Changing Face of World Cities, The

Changing Face of World Cities, The: Young Adult Children of Immigrants in Europe and the United States

Maurice Crul
John Mollenkopf
Copyright Date: 2012
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 324
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  • Book Info
    Changing Face of World Cities, The
    Book Description:

    A seismic population shift is taking place as many formerly racially homogeneous cities in the West attract a diverse influx of newcomers seeking economic and social advancement. Not only do young people from immigrant backgrounds make up a large and growing share of these cities’ populations but they will steadily replace the native-born baby boom generation as it ages out of the workplace and positions of influence. In The Changing Face of World Cities, a distinguished group of immigration experts presents the first systematic, data-based comparison of the lives of young adult children of immigrants growing up in seventeen big cities of Western Europe and the United States. Drawing on a comprehensive set of surveys, this important book brings together new evidence about the international immigrant experience and provides far-reaching lessons for devising more effective public policies. The Changing Face of World Cities pairs European and American researchers to explore how youths of immigrant origin negotiate educational systems, labor markets, gender, neighborhoods, citizenship, and identity on both sides of the Atlantic. Maurice Crul and his co-authors compare the educational trajectories of second generation Mexicans in Los Angeles with second generation Turks in Western European cities. In the U.S., uneven school quality in disadvantaged immigrant neighborhoods and the high cost of college are the main barriers to educational advancement, while in some European countries, rigid early selection sorts many students off the college track and into dead-end jobs. Students who got their education in the comprehensive U.S., French, or Swedish systems are more likely to go on to college than those from the highly stratified German and Austrian systems. Liza Reisel, Laurence Lessard-Phillips, and Phil Kasinitz find that while more young members of the second generation are employed in the U.S. than in Europe, they are also likely to hold low-paying jobs that barely lift them out of poverty. In Europe, where immigrant youth suffer from higher unemployment, the embattled European welfare system still yields them a higher standard of living than many of their American counterparts. Van Tran, Susan Brown, and Jens Schneider find that the benefits of the European social welfare system extend to the quality of life in immigrant neighborhoods: second generation Turks in Berlin live in much better neighborhood conditions than do Mexicans and Dominicans in L.A. and New York. Turning to issues of identity and belonging, Jens Schneider, Leo Chávez, Louis DeSipio, and Mary Waters find that it is far easier for the children of Dominican or Mexican immigrants to identify as American, in part because the U.S. takes hyphenated identities for granted. In Europe, religious bias against Islam makes it hard for young people of Turkish origin to identify strongly as German, French, or Swedish. Editors Maurice Crul and John Mollenkopf conclude that despite the barriers these youngsters encounter on both continents, they are making real progress relative to their parents and are beginning to close the gap with the native-born. The Changing Face of World Cities goes well beyond existing immigration literature focused on the U.S. experience to show that national policies on each side of the Atlantic can be enriched by lessons from the other. The Changing Face of World Cities will be vital reading for anyone interested in the young people who will shape the future of our increasingly interconnected global economy.

    eISBN: 978-1-61044-791-1
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Contributors
    (pp. vii-x)
  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  5. Foreword
    (pp. xv-xviii)
    Cem Özdemir

    Demographic change in Europe can be described accurately with three key terms:fewer,older,more diverse. According to Eurostat, the European Union’s statistical office, the number of people aged fifteen to sixty-four in the European Union will decline by 50 million between now and 2050 and those sixty-five and older will increase by around 60 million (while the EU’s overall population is estimated to fall to 450 million). Although immigration and family policies might mitigate this shift, it cannot be stopped. A response of defeatism, however, would be misplaced. Rather, it is important to acknowledge that this change has advantages...

  6. Part I Introduction
    • Chapter 1 The Second Generation
      (pp. 3-25)
      Maurice Crul and John Mollenkopf

      The children of immigrants are central to the future of the large cities of western Europe and the United States and of the countries surrounding these cities.¹ Not only do young people from immigrant backgrounds make up a large and growing share of their populations, they will also steadily replace the native-born baby boom generation as it ages out of the workplace and positions of influence. It is critical, then, that these young people are prepared—and enabled—to realize their full potential. Their success in school; finding good jobs; forming solid families; identifying strongly, if not uncritically, with their...

    • Chapter 2 Legacies of the Past
      (pp. 26-43)
      Nancy Foner and Leo Lucassen

      The present, it is often said, is a product of the past, and nowhere is this truer than in contemporary studies of the second generation. On both sides of the Atlantic, debates about the children of immigrants and the themes studied have been strongly affected by legacies of the past and scholars’ engagement—or lack of engagement—with earlier periods of immigration. Not surprisingly, the past has influenced present-day research on the second generation in different ways in western Europe and the United States.

      This chapter seeks to interrogate how this has happened, and with what consequences. In Europe, what...

