Media, Nationalism and European Identities

Media, Nationalism and European Identities

Miklós Sükösd
Karol Jakubowicz
Copyright Date: 2011
Edition: NED - New edition, 1
Pages: 437
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7829/j.ctt12823p
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  • Book Info
    Media, Nationalism and European Identities
    Book Description:

    Explores patterns of interaction between the mass media and identity formation in the context of Europeanization. On the one hand, the major contribution of the volume is a comprehensive framework that considers media impacts on four levels of identity: European, regional, national, and ethnic minority identities. On the other hand, authors offer cutting edge analysis of the structural transformation of European media institutions, and policies that shape the future of European media.

    eISBN: 978-615-5053-54-2
    Subjects: Business

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Six Communicative Deficits in the European Union
    (pp. 1-18)
    Karol Jakubowicz and Miklós Sükösd

    The central question of this book and at the same time the fundamental question at the heart of the European Project, as the european union is often called, is as follows: can this top-down, elite-led process make further progress without the added impetus of greater unity also in the sphere of social consciousness and ultimately culture which would help make it more of a bottom-up project? Undoubtedly, this fundamental question has to do with communicative processes, media, public opinion, and identity formation.

    This question is often asked. What is perhaps unusual about this effort to develop an answer is that...

  4. SECTION 1: THE EUROPEAN PUBLIC SPHERE AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    • CHAPTER 1 Transnationalization/Europeanization of the Public Sphere/s
      (pp. 21-48)
      Slavko Splichal

      This chapter is not devoted primarily to the developments that maylead or dolead to a genuine European public sphere, or that may or do prevent its formation. My main interest is rather in conceptual modifications, innovations and aberrations—or more generally, attempts at deconstructing and reconstructing the concepts of publicness and the public sphere in a contemporary european (or even global) context, as well as the reasons for those formulations.

      Differences in conceptualization of the public sphere refer to its ontological status (that is, how does the public sphere exist), its epistemological status, and its methodological implications (the key questions...

    • CHAPTER 2 What is Europe? Geographies of Journalism
      (pp. 49-72)
      Inka Salovaara-Moring

      The extraordinary political changes of the last decade were but the visible element of a massive re-organization of european power geometry in which all the countries were forced to seek their place in a new setting.¹ an enlarged European union saw its border shift a considerable distance eastwards, as it simultaneously began to negotiate its southern frontier. this new territorial order reignited discussion on the nature of “Europe” as a territorial, cultural, and institutional entity, a discussion in which radical alterations in thinking on what europe could be as a cultural area were particularly prominent. as French historian Jacques le...

    • CHAPTER 3 Media Representations of EU Matters in National Media systems: The Hungarian Case
      (pp. 73-118)
      István Hegedűs

      It has become commonplace to say that European citizens look for and receive information about the European Union in general, as well as about European events, policy issues and debates in particular, overwhelmingly from national media sources. In national media, European matters are discussed—when they are discussed at all—foremost in a context of domestic public debate within member states. The coverage of all-European matters on a national level differs in each country reflecting both the historical-cultural heritage and lessons learned from the past in the respective member state as well as in internal cleavages and the logic of...

    • CHAPTER 4 Pan-European Media: Attempts and Limitations
      (pp. 119-152)
      Peter J. Varga

      With institutions patterned on those of federal states on the one hand, and a system of multilevel governance that includes 27 national governments representing peoples who speak 23 official languages on the other, the European Union’s avenues for political communication are presented with great challenges, calling into question the success of the European integration project. As integration proceeds, media outlets that serve citizens of Europe at large are expected to emerge and grow, much in the same way that state-wide media outlets did in newly-established countries unified under a single government.

      At present, there exist only a few successful media...

    • CHAPTER 5 Aiding Integration and Identity: The Unfulfilled Roles and Functions of the Romani Media in Eastern Europe
      (pp. 153-170)
      Peter Gross and Katerina Spasovska

      Nationalism and ethnic particularism remain relevant in all the Eastern European countries that have embarked on varied processes of democratization after communism’s collapse in 1989, including those that have acceded to European Union (EU) membership.¹ Kupchan’s (1995: 1) now 13-year-old pronouncement that “In Europe’s east, nationalism is in many instances providing a critical source of social cohesion for states in the midst of profound transformation,” still rings true today. The conflict between nationalism and the requisites of European integration as it relates to ethnic minorities in the Eastern European nations, particularly the Roma, thus continues to vex the EU and...

  5. SECTION 2: NATIONAL AND TRANSNATIONAL IDENTITIES

    • CHAPTER 6 The Media and Nationalism, East and West: A Revision of Existing Debates
      (pp. 173-198)
      Sabina Mihelj

      The upsurge of nationalisms and nation-state-building projects across eastern europe² in the 1990s gave rise to a veritable industry of media monitoring and criticisms of hate speech, as well as numerous insightful case studies. However, apart from a handful of exceptions, the amassed literature available in english³ has done little in the way of providing theoretically informed comparative analyses, and even less in the way of advancing major theoretical debates on the relationship between nationalism and mass communication. this is partly due to practical obstacles, such as a lack of resources, language barriers, weak research infrastructure, and the relatively recent...

