Consequences of Counterterrorism, The

Consequences of Counterterrorism, The

MARTHA CRENSHAW EDITOR
Copyright Date: 2010
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 432
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7758/9781610447287
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    Consequences of Counterterrorism, The
    Book Description:

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks opened America’s eyes to a frightening world of enemies surrounding us. But have our eyes opened wide enough to see how our experiences compare with other nations’ efforts to confront and prevent terrorism? Other democracies have long histories of confronting both international and domestic terrorism. Some have undertaken progressively more stringent counterterrorist measures in the name of national security and the safety of citizens. The Consequences of Counterterrorism examines the political costs and challenges democratic governments face in confronting terrorism.Using historical and comparative perspectives, The Consequences of Counterterrorism presents thematic analyses as well as case studies of Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Japan, and Israel. Contributor John Finn compares post-9/11 antiterrorism legislation in the United States, Europe, Canada, and India to demonstrate the effects of hastily drawn policies on civil liberties and constitutional norms. Chantal de Jonge Oudraat and Jean-Luc Marret assert that terrorist designation lists are more widespread internationally than ever before. The authors examine why governments and international organizations use such lists, how they work, and why they are ineffective tools. Gallya Lahav shows how immigration policy has become inextricably linked to security in the EU and compares the European fear of internal threats to the American fear of external ones. A chapter by Dirk Haubrich explains variation in the British government’s willingness to compromise democratic principles according to different threats. In his look at Spain and Northern Ireland, Rogelio Alonso asserts that restricting the rights of those who perpetrate ethnonationalist violence may be acceptable in order to protect the rights of citizens who are victims of such violence. Jeremy Shapiro considers how the French response to terrorist threats has become more coercive during the last fifty years. Israel’s “war model” of counterterrorism has failed, Ami Pedahzur and Arie Perliger argue, and is largely the result of the military elite’s influence on state institutions. Giovanni Cappocia explains how Germany has protected basic norms and institutions. In contrast, David Leheny stresses the significance of change in Japan’s policies. Preventing and countering terrorism is now a key policy priority for many liberal democratic states. As The Consequences of Counterterrorism makes clear, counterterrorist policies have the potential to undermine the democratic principles, institutions, and processes they seek to preserve.

    eISBN: 978-1-61044-728-7
    Subjects: Political Science, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Contributors
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Chapter 1 Introduction
    (pp. 1-30)
    Martha Crenshaw

    In examining the political consequences of government countermeasures designed to combat terrorism and the policy outcomes that change democratic institutions, processes, and values, this volume addresses two important but often-neglected questions: What are the political consequences of counterterrorism measures taken by liberal democracies and the international institutions that link them? And how severe are the negative effects of counterterrorism on civil liberties, the rule of law, and patterns of democratic governance?

    We focus here on advanced liberal democracies other than the United States in order to provide historical and comparative perspective.¹ The effects of the American global war on terrorism...

  6. Part I Governance, Civil Liberties, and Securitization
    • Chapter 2 Counterterrorism Regimes and the Rule of Law: The Effects of Emergency Legislation on Separation of Powers, Civil Liberties, and Other Fundamental Constitutional Norms
      (pp. 33-93)
      John E. Finn

      In this chapter, we consider the long-term effects of post-9/11 counterterrorism policies on judiciaries and national constitutions. Our emphasis is on counterterrorism regimes in Europe and Canada, with occasional comparisons to Israel, Japan, India, and Australia. My approach is broadly comparative: I first identify general themes and trends, and my use of examples from specific countries is directed to highlighting and emphasizing these themes and trends.¹ I then appraise the effects of antiterrorism legislation on the protection of civil liberties, which I take to be among the fundamental objectives of any constitutional democracy. Finally, I consider the impact of such...

    • Chapter 3 The Uses and Abuses of Terrorist Designation Lists
      (pp. 94-129)
      Chantal de Jonge Oudraat and Jean-Luc Marret

      Terrorist designation lists are policy instruments that identify people and organizations believed to be responsible for or supportive of terrorist acts. People and entities listed become subject to sanctions and judicial prosecution. Although terrorist designation lists predate the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, their use has greatly expanded since 9/11. In a short period of time, terrorist designation lists have become the hallmark of “serious” national and international counterterrorist policies.

      There are three main problems with terrorist designation lists. First, here is no internationally accepted definition of terrorism. The proliferation of terrorist designation lists has...