    • Chapter 3 National Conceptions of Assimilation, Integration, and Cohesion
      (pp. 44-62)
      Richard Alba, Jeffrey G. Reitz and Patrick Simon

      Models of incorporation provide the touchstones for social science research on immigration, offering hypotheses to guide empirical analysis. These models address the following central questions: How will immigrants and their children, the second generation, shed their status as outsiders (or newcomers) and become recognized as insiders? What place will they assume in society when they do? In addition, the models often address how societies manage increasing diversity and what determines their success in bringing new groups into a more integrated society.

      As chapter 2 noted, these models are not the exclusive products of science but are framed by national concerns,...

  7. Part II Results
    • Chapter 4 Success Against All Odds
      (pp. 65-96)
      Maurice Crul, Min Zhou, Jennifer Lee, Philipp Schnell and Elif Keskiner

      Scholars have given considerable attention to the educational pathways of the new second generation, the children of immigrants to the United States and western Europe who came of age at the turn of the twenty-first century. Social scientists on both sides of the Atlantic have consistently reported significant differences in academic outcomes among second-generation youth and across national-origin groups. Some do extraordinarily well, yet others fail to graduate from high school. Outcomes vary systematically by group. Second-generation Mexicans in the United States and second-generation Turks in northwestern Europe tend to fall toward the low end. Researchers have studied both groups...

    • Chapter 5 Entering the Labor Market
      (pp. 97-128)
      Liza Reisel, Laurence Lessard-Phillips and Philip Kasinitz

      Finding a good foothold in the labor market is a crucial test for the second generation in western Europe and the United States. In recent years, as large numbers of the children of immigrants have come of age and embarked on their careers, we can begin to see what place they will occupy as adults. Knowing whether they are finding satisfactory employment in the economic mainstream is a significant first indicator of whether their working lives will be on par with those of their majority peers or whether they will remain a group apart from the broader society.

      This question...

    • Chapter 6 Immigrants’ Daughters and the Labor Market
      (pp. 129-155)
      Thomas Soehl, Rosita Fibbi and Constanza Vera-Larrucea

      The previous chapter gave a broad analysis of labor market outcomes for the second generation. This one looks specifically at how the daughters of immigrants fare in the labor markets of different countries. Building on feminist critiques of the welfare state literature, we argue that welfare state arrangements play a critical role in whether and how these young women transition into the workforce. Although welfare state characteristics shape the labor force participation of women regardless of nativity or heritage, they have amplified effects for young women from immigrant families.

      A major theme in the earlier chapters of this volume has...

    • Chapter 7 Neighborhoods and Perceptions of Disorder
      (pp. 156-182)
      Van C. Tran, Susan K. Brown and Jens Schneider

      The post-1960 influx of immigrants and the coming of age of their children have made the neighborhoods of the big immigrant-receiving cities in the United States and western Europe increasingly more diverse in ethnic terms (Logan and Zhang 2010). And yet, despite the growing presence of these immigrants, no systematic study has yet been made of the kinds of neighborhoods in which they grew up and mostly still reside. This gap is striking in light of the prominent role that neighborhood conditions and processes play in accounts both of immigrant assimilation and of larger patterns of urban inequality, specifically, within...

    • Chapter 8 Citizenship and Participation
      (pp. 183-205)
      Barbara Herzog-Punzenberger, Rosita Fibbi, Constanza Vera-Larrucea, Louis DeSipio and John Mollenkopf

      The issue of citizenship is central to all other debates about the membership, belonging, and integration of immigrants and their children. Everyone who has citizenship from birth is inalienably entitled to full political, legal, and civic rights. Acquiring citizenship through naturalization requires a person to declare a formal allegiance to the granting nation, demonstrate an understanding of its constitutional principles and values and promise to uphold them, and, in some countries, abandon the previous allegiance. Not having citizenship, or worse, being ineligible for acquiring it, means remaining outside the circle of those with standing to shape the country’s political affairs....

    • Chapter 9 Belonging
      (pp. 206-232)
      Jens Schneider, Leo Chávez, Louis DeSipio and Mary Waters

      Feelings of belonging or of being at home are difficult to grasp in surveys because how one feels about one’s identity depends so much on the context. The enactment of identity and identities is situational, depending on who one is interacting with, when, and where. At the same time, people forge identities within a set of institutional arrangements, for example, citizenship and naturalization regimes or school systems or the labor market, that make it easier or more difficult to self-identify with specific identity categories. As Fredrik Barth (1969, 15) has argued, it is not the “cultural stuff ” that determines...

  8. Part III Transatlantic Comparison
    • Chapter 10 Challenges and Opportunities
      (pp. 235-260)
      Maurice Crul and John Mollenkopf

      Over the last fifty years, the major cities in western Europe and the United States have developed many ways of integrating immigrants and their children into their social, economic, and political fabric. This creates an opportunity to compare outcomes for similarly positioned groups of immigrant descent facing a variety of national and local integration policies and practices across roughly similar urban contexts. This concluding chapter focuses on Turkish second-generation youth in six large capital cities in Europe (Amsterdam, Berlin, Brussels, Paris, Stockholm, and Vienna) compared with Dominican second-generation youngsters in New York and their Mexican second-generation peers in Los Angeles,...

  9. References
    (pp. 261-286)
  10. Index
    (pp. 287-306)