Civic and uncivic values in Kosovo

Civic and uncivic values in Kosovo: History, politics, and value transformation

SABRINA P. RAMET
ALBERT SIMKUS
OLA LISTHAUG
Copyright Date: 2015
Edition: NED - New edition, 1
Pages: 448
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7829/j.ctt13wzttq
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  • Book Info
    Civic and uncivic values in Kosovo
    Book Description:

    This volume is driven by the conviction that the key to the establishment of stable liberal democracy anywhere in the world and, in this case, in Kosovo lies in the completion of three interrelated tasks: first, the creation of effective political institutions, based on the principle of the separation of powers (including the independence of the judiciary); second, the promotion of the rule of law; and, third, the promotion of civic values, including tolerance or ethnic/religious/sexual minorities, trust, and respect for the harm principle. In fact, there are problems across all three measures, including with judicial independence, with the rule of law, and with civic values. On the last of these, research findings show that the citizens of Kosovo rank extremely low on trust of other citizens, low on engagement in social organizations, and tolerance of gays, lesbians, and atheists, but high on trust in the political institutions of their country and in pride of their newly independent state.

    eISBN: 978-963-386-074-8
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Figures
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. List of Tables
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Preface
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    Sabrina P. Ramet, Albert Simkus and Ola Listhaug
  6. CHAPTER 1 Civic and Uncivic Values in Kosovo: An Introduction
    (pp. 1-26)
    Sabrina P. Ramet

    The region which today comprises the Republic of Kosovo (spelled Kosovë or Kosova in Albanian) has enjoyed self-rule only since 2008. Conquered by Rome in 168 BCE, the region—which was included within a province which the Romans called Illyricum—passed under East Roman (Byzantine) rule when the empire split in the third century CE. It remained under Byzantine rule until the mid-ninth century, and then, in succeeding centuries, alternated between Bulgarian, Byzantine, and Serbian rule until the Ottoman Empire absorbed Serbia, including Kosovo, in 1455. Thereafter, Kosovo was ruled by the Ottomans until 1912, when—in October of that...

  7. I. History
    • CHAPTER 2 A Short History of the Kosovar Albanians’ Struggle for Independence, 1878–1998
      (pp. 29-52)
      Roberto Morozzo della Rocca

      There is ample literature on the ethnic and demographic strife between Serbs and Albanians in Kosovo¹ and it swings between the two extremes of Serb and Albanian viewpoints.² Almost every claim made by one side is disputed by the other, with both sometimes using exactly the same arguments butreversed. There are always two truths about Kosovo. Non-Balkan historiography can provide some help in understanding Kosovo’s history but it too often falls prey to the ethnic passions that are the object of its studies. Suffice it to consider the recent production of Western historiography on the one side and Eastern...

    • CHAPTER 3 Historiography in Post-Independence Kosovo
      (pp. 53-74)
      Oliver Jens Schmitt

      The present chapter starts with the assumption that history is an essential element in any state-building process; it is probably even more important for nation-building processes. Whether we observe in Kosovo both processes—the building of a Kosovar state and a Kosovar nation—or just the construction of a second Albanian state, is an open question, and Kosovar historians have not yet given a clear and definitive answer.

      Similarly, the framing of the question of the nature of Kosovo in post-World War II Yugoslavia can also be assumed to be characterized as a complex negotiation process between historians as political...

    • CHAPTER 4 British Policy towards the Kosova Liberation Army, 1996–2000
      (pp. 75-92)
      James Pettifer

      This chapter considers a number of issues related to the development of British policy towards the future of Kosovo in the 1990–99 period, and how after various forms of diplomatic engagement with the government of Yugoslavia during the period 1990–96, the onset of the Kosovo conflict gradually forced a reorientation of policy. This included the involvement of security advisors and examination of military options, and subsequent engagement with the Kosova Liberation Army.

      The concept of a secret war is central to my new book,The Kosova Liberation Army: From Underground War to Balkan Insurgency, 1948–2001, and this...

    • CHAPTER 5 The Uprising and NATO’s Intervention, 1998–99
      (pp. 93-118)
      Zachary T. Irwin

      Madeleine Albright’s recollection of “lessons” from the period prior to NATO’s bombing of Serbia raises questions about the interaction of the involved actors.² The significance of NATO’s mission in Kosovo emerges from several interacting levels of analysis (domestic, regional, and international; see Figure 5.1). Considering Kosovo’s experience requires relating the “lessons of the past” to distinct actors at different levels. The KLA’s emergence is a more challenging task, for it must be explained how a guerrilla force, described as “terrorist” by American officials became a negotiating partner with the same officials. However, explaining the “lessons” of Kosovo may be as...

    • CHAPTER 6 The International Presence in Kosovo, 1999–2008
      (pp. 119-142)
      Johanna Deimel

      The NATO-led “humanitarian intervention” in Kosovo from 24 March until 10 June 1999 triggered a debate between the advocates of the principles of state sovereignty and of non-interference in domestic affairs on the one side, and the use of force for humanitarian purposes, and about new humanitarian politics on the prevention of genocide and mass atrocities on the other.² While most would agree that the intervention was morally justified, its legal basis was not clear.³ Since the negotiations in Rambouillet had failed in 1999, the so called “humanitarian intervention” took place without a mandate and without an authorization by the...

  8. II. Politics
    • CHAPTER 7 The Development of the Political System since February 2008
      (pp. 145-174)
      Altuğ Günal

      The countries of the Western Balkans have been passing through a fundamental transformation process. New states have come into existence after very long, complex and sometimes painful courses. The Republic of Kosovo, as the newest, has also encountered challenges in its aspirations for democracy, peace, prosperity and stability. This chapter deals