Dual City

Dual City: Restructuring New York

John Hull Mollenkopf
Manuel Castells
Copyright Date: 1991
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 492
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  • Book Info
    Dual City
    Book Description:

    Have the last two decades produced a New York composed of two separate and unequal cities? As the contributors toDual Cityreveal, the complexity of inequality in New York defies simple distinctions between black and white, the Yuppies and the homeless. The city's changing economic structure has intersected with an increasingly diversified population, providing upward mobility for some groups while isolating others. As race, gender, ethnicity, and class become ever more critical components of the postindustrial city, the New York experience illuminates not just one great city, or indeed all large cities, but the forces affecting most of the globe.

    "The authors constitute an impressive assemblage of seasoned scholars, representing a wide array of pertinent disciplines. Their product is a pioneering volume in the social sciences and urban studies...the 20-page bibliography is a major research tool on its own." -Choice

    eISBN: 978-1-61044-404-0
    Subjects: Political Science, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-xii)
  3. Preface and Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    • Introduction
      (pp. 3-22)
      John Mollenkopf and Manuel Castells

      Just as Philip Hone, Richard Henry Dana, and Charles Dickens contrasted such “dark, filthy, violent, and degraded” places as the “Five Points” with the bright achievements of Broadway a century and a half ago, observers are again depicting New York as ‘two cities,” one rich and one poor.² Despite the economic slowdown since the stock market crash of October 1987, New York incontestably remains a capital for capital, resplendent with luxury consumption and high society, asTown and Countryproclaimed in a cover story on the “empire city.” But New York also symbolizes urban decay, the scourges of crack, AIDS,...

    • 1 The Decline and Rise of the New York Economy
      (pp. 25-42)
      Matthew P. Drennan

      Little can be understood about the New York City economy without reference to the wider metropolitan area, other metropolitan economies, the national economy, and the international economy. For at least 50 years the central city, artificially bounded in the distant past, has not been a sufficient unit for analysis of the urbanized or metropolitan economy.

      The appropriate geographic unit of analysis for the urbanized economy centered in Manhattan south of 60th Street is the New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA). It includes 24 contiguous counties in 3 states, of which 11 are in New...

    • 2 The Changing Ethnic/Racial Division of Labor
      (pp. 43-78)
      Thomas Bailey and Roger Waldinger

      The impact of the postindustrial transformation of the nation’s cities on their minority populations is a central issue in urban research. The general consensus holds that the shift from goods to services has undermined the historic role that cities have played as staging grounds for the integration of unskilled, newcomer groups. But just why the service economy has this effect remains a matter of considerable debate. One view contends that the root problem is a skills mismatch; that the flight of manufacturing has left low-skill minorities stranded, shut out of the burgeoning service sector because they lack the educational proficiencies...

    • 3 The Informal Economy
      (pp. 79-102)
      Saskia Sassen

      The main theories of economic development generally do not foresee the possibility that an informal economy might arise in postindustrial societies. This controversial possibility demands not only empirical documentation but also a theoretical defense. As used here, the informal economy concept describes income-generating activities that take place outside the framework of public regulation, where similar activities are regulated.¹ Although particular instances of informal work in highly developed countries may resemble those of an earlier period, against the backdrop of decades of growing regulation that reduced and in many sectors virtually eliminated unregulated income-generating activity, they are actually a new development....

    • 4 The Public Sector
      (pp. 103-128)
      Charles Brecher and Raymond D. Horton

      The termsdual cityandpostindustrial cityare intended to capture those economic and demographic characteristics that distinguish modem urban centers, such as New York, from cities that retain large manufacturing activities and from earlier versions of themselves. The people and businesses in New York City today are markedly different not only from those in Peoria, but from those in New York City one-quarter century ago. This chapter describes how the local public sector has responded to these socioeconomic changes.

      A complete answer to the question requires some explicit assumptions about what local government is able to do. What are...

    • 5 The Geography of Employment and Residence in New York Since 1950
      (pp. 129-152)
      Richard Harris

      Almost thirty years ago, Edgar Hoover and Raymond Vernon wrote a definitive study of the geography of homes and workplaces in the modem metropolis.¹ Their analysis of the New York metropolitan region has come to be viewed as a classic of its kind. Since they wrote, however, much has changed. The forces of economic restructuring have led to a decline of manufacturing, a growth of offices, and in some urban areas, the gentrification of the inner city. No place exemplifies these trends better than New York. In the 1970s, New York lost more manufacturing jobs than most United States metropolitan...

    • 6 Upper Professionals: A High Command of Commerce, Culture, and Civic Regulation
      (pp. 155-176)
      Steven Brint

      Even in the antebellum period, the distinctive industries of New York City—shipping, wholesale trade, and finance—required a relatively sizeable body of professional experts and salaried managers. Yet these upper white collar workers left but a weak social imprint in the days of New York’s rise to prominence as the nation’s premier commercial city. They were overshadowed by the triumphant entrepreneurs and financiers who employed them, by the colorful and often corrupt politicians who represented the people of the port city as it grew into a great economic center, and by the laboring masses who dwarfed them in numbers...

    • 7 Women Clerical Workers
      (pp. 177-204)
      Cynthia Fuchs Epstein and Stephen R. Duncombe

      A vision of the American workplace once brought to mind men handling machinery in factories. Actually, white collar work now comprises over half of the American economy; the largest occupational group, clerical workers, now totals 20 million workers.

