comparative Failure in Science
        (pp. 619-622)
        Barney G. Glaser

        A perennial problem for some scientists is theirfeelingofcomparative failureas scientists. This problem becomes clearer if we consider two major sources of this feeling that are inherent in the very nature of scientific work.(i)In science, strong emphasis is placed on the achievement of recognition (1);(ii)the typical basic scientist works in a community filled with “great men” who have made important and decisive discoveries in their respective fields; they are the acknowledged guiding lights. These esteemed scientists, who have attained honors beyond the reach of most of their colleagues, tend to become models for...

      • The Impact of Rapid Discovery Upon the Scientist’s Career
        (pp. 623-630)
        Fred Reif and Anselm Strauss

        One of the most striking features of present-day science is the rapidity of scientific discovery, verification, and technological exploitation. This rapid rate of change is intimately connected with other outstanding characteristics of modem science, its bigness, visibility, and increasing professionalization. The number of men engaged in research is so large and the organizational framework so efficient that new fields get explored and developed with great speed ....

        This very organizational framework, while unquestionably furthering discovery, can however mitigate against the continuing creativeness of individual scientists. Men in many fields have complained about the restrictive aspects of working within the context...

    • B. EXTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCING PERFORMANCE

      • Introduction
        (pp. 631-633)

        Classically, two sets of variables which influence scientific performance have been distinguished: the first investigates the effects of sociocultural or environmental factors on work; the second studies the effects of the internal or psychological factors within the scientist himself. Characteristic of the first group are conditions in the context or milieu in which the research is conducted, the relationships, organizational interactions, and constraints which affect what is done and how it is done. Conditions within the institution of science itself, its practices, values, or procedures which establish limits or restrictions on scientific behaviors are often included. The studies in this...

      • Creative Tensions in the Research and Development Climate
        (pp. 633-641)
        Donald C. Pelz

        What kinds of climate in research and development organizations are conducive to technical accomplishment? What is the optimum degree of freedom versus coordination? of pure research versus practical development? of isolation versus communication? of specialization versus diversification?

        To find some answers, my colleagues and I studied 1300 scientists and engineers in 11 research and development laboratories. Since the answers in different kinds of settings might vary, we included five industrial laboratories, five government laboratories, and seven departments in a major university. Their objectives ranged from basic research to product development.

        Among the findings appeared a number of apparent inconsistencies. The...

      • Creative Ability, the Laboratory Environment, and Scientific Performance
        (pp. 642-650)
        Frank M. Andrews

        Previous research on creativity has studied the characteristics and backgrounds of creative people (see, for example, studies by Barron,[1]Taylor,[8]and Roe[7]). There have, however, been few attempts to examine conditions which facilitate the translation of creative ability into creative performance.

        Without pretending to be able to describe the entire creative process, we can perhaps identify gross aspects of it. Somehow a person first must get an original idea which is useful for the problem at hand. (We define creative ability as a person’s capacity for getting such ideas.) Then he must be willing to make it known to others....

      • Freedom, Visibility of Consequences, and Scientific Innovation
        (pp. 650-656)
        Gerald Gordon and Sue Marquis

        In the literature on scientific organization there are a great many speculative statements stressing the relationship between freedom and scientific accomplishment. Wollie, among others, postulates that the greater the freedom accorded the scientist, the more creative his research. Wolfle states, for example: “One of the most certain ways in which society can promote excellence in science and other areas of scholarship is by building strong universities and insisting that creative scholars be given time, facilities, and freedom of choice to carry out the studies that seem most likely to extend fundamental knowledge and understanding.”¹ However, one finds little of an...

      • The Local-Cosmopolitan Scientist
        (pp. 656-666)
        Barney G. Glaser

        Several studies in the sociology of occupations and of organizations have concluded that some professionals in organizations tend to assume a “cosmopolitan” orientation that manifests itself in their working for professional goals and the approval of colleagues throughout their professional world, in focusing on a professional career, and in a concomitant lack of loyalty to and effort for the organization. Other professionals tend to assume a “local” orientation that manifests itself in their lesser commitment to the profession, in more concern with the goals and approval of the organization, and in focusing on an organizational career.¹ With the growing movement...

    • C. ACTIVITIES OF SCIENTISTS EXTERNAL TO PROFESSIONAL WORK

      • Introduction
        (pp. 667-669)

        One of the interesting issues from the viewpoint of understanding the scientific man as an individual is the extent to which his unusual investment and commitment to work colors the other aspects of his life. Is his intense devotion to work also found in nonwork activities? What behaviors and attitudes does he show as a father and a husband? How does he spend his time outside the lab? What interests and hobbies does he pursue?

        Actually few studies have been done on these aspects of his activities. What is known is that there is comparatively little interest and investment in...

      • The Scientific Life Style
        (pp. 670-674)
        Bernice T. Eiduson

        In this section vocational identity is used to see how it influences the other aspects of scientists’ lives, their nonvocationally preset roles. Drawing upon the interview data, I shall look at the research scientist in his functions as the head of a household, as a member of the community in which he lives, and as a person at leisure and play.

        The purpose of spotlighting the scientist in these ways is twofold: first, to draw a more complete picture of the scientific man—to show that his is not wholly a one-sided existence; and second, to study how his identification...

      • Lifetime Worry Patterns of American Psychologists
        (pp. 674-676)
        Willard A. Kerr, Harry L. Newman and Alfred R. Sadewic

        As the first of a series of projected studies of the “lifetime” worry patterns of the members of specific American occupational groups, this research employed the voluntary, anonymous questionnaire technique.

        A letter-questionnaire requesting cooperation and listing twelve potential fields of worry was prepared and mailed with attached postpaid answer-reply card to a random sample of 250 successful American psychologists who were born before 1903. “Successful” for the purpose of this study is defined as being employed in a psychological capacity, and, with a few exceptions, holding fellowship status in the American Psychological Association. Ages of the 103 respondents ranged from...

      • Academic Discipline as Predictive of Faculty Religiosity
        (pp. 676-685)
        Edward C. Lehman Jr. and Donald W. Shriver Jr.

        Discussions of religion and the American university usually dwell on the questions of possible conflict between science and religion and whether a person can adhere to traditional religion and still be an intellectual.¹ While the early approach to these issues was highly polemical,² recent studies concentrate on the more analytical problem of discovering conditions under which persons are more or less likely to participate in religion. These investigations typically compare academicians with nonacademicians to test the hypothesis that involvement in higher education is predictive of irreligiosity.³

        The present study seeks to investigate variationsamongacademicians rather than to make gross...

      • Political Orientations of Academically Affiliated Sociologists
        (pp. 685-692)
        Henry A. Turner, Charles B. Spaulding and Charles G. McClintock

        Studies of many specialized subdivisions of the American electorate are needed to expand and deepen our knowledge of political behavior. Much of significance appears to be lost in the use of the very broad analytical categories often applied to the national and community samples so frequently used in the study of political phenomena.¹ For instance, the general category of persons with professional and technical occupations (sometimes even including businessmen) usually produces an aggregation which is on the average conservative in orientation and which votes relatively frequently for Republican political candidates.² Yet observation and analysis suggest that at least certain groups...

      • American University Teachers and Opposition to the Vietnam War
        (pp. 693-700)
        Everett Carll Ladd

        Since the beginning of substantial American military involvement in Vietnam, the academic community in the United States has been the scene of dissent. Most public opinion surveys have found that Americans of high educational attainment, and generally of high economic status, have supported United States activity in Vietnam more strongly than those with less formal education and lower status.

        Yet college and university teachers, who are among the most highly educated, have been found to be the most critical. In the spring of 1966, the proportion of academics¹ who thought that American involvement in Vietnam was an error was more...

  9. Name Index
    (pp. 701-710)
  10. Subject Index
    (pp. 711-735)