Review of Child Development Research

Review of Child Development Research: Volume 1

MARTIN L. HOFFMAN
LOIS WLADIS HOFFMAN
Copyright Date: 1964
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 560
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7758/9781610446471
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  • Book Info
    Review of Child Development Research
    Book Description:

    Makes a major contribution to current research on children by providing a broad view of up-to-date, authoritative material in many different areas. Contributors have selected and interpreted the relevant material in reference to the practitioner's interests and needs. The chapters, written by prominent specialists, cover various topics in child development from early periods of socialization to the development of higher mental processes, and include two chapters dealing with genetic and neurophysiological bases of behavior.

    eISBN: 978-1-61044-647-1
    Subjects: Sociology, Psychology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-x)
    Lois Wladis Hoffman and Martin L. Hoffman
  4. Introduction
    (pp. 1-8)

    Practitioners in the several professions that provide services to children have a constant need for knowledge in a wide variety of areas. Yet those whose time is fully taken up in such services find it almost impossible to keep up with the large volume of theory and research in child development coming from the various disciplines. The major purpose of this volume is to bring together the relevant research data from the many sources in a form that will be useful to the professional persons who work with children.

    In preparing the volume, an attempt has been made to overcome...

  5. The Effects of Infant Care
    (pp. 9-88)
    BETTYE M. CALDWELL

    In the research literature of the past decade, infant care practices have had a difficult time. Buffeted by contradictory or inconclusive empirical findings and assailed by accusations of inadequate theoretical heritage, they have frequently been denounced as inadequate experiential foundations for socialization theory. But in spite of their travail in the research literature, they have retained their popularity in the clinical and lay literature and in the preoccupations of conscientious parents.

    Throughout antiquity there has been considerable interest in the effects of patterns of infant care, but the topic received its greatest modem impetus from early psychoanalytic theory. Additional contemporary...

  6. Separation from Parents During Early Childhood
    (pp. 89-136)
    LEON J. YARROW

    The strong and persistent emphasis on the importance for healthy personality development of a close and satisfying relationship with the mother in infancy and early childhood has been accompanied by a corollary emphasis on the disastrous consequences for the child of an interruption or loss of maternal care. If we accept the basic premise of the importance of good maternal care for personality development, it would seem to follow logically that separation from the mother will have adverse effects. This is the essential logic underlying the assumptions about the effects on the child of maternal separation. The issues, however, are...

  7. Acquisition and Significance of Sex Typing and Sex Role Identity
    (pp. 137-168)
    JEROME KAGAN

    The concept of sex role and its close relatives, sex typing and sex role identification, have achieved much prominence during the past decade. It is surprising, however, that this concept has been so tardy in acquiring theoretical popularity among psychologists. For the behavioral differences between the sexes are public and have an ancient and transcultural heritage. Sociology and anthropology have not been as neglectful of this concept, for over a quarter of a century ago Linton (1936) wrote: “The division and ascription of statuses with relation to sex seems to be basic in all social systems. All societies prescribe different...

  8. Consequences of Different Kinds of Parental Discipline
    (pp. 169-208)
    WESLEY C. BECKER

    Active interest by social scientists in the consequences of disciplinary techniques can be traced to three main influences in the early part of this century: the focus on learning processes by the early functional and behavioristic psychologists, the developmental focus of psychoanalytic theory, and the repeated findings in clinical practice of a high incidence of atypical disciplinary practices in the backgrounds of problem children and adults. The delinquency studies during the 1910’s and 1920’s were the first to provide some semblance of systematic information on the effects of discipline. The 1930’s saw a sharp increase of research in this area...

  9. The Attainment of Concepts
    (pp. 209-248)
    IRVING E. SIGEL

    Our physical and social world is made up of a host of diverse stimuli. Sounds, lights, textures, shapes are among the innumerable sources of stimulation consistently impinging on our senses. For us, as adults, diversity is neither distressing nor chaotic, for we have created order out of the seeming disorder. Having acquired this order, we are able to move about our environment with considerable accuracy and security. By learning to behave appropriately toward the many objects, events, and people with whom we come in contact, we adapt and function in our environment with the necessary precision and confidence.

