Achievement-Related Motives in Children

Achievement-Related Motives in Children

CHARLES P. SMITH Editor
VIRGINIA C. CRANDALL
SHEILA C. FELD
JUDITH LEWIS
CHARLES P. SMITH
JOSEPH VEROFF
JOHN W. ATKINSON
HOWARD A. MOSS
SEYMOUR B. SARASON
Copyright Date: 1959
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 272
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7758/9781610446938
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  • Book Info
    Achievement-Related Motives in Children
    Book Description:

    Examines the conditions under which motives to achieve are fostered in children. The papers included in this volume reflect the major traditions of research in the field and bring together a set of studies for achieving a better understanding of the ways in which achievement-related personality characteristics develop and function in evaluative or competitive situations.

    eISBN: 978-1-61044-693-8
    Subjects: Sociology, Psychology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Contributors
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Preface
    (pp. v-vi)
    Charles P. Smith
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  5. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-10)
    CHARLES P. SMITH

    HOW a child develops a desire to do well in activities he undertakes, and how he becomes apprehensive about the possibility of doing poorly are problems of both theoretical and practical significance. This volume presents reports of four extensive research projects that deal with achievement-related motivation in children. New theories and methods of investigation concerning achievement motivation, anxiety about achievement, and expectancies of success and failure are described. Developmental trends dealing with both the stability and change of achievement-related motives over time are studied as well as the expression of these motivational dispositions at particular stages of development. That is,...

  6. CHAPTER TWO Sex Differences in Expectancy of Intellectual and Academic Reinforcement
    (pp. 11-45)
    VIRGINIA C. CRANDALL

    MUCH research in achievement motivation or achievement behavior is carried out under theoretical systems which are basically expectancy X value formulations. While various investigators have found a number of additional constructs helpful in increasing prediction, expectancy and value remain central in their theoretical models. Because of this, it is imperative that we delineate the relationships of each of the two fundamental constructs to antecedent and response variables, not only to validate the utility of these intervening variables, but also to understand better how they develop and how they affect behavior. The series of studies to be described here deals with...

  7. CHAPTER THREE Social Comparison and the Development of Achievement Motivation
    (pp. 46-101)
    JOSEPH VEROFF

    MY interest in the origins of achievement motivation began a number of years ago when a group of us attempted to reconcile a set of inconsistent findings contrasting the level of achievement motivation in Roman Catholics and Protestants. In a national study² our results did not support the previously reported advantage that Protestants have in strength of achievement motivation. In fact, our results indicated that under certain conditions Catholics have higher achievement motivation scores. To reconcile these results we talked of two different types of achievement motivation–one responsive to external pressures, and the other dependent on internalized standards. Presumably...

  8. CHAPTER FOUR The Origin and Expression of Achievement-Related Motives in Children
    (pp. 102-150)
    CHARLES P. SMITH

    INDIVIDUAL differences in concern about achieving or doing well at things are well established by the age of 10 or 11. The responses of two 5th grade boys who were asked to tell a story about “a group of children playing” illustrate this differing preoccupation with achievement:

    Subject A. They are having a game of baseball and it is a championship game. And one team gets ahead 5 to 3 and it is the ninth inning and one team has the bases loaded.

    Both teams were champions of two leagues and they were playing for the title.

    They are pretty...

  9. CHAPTER FIVE The Assessment of Achievement Anxieties in Children
    (pp. 151-199)
    SHEILA C. FELD and JUDITH LEWIS

    THE research reported in this chapter grew out of a general interest in the development and manifestations of achievement strivings and anxieties about achievement in young children. There were a number of interesting, substantive questions in this area, but a priority appeared to exist concerning the measuring instruments. A method for measuring achievement motivation in young children was not firmly established, although the research reported by Joseph Veroff in Chapter 3 changes that situation. The Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC), developed by Sarason and his colleagues, appeared to be a valid method for measuring school achievement anxiety and had...

  10. CHAPTER SIX Comments on Papers by Crandall and Veroff
    (pp. 200-206)
    JOHN W. ATKINSON

    SOME of us outside the developmental psychology of achievement motivation, viewing this work from the perspective of typical research on the college sophomore, must be impressed with certain features of it. Particularly encouraging is the much more elaborate analysis of the development of achievement motivation which guides current work. For those initially excited by McClelland and Friedman¹ and Marian Winterbottom’s² exploration of the origins of the achievement motive in parental training practices, who perhaps mistakenly came away thinking that achievement motivation had to be pounded into the head of a youngster by parental demands followed by affectionate rewards, the Veroff...

  11. CHAPTER SEVEN Comments on Papers by Smith and by Feld and Lewis
    (pp. 207-212)
    SEYMOUR B. SARASON

    THESE are not simple papers; these are not short papers; these are very important papers. In the last article I wrote in the anxiety area,¹ which I considered a kind of swan song, I made the point that anxiety research, and I daresay achievement research, was a quite fashionable thing and that they may be very much the victims of success. That is to say, you develop a scale which, like the Binet, seems to work, and you do study after study, and you get the findings you expect, or some of the findings that you expect, and on and...

  12. CHAPTER EIGHT Comments on All Papers
    (pp. 213-219)
    HOWARD A. MOSS

    THE task given to me, to synthesize the presentations collected here, represents quite a formidable undertaking. The papers presented by Crandall, Veroff, Feld and Lewis, and Smith cover such a broad range of concepts and issues and include so much interesting data that one would do well to assimilate all this material, let alone synthesize it. However, I do have a few general comments that perhaps will provide some integration for a number of the papers presented.

    Most of the research reported here gives special attention to a mediating variable (associated with achievement behavior) that deals with the individual’s evaluation...

  13. CHAPTER NINE Conclusion
    (pp. 220-247)
    CHARLES P. SMITH

    WHEN different investigators explore the same area of behavior independently, their results can be reminiscent of the blind man and the elephant–with each researcher believing that his idiosyncratic description is the correct one. When the achievement-related behavior of children of different sexes, ages, socioeconomic and ethnic groups is studied by different methods and from different theoretical points of view, such an outcome would not be unexpected. It is perhaps surprising and encouraging, therefore, that there is as much agreement about the subject as is found in the present volume, for the findings reported here are often similar, or at...

  14. Bibliography
    (pp. 248-258)
  15. Index
    (pp. 259-263)