      Four out of five people who work in offices processing the records of business and government are women. The sex segregation that characterizes clerical work has become stronger, rising from just over 60 percent of clerical jobs in 1950 to nearly 80 percent in 1980.¹

      The economy’s long-term growth in clerical jobs has provided employment for the many millions of women who...

    • 8 The Separation of Mothers and Children
      (pp. 207-224)
      Ida Susser

      The relationships between work, child rearing, and household formation highlight some of the contradictory consequences of recent changes in New York City’s class structure. The increasing social and economic polarization in recent decades has been accompanied by growing interdependence among different kinds of households. The household is the linchpin that connects changing relations of labor, social reproduction, and biological reproduction.¹ Historically, women have performed most of the tasks associated with the creation of “home” and family, in the ideological sense. The processes of home creation and family formation are constantly changing and involve interdependencies of both class and gender. The...

    • 9 Crime and the Social Fabric
      (pp. 225-244)
      Mercer Sullivan

      A few years ago, a Paris newspaper published a map of Manhattan showing areas where it was not safe to walk. The resulting indignation in New York City produced a spate of denials and protests, including a map of the dangerous areas of Paris. Injured municipal pride aside, the incident dramatized New York City’s longstanding and international reputation for street crime.

      In the late 1980s, New York City was the locus of highly publicized crimes in many sectors. Political crimes resulted in the jailing of one borough president and the suicide of another. Massive conspiracy trials resulted in the convictions...

    • 10 The Structure of the Media
      (pp. 245-266)
      Mitchell Moss and Sarah Ludwig

      Two of the major symbols of the information age are electronic media and world cities. Both reflect the centralizing tendencies of telecommunications technologies on urban economic and social systems. New York City is widely known as the media capital of the United States, where the nation’s largest publishing firms, television networks, and advertising agencies are located. These corporations produce the information and images that are communicated across the country and the world, in the form of newspapers, magazines, books, and radio and television programs. The presence of information-intensive firms in New York City contributes to the economic well-being of the...

    • 11 Patterns of Neighborhood Change
      (pp. 267-312)
      Frank F. DeGiovanni and Lorraine C. Minnite

      New York City has experienced a number of major economic and demographic changes in recent decades. The city’s population declined precipitously during the 1970s before rising somewhat during the 1980s: while the overall population was shrinking, the minority population increased to become a majority by 1987.¹ Resident employment levels followed a similar pattern: dropping from 3.2 million in 1969 to 2.5 million in 1976, then increasing to 3 million in 1987.² The employment upswing over the last decade was accompanied by a marked shift in the industry and occupational mix.³

      These broad social and economic trends fueled parallel changes in...

    • 12 The Changing Character of Community Politics in New York City: 1968–1988
      (pp. 315-332)
      Susan S. Fainstein and Norman I. Fainstein

      Nearly two decades have elapsed since urban activism reached its apogee in American cities. Both betrayed and fulfilled, community groups have become part of regular urban politics, routinely consulted but rarely pressing for large-scale transformation. Contemporary grass-roots activism is better captured by the term community politics than the term social movement, as urban groups have become more modest in their aims and less threatening to established power. Nevertheless, in many places they continue to articulate the interests of urban communities and bureaucratic clients. In that way, they affect the character of urban regimes and the quality of community life, albeit...

    • 13 Political Inequality
      (pp. 333-358)
      John Hull Mollenkopf

      Although the changes described in earlier chapters have had a profound impact on New York City’s class structure, racial and ethnic composition, and geography, they have had much less impact than might be expected on its electoral politics, at least until the mayoral elections of September and November 1989. In particular, New York City resisted the political succession of ethnic whites by native-born blacks that has taken place in most of the nation’s other largest cities. Nor, for reasons that will be explored below, is the city likely to experience such a racial succession, despite the election of the city’s...

    • 14 Poles Apart: Urban Restructuring in New York and Los Angeles
      (pp. 361-376)
      Edward W. Soja

      A new round of urbanization is reshaping the forms and functions of the world’s cities. Its specific contours and meaning are still being debated, as are its intensity and permanence as they relate to earlier periods of rapid urban change. It is clear, however, that the contemporary city is significantly different from the city of just 20 years ago. In response to these changes, current research has focused on analysis ofurban restructuring, a term that has come to summarize the distinctive dynamics of urbanization in the late twentieth century.¹

      Drawing from the growing literature on urban restructuring, this chapter...

    • 15 A Dual to New York? London in the 1980s
      (pp. 377-396)
      Ian Gordon and Michael Harloe

      In the 1980s, after a long period of decline during which time British influence in the world shrank and its own region outgrew it, London regained star billing in the world urban system alongside New York and Tokyo as one of three global financial centers. This new role is owed less to political authority over scattered territories, as in the past, than to a central place system of markets in which it is the highest status center within the Greenwich Mean Time zone. It is the most internationalized of the three centers and the only one in which the trading...

  10. VII Conclusion
    • Conclusion: Is New York a Dual City?
      (pp. 399-418)
      Manuel Castells and John Mollenkopf

      The analyses presented in this volume show a complex social dynamic that differs from the journalistic images of New York City. After the fiscal crisis of 1975, New York underwent an economic, social, and political restructuring. This restructuring was strongly influenced by the financial elite and guided by a new political coalition in the context of an increasingly interdependent world economy and the rise of neoconservatism in American national politics.

      Helped by the growing importance of new information technologies, New York has emerged from this period holding a dominant economic position in the international system. It joins Tokyo and London...

  11. References
    (pp. 419-440)
  12. Name Index
    (pp. 441-448)
  13. Subject Index
    (pp. 449-477)