Regional and Metropolitan Growth and Decline in the US

Regional and Metropolitan Growth and Decline in the US

William H. Frey
Alden Speare
Copyright Date: 1988
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 616
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7758/9781610442251
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  • Book Info
    Regional and Metropolitan Growth and Decline in the US
    Book Description:

    During the 1970s, several striking population shifts attracted widespread attention and colorful journalistic labels. Urban gentrification, the rural renaissance, the rise of the Sunbelt-these phenomena signaled major reversals in long-term patterns of population distribution. In Regional and Metropolitan Growth and Decline in the United States, authors Frey and Speare place such reversals in context by examining a rich array of census data.

    This comprehensive study describes new population distribution patterns, explores their consequences, and evaluates competing explanations of current trends. The authors also provide an in-depth look at the changing race, status, and household demographics of the nation's largest cities and discuss the broad societal forces precipitating such changes. Frey and Speare conclude that the 1970s represented a "transition decade" in the history of population distribution and that patterns now emerging do not suggest a return to the past.

    With impressive scope and detail, this volume offers an unmatched picture of regional growth and decline across the United States.

    A Volume in the Russell Sage Foundation Census Series.

    eISBN: 978-1-61044-225-1
    Subjects: Population Studies, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Foreword
    (pp. vii-x)
    Charles F. Westoff

    Regional and Metropolitan Growth and Decline in the United Statesis one of an ambitious series of volumes aimed at converting the vast statistical yield of the 1980 census into authoritative analyses of major changes and trends in American life. This series, “The Population of the United States in the 1980s,” represents an important episode in social science research and revives a long tradition of independent census analysis. First in 1930, and then again in 1950 and 1960, teams of social scientists worked with the U.S. Bureau of the Census to investigate significant social, economic, and demographic developments revealed by...

  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xii)
    William H. Frey and Alden Speare Jr.
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  5. List of Tables
    (pp. xv-xxii)
  6. List of Appendix Tables
    (pp. xxiii-xxvi)
  7. List of Figures
    (pp. xxvii-xxx)
  8. OVERVIEW
    • 1 INTRODUCTION
      (pp. 3-17)

      Prior to 1970 the patterns of growth and decline across the nation’s regions and metropolitan areas could be characterized, fairly accurately, as a redistribution that favored the West region over the Northeast, Midwest, and South, that favored the large metropolis over smaller-sized metropolitan areas, and that favored urban communities over rural ones. This characterization did not apply to all areas, but it constitutes a relatively apt description of the broad redistribution tendencies that dominated the nation’s growth and decline patterns over most of its recent history. Redistribution patterns within the nation’s largest and oldest metropolitan areas had also become well...

    • 2 METROPOLITAN AREAS AS UNITS OF ANALYSIS
      (pp. 18-36)

      EXPERTS have never agreed upon how to draw the line between urban and rural or between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan.¹ Writers in the first half of this century saw the metropolis as a center that organized the economic activity of a large hinterland.² The core was a central city through which all goods that entered or left the region passed. Some of these cities were primarily central places that served agricultural regions.³ However, most of the major cities of the United States that had large populations by 1900 were located at break points between land and water transportation.⁴ With the increase...

  9. PART ONE
    • 3 COMPONENTS OF METROPOLITAN GROWTH AND DECLINE
      (pp. 39-72)

      The twentieth century has seen the rapid growth and spread of metropolitan areas throughout the United States. At the beginning of the century, less than one-third of the population lived in metropolitan areas and only five of these areas had populations over 1 million. By 1980 three-quarters of the population lived within metropolitan areas and there were 39 areas with populations over 1 million. Both the number of metropolitan areas and the size of these areas increased over the century, although there are signs that the larger areas had reached their maximum size by 1970 and that future metropolitan growth...

    • 4 DETERMINANTS OF METROPOLITAN GROWTH
      (pp. 73-107)

      In the previous chapter we saw that there were great differences in the rates of growth of metropolitan areas. At one extreme, Las Vegas, West Palm Beach, and Fort Lauderdale grew by more than 60 percent during the 1970s; at the other extreme, Jersey City, Buffalo, and Cleveland lost an average of 8 percent of their populations. What accounts for this variation in rates of growth? Why do some metropolitan areas grow while others decline? These are questions that have been explored by several writers. However, when explanations which seemed plausible prior to 1970 do not explain changes occurring in...

    • 5 CONSEQUENCES OF GROWTH AND DECLINE
      (pp. 108-144)

      In the previous two chapters we have seen that there are great variations in the rates of growth of metropolitan areas. While the populations of some areas grew by more than 50 percent in a decade, other areas experienced population decline. In this chapter we shall examine some of the consequences and correlates of growth or decline for these areas.

      Although there is a general belief among urban and regional planners that areas benefit from growth, there is little direct evidence to this effect. Growth brings obvious rewards to those persons involved in construction and related businesses, which provide facilities...

    • 6 GROWTH OF THE BLACK POPULATION IN METROPOLITAN AREAS
      (pp. 145-172)

      If the transformation of the total population from rural to urban in the twentieth century was dramatic, the transformation of the black population was spectacular. In 1900 over three-quarters of the black population of the United States lived in rural areas, and all but a very small proportion of the rural blacks lived in the South. By 1960, 73 percent of blacks lived in urban areas and the majority of the urban blacks lived outside the South.¹ Between 1900 and 1980 there were large movements of blacks from the rural South to urban areas in the North. As many as...