    • CHAPTER 7 The Politics of Belonging: Identity Anxiety in the European Union
      (pp. 199-222)
      Farrel Corcoran

      Questions of identity and its relationship with location, space, time and memory, are crucially important in today’s fragmented world of ethnic conflict, guest-worker migration and the widespread displacement of large numbers of people who become refugees, all needing cultural space (as well as, of course, physical and economic space) for forms of ethnic or religious identity previously only gazed upon by host populations in their anthropology museums. in many parts of the world, traditional forms of belonging are in retreat in the face of increasingly rapid rates of social change associated with modernity and with what Hallin and Mancini (2004)...

    • CHAPTER 8 European Media and the Culture of Europeanness
      (pp. 223-246)
      Dominic Boyer and Miklós SüKösd

      This chapter offers a discussion of contemporary European media and their cultural impact that may be helpful for considering the contemporary dynamics of the cultural production of Europe and Europeanness more generally. We take as our point of departure how European media cultures remain oddly out of step with dominant trends of supranational economic and political coordination within the European Union. Indeed, with some notable exceptions discussed below, patterns of media production and consumption remain strongly aligned with national linguistic–cultural communities across Europe.

      We begin with a brief discussion of the dominant global trends in mass media organization and...

    • CHAPTER 9 Pan-European, National, Regional and Minority Identities in the Eurovision Song Contest
      (pp. 247-268)
      Gonzalo Torres

      Media event, intergenerational ritual or clever post-modern joke; an annual forum where nations tell each other about themselves, and themselves about each other; the imagined space where Yugoslavia remains united and the Iron Curtain still stands; a pan-European public election that once crowned a transgendered Israeli; and overall, the mediated contrast between Europe as it aspires to appear, and the one that lurks underneath its institutional patina.

      Behold the Eurovision Song Contest.

      Over fifty years of uninterrupted broadcasting, combined with estimated audience figures in the several hundreds of millions¹ have afforded the Eurovision Song Contest (ESC) a solid foothold in...

  6. SECTION 3: EUROPEAN MEDIA POLICY:: BOON OR BARRIER TO EUROPEAN INTEGRATION?

    • CHAPTER 10 European Melting Pots? European Integration and EU Audiovisual Policy at a Crossroads
      (pp. 271-320)
      Karol Jakubowicz

      The European Union and its previous incarnations have always faced a major dilemma of how to provide a more stable and deeply-rooted foundation first for economic, and later, for political integration. The fundamental question at the heart of the European project has always been: can this top-down, elite-led process make further progress and gain stronger legitimacy without the added impetus of greater unity also in the sphere of social consciousness and culture, which would help make it more of a bottom-up project?

      The European Community was, of course, created as “an explicit repudiation of ethnic nationalism—and as a case...

    • CHAPTER 11 Which Frontiers for EU Media Policy? An assessment in the context of the European Project
      (pp. 321-344)
      Monica Arino

      The project of European integration was initially conceived as a strategic security project based on economic trade. More than fifty years have passed since the signing of the Treaty of paris in 1951, establishing the European Coal and steel Community. Today, nobody would dispute that the idea of European integration has evolved to encompass much wider political and social ambitions. Although the ideal of European economic integration continues to drive the regulatory activity of the European Commission, increasing emphasis is also placed on initiatives towards a socially responsive Europe, resulting in intense debates on the degree of necessary political integration....

    • CHAPTER 12 The Clash and Resonance: Media Pluralism in European Regulatory Policies
      (pp. 345-390)
      Beata Klimkiewicz

      Media pluralism has been widely used in European media policies as a valuable normative concept rather than a category for regular measurement and monitoring. It has mostly generated a consensus over its merits and importance for the democratic processes and identity formation at the European level. These processes are closely related to media exposure of distinctive opinions on European matters, as well as values and cultural representations that influence them. Indeed, various studies show that the news media matters in shaping public opinion about European integration, but mainly when their users are exposed to a considerable level of news coverage...

    • CHAPTER 13 Digital Television and the Search for Content
      (pp. 391-416)
      Petros Iosifidis

      Digital Television (DTV) offers the potential to overcome some of the limitations of analogue television, such as spectrum scarcity and picture interference. The availability of bandwidth allows viewers access to hundreds of channels, each aiming at specific market segments and each catering to specific interests. For some (Gilder, 1992; Negroponte, 1995) digital networks will bring about vast opportunities for specialised production and distribution, which will eventually mean the end of dominance of centralised broadcasting systems. DTV also comes with the promise to lower entry costs for new broadcasters, thus allowing the entry of new, small and talented broadcasters, with fresh...

  7. List of Contributors
    (pp. 417-418)
  8. Index
    (pp. 419-428)