    • Chapter 4 Immigration Policy as Counterterrorism: The Effects of Security on Migration and Border Control in the European Union
      (pp. 130-176)
      Gallya Lahav

      Although the political aims of terrorism are government concessions that will further a cause (Friedland and Merari 1985; Long 1990), its psychological effects of fear and anxiety (Crenshaw 1986) often produce unintended consequences. Ironically, the jihadist terrorist charges against Western liberal societies provoked those societies to adopt counterterrorist policy responses that undermined some of their own most fundamental democratic norms. Nowhere is this more evident than with regard to the politics of immigration and immigrant control in Europe. Reverberating well beyond the borders of the United States, sweeping counterterrorist responses have extended to the politics of migration. The broad spectrum...

  7. Part II National Counterterrorism Responses
    • Chapter 5 The Social Contract and the Three Types of Terrorism: Democratic Society in the United Kingdom After 9/11 and 7/7
      (pp. 179-212)
      Dirk Haubrich

      The United Kingdom has a long history of fighting terrorism. This Chapter analyzes the threat that terrorism has posed to the country, the evolution of the country’s policy to counter it, and the effectiveness of that policy in bringing terrorist suspects to justice, as well as the unforeseen effects that policy has had on British society. The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, in the United States and July 7, 2005, in London offer two dates appropriate to demarcate three distinct types of terrorism to which the United Kingdom—and arguably other Western democracies as well— have been exposed over...

    • Chapter 6 Confronting Terrorism in Northern Ireland and the Basque Country: Challenges for Democracy and Legitimacy
      (pp. 213-254)
      Rogelio Alonso

      This chapter analyzes the effects of specific counterterrorist policies aimed at the Basque Freedom and Homeland Organization (Euskadita Askatasuna, ETA) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA) on the societies in which they were implemented. Since a comprehensive examination of the consequences of all the measures introduced against these types of terrorism would exceed the limitations of this chapter, special attention is paid to two policies that have often been defined as undemocratic: the banning of political parties and media censorship. The chapter argues that such a view is superficial when causes and effects of those policies are assessed in terms...

    • Chapter 7 French Responses to Terrorism from the Algerian War to the Present
      (pp. 255-284)
      Jeremy Shapiro

      France has long been on the “bleeding edge” of terrorism, confronting terrorism in all its guises from bomb-throwing anarchists to transnational networks. This chapter briefly surveys the French experience with counterterrorism over the last fifty years, chronicling the actions that the French government has taken to improve its capacity to fight terrorism and describing the institutional system that has evolved in France to prevent and respond to terrorist attacks. After a long and often painful evolution, that system has become quite adept at preventing terrorist attacks in France while respecting French democratic traditions. But the system is not without its...

    • Chapter 8 Germany’s Response to 9/11: The Importance of Checks and Balances
      (pp. 285-334)
      Giovanni Capoccia

      The post-9/11 counterterrorism policies enacted in different countries display important differences. In the United States, the emergence of an international terrorist threat on an unprecedented scale has led to a great increase in the power of the executive (see, for example, Heymann 2003; Ackerman 2004a, 2004b; Scheppele 2004). By contrast, other countries that are potentially exposed to the same threat and are certainly aware of the danger, such as Germany, have retained tighter limits on the power of the executive. What explains these differences? A large literature has emphasized that even in the presence of common external shocks such as...

    • Chapter 9 The Consequences of Counterterrorist Policies in Israel
      (pp. 335-366)
      Ami Pedahzur and Arie Perliger

      Violent attacks against civilians for the purpose of terror constituted an integral part of the strategies carried out by both Jewish and Arab factions in Palestine during the years of the British Mandate, especially after 1936 (Kimmerling and Migdal 2002; Lachman 1982; Lustick 1995). The founding of the Israeli state on May 14, 1948, led to a war between Israel and its neighboring Arab countries that lasted for more than a year. By the end of the war, the new State of Israel controlled much more land than was initially allocated in accordance with the United Nations partition plan.¹ A...

    • Chapter 10 Terrorism as Conventional Security for Democracies: America, Japan, and Military Action in the Asia-Pacific
      (pp. 367-398)
      David Leheny

      Because of their vulnerability both to attack and to political exploitation, democracies face in terrorism a particularly double-edged threat. As other chapters in this volume note, open and liberal societies present a wide array of targets to organizations that would use the space afforded by civil liberties to recruit and plan attacks, and these groups can also count on a relatively free press to publicize and even sensationalize attacks. Terrorist groups are not the only beneficiaries of the expansion of fear. Even one attack—the possible detonation of a “dirty bomb,” the release of anthrax in a crowded mall, the...

  8. Index
    (pp. 399-422)