    One major...

  10. Effects of Early Group Experience: The Nursery School and Day Nursery
    (pp. 249-288)
    JOAN W. SWIFT

    An understanding of the nature of group experience and its effect on the young child is of both theoretical and practical importance in the field of child development today. The theoretical importance stems from the relevance which this problem has to the processes of socialization and those through which group identification is achieved. The practical importance lies primarily in its relevance for practice in the fields of education and child welfare; yet also, in the implications for all practitioners concerned with the health and development of the young child.

    A number of trends in our society point up the importance...

  11. Peer Relations in Childhood
    (pp. 289-322)
    JOHN D. CAMPBELL

    The child is a member of two worlds: the world of adults and that of his peers. His experiences in each of these worlds are crucial aspects of his daily living and are significant agents in molding his subsequent development. This chapter focuses on research primarily concerned with one of these worlds, that of the peer culture of childhood. Discussion will center to a considerable extent, but not exclusively, on the middle years of childhood, on the elementary school-age child’s relations with other children of approximately the same age and general development.² Of the complex of factors involved in the...

  12. Effects of the Mass Media
    (pp. 323-348)
    ELEANOR E. MACCOBY

    It is evident that television, comic books, radio, and movies are absorbing a substantial segment of the time and concentrated attention of today’s children. Exposure to these media begins very early. In some households the one-year-old’s playpen is located in the same room with a television set that other family members are watching, and there are instances in which a child’s first word is the name of a television star or a product being advertised. What is happening to a child as he absorbs TV and radio programs, or reads the comic strips? Is he merely being entertained, or is...

  13. Productive Thinking
    (pp. 349-382)
    JAMES J. GALLAGHER

    This chapter is concerned with recent research on productive thinking in children below college age. The study of productive thinking has had an illustrious history extending back to the early philosophers and their attempts to understand thought processes through a study of logic. The names of the great men of psychology can be found who have struggled with these problems. From Dewey to Freud, from Galton to Hull—all of the giants have had something to say on how the human organism generates new ideas or performs analytical or creative operations.

    In this sectionproductive thinking represents the result of...

  14. Development of Moral Character and Moral Ideology
    (pp. 383-432)
    LAWRENCE KOHLBERG

    For many generations, morality was the central category for defining social relationships and development, and the social sciences were termed “the moral sciences.” The great theorists of the early twentieth century also considered morality to be the key to understanding social development, as indicated by McDougall’s (1908) statement that “thefundamental problemof social psychology is the moralization of the individual by the society,” or Freud’s (1930) statement that “the sense of guilt is the most important problem in the evolution of culture.”

    In more recent periods, morality has slipped in and out of focus as a central interest in...

  15. Genetics and Behavior Development
    (pp. 433-480)
    GERALD E. McCLEARN

    Any parent, and any practitioner in fields having to do with children, has intimate knowledge of individual differences. Some children are docile, others aggressive; some learn readily, others are dull; some are easily toilet trained, others are not. Individual differences are ubiquitous; indeed, the prediction that they will be found in any study appears to be one of the safest predictions that can be made.

    In some research contexts these individual differences have been regarded as a nuisance—“error variance” which adds a haze of uncertainty to what otherwise would be precise functional relationships or exact predictions. In other contexts...

  16. Some Neural Substrates of Postnatal Development
    (pp. 481-520)
    MADGE E. SCHEIBEL and ARNOLD B. SCHEIBEL

    The increasingly hectic pace of scientific endeavor is reflected in virtually all the skilled disciplines drawing on reservoirs of empirically derived data. Medicine and its allied branches are, perhaps, affected by this continuing revolution more than any of the applied biological sciences. As a result, the therapist, whatever his training or persuasion, is under continuous (at times unbearable) pressure to “keep up with the latest,” lest his attitudes and therapeutic skills not reflect the most useful, and most publicized, facets of medical science. Even more compelling are the inner needs of the individual, freighted with clinical or therapeutic responsibility, to...

  17. Contributors
    (pp. 521-524)
  18. Author Index
    (pp. 525-538)
  19. Subject Index
    (pp. 539-547)