Divide, Provide and Rule

Divide, Provide and Rule: An Integrative History of Poverty Policy, Social Reform, and Social Policy in Hungary under the Habsburg Monarchy

Susan Zimmermann
Copyright Date: 2011
Edition: NED - New edition, 1
Pages: 201
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  • Book Info
    Divide, Provide and Rule
    Book Description:

    A concise and comprehensive account of the transformation of social policy from traditional poor relief towards social insurance systems in a European state before World War One. Brings together the analysis of older, mostly local welfare policies with the history of social policy developed by the state and operated at a national level. Explores also the interaction of various layers of and actors in welfare policy, i.e. of poor relief, social reform policies and the unfolding welfare state over time, including often neglected elements of these policies such as e.g. protective policies at the work place, housing policy, child protection, and prostitution policies.

    eISBN: 978-615-5053-20-7
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. List of Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Preface
    (pp. xi-xii)
  6. I. Introduction
    (pp. 1-6)

    “Today I visited the Kereskényi family. During the winter time, they live in the ‘small house’; the need for heating is less there. I open wide the door and greet the dwellers with hearty goodwill. But the vapor billows out in thick white clouds and causes the words to catch in my throat. As they hear me enter, three children rush to the door. One is the ‘sweet’, the second the state child, the third a guest.” The visitor had come to the village of Hernád in the winter of 1912–1913 to check on the well-being of one of...

  7. II. Poverty Policy
    (pp. 7-46)

    Policy on poverty in Hungary under the Habsburg Monarchy developed over the decades against a backdrop of major economic liberalization and hand in hand with a policy of promoting commercial and industrial development. In consequence, it encouraged willingness to undertake wage labor and the acceptance of mobility, the minimalization of state responsibility, and governmental welfare obligations. It also led to suppression of divergent ways of life among the impoverished classes where these disturbed public order or were perceived as socially threatening. Emergency welfare measures and one-off actions in times of crisis, as well as growing emphasis on state intervention and...

  8. III. Social Reform and State Intervention (from 1898 to 1914)
    (pp. 47-68)

    At the latest by the 1890s it was increasingly felt that political action on what contemporaries called “the social question” in its many diverse branches and aspects could no longer be avoided. Hungarian society seemed in some regards to have gone off the rails; new social problems and conflicts loomed, and existing social relations and problems began to be perceived in new ways. The central intersection of the novel efforts for social reform was undoubtedly the capital, Budapest, where the “social question” began to take the center stage in the most intense and visible manner. Against this background, in 1906...

  9. IV. State Social Policy
    (pp. 69-146)

    The growing commodification of employment relations in Hungary, like in many other European countries in the second half of the 19th century was increasingly accompanied by state efforts to regulate and organize these relations and to intervene into problems that arose for employers, employees, the state, and society in connection with the ongoing changes in the world of work. In what follows, those efforts on the part of the state will be presented that at least in part, for whatever reasons, were concerned with the protection and betterment of the workforce. At the center of this stood, on the one...

  10. V. Conclusion
    (pp. 147-154)

    Confronted with the “critical economic circumstances” and the ensuing unemployment debacle of 1913, the capital city, Budapest, tried to take action as did other authorities outside the capital. It established a system of municipal unemployment benefits which foreshadowed a branch of social insurance entirely missing from Hungarian social policy as it was in other countries. Faced with the doubling of daily admission figures of children to the state childcare system, the minister for the interior called upon the local authorities to proceed with “utmost care” when deciding about admission or rejection of those in need.¹ Only a few months later...

  11. Bibliography
    (pp. 155-168)
  12. Index
    (pp. 169-172)
  13. Illustrations
    (pp. 173-188)