  10. PART TWO
    • 7 CITY–SUBURB REDISTRIBUTION WITHIN LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS
      (pp. 175-235)

      Beginning with this chapter the focus shifts to an evaluation of theintrametropolitan central city–suburb redistribution process within the nation’s largest metropolitan areas, with particular attention to the post-1970 period. It is during this period that social forces have effected significant changes in race relations, family formation patterns, and the nature of work—all areas that hold implications for city–suburb redistribution. The chapters that follow will examine these societywide changes and the consequences they hold for intrametropolitan shifts in population, households, and employment within both growing and declining metropolitan areas. However, before entering into these analyses directly, we...

    • 8 RACE DIMENSIONS OF CITY–SUBURB REDISTRIBUTION
      (pp. 236-279)

      Chapters 8 and 9 can be regarded as a unit that points up the major dimensions of race and socioeconomic selective population redistribution within the nation’s largest metropolitan areas. Just as growth disparities between central cities and suburbs became accentuated in many older metropolitan areas during the immediate postwar decades, the race and status disparities between their cities and suburbs widened. The familiar urban location pattern, which places low-status minority, recent immigrant residents at the city’s center and high-status residents on its periphery, was well established in older industrial-based metropolitan areas prior to World War II.¹ However, it was the...

    • 9 STATUS DIMENSIONS OF CITY–SUBURB REDISTRIBUTION
      (pp. 280-319)

      In this chapter we continue our evaluation of race- and status-selective suburbanization of the population, by placing emphasis on the socioeconomic status dimensions of post-1970 suburbanization. Historically, metropolitan areas have differed markedly in the degree to which they have displayed a city–suburb status gap. In systematic analyses of city–suburb status differences in the 1950s and 1960s, Leo F. Schnore and his collaborators found the characteristic stereotype—low-status residents locating in the city and high-status residents in the suburbs—to exist only in a subset of the nation’s largest metropolitan areas.¹ Yet, this characteristic pattern was most evident in...

    • 10 HOUSEHOLD AND FAMILY DIMENSIONS OF CITY–SUBURB REDISTRIBUTION
      (pp. 320-372)

      With this chapter we change the focus from the city–suburb redistribution of population to the redistribution of households and families. The post-1970 era has brought with it rather striking societywide shifts in both the magnitudes and compositions of households; some of these shifts hold significant implications for the intrametropolitan redistribution process.¹ First of all, there was a rapid rise in the number of households formed in the post-1970 years. Part of this rise can be attributed to the fact that members of the large post–World War II baby-boom cohorts had, during this period, advanced into peak household formation...

    • 11 WORKPLACE AND RESIDENCE DIMENSIONS OF CITY–SUBURB REDISTRIBUTION
      (pp. 373-428)

      The relationship between employment and residence location represents yet another dynamic of intrametropolitan redistribution which has begun to shift directions in the post-1970 years. Trends observed through the 1970 census had given rise to the concern that selective population and employment redistribution tendencies—operating in opposite directions over the 1950–1970 period—had created important “mismatches” between the locations of employment opportunities and the locations of the residences of potential workers whose experience and skills were most appropriate for these opportunities.¹ Of particular concern was the increased isolation of low-income city workers and minorities—from both entry-level and well-paying blue...

  11. SUMMARY
    • 12 CONCLUSION
      (pp. 431-470)

      The preceding chapters have outlined the most significant redistribution trends that have emerged across metropolitan areas, and for central cities and suburbs within large metropolitan areas over recent decades, placing particular emphasis on the post-1970 period. It has become clear, in these analyses, that the nature of these redistribution processes and the contexts within which they occur have changed markedly during this period. Indeed, the 1970s might be considered a “transition decade” in the history of United States population redistribution. Prior to 1970 and, indeed, for most of the present century, the nation’s main redistribution patterns consisted of: (1) a...

  12. APPENDIX A: METROPOLITAN GROWTH USING THE METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS DEFINED IN 1983
    (pp. 471-482)
  13. APPENDIX B: SUPPLEMENTAL TABLES ON CONSEQUENCES OF GROWTH BY REGION AND SIZE OF METROPOLITAN AREA
    (pp. 483-491)
  14. APPENDIX C: SUPPLEMENTAL TABLES ON ASPECTS OF THE BLACK POPULATION BY REGION AND SIZE OF METROPOLITAN AREA
    (pp. 492-496)
  15. APPENDIX D: POPULATION GROWTH AND NET MIGRATION, 1970–1984, FOR 1980 STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS AND NEW ENGLAND COUNTY METROPOLITAN AREAS
    (pp. 497-508)
  16. APPENDIX E: SUPPLEMENTARY TABLES ON CITY–SUBURB REDISTRIBUTION
    (pp. 509-545)
  17. APPENDIX F: BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES FOR METROPOLITAN AREA AND CENTRAL CITY DEFINITIONS, AND DATA SOURCES USED IN THIS VOLUME
    (pp. 546-558)
  18. Bibliography
    (pp. 559-564)
  19. Name Index
    (pp. 565-568)
  20. Subject Index
    (pp. 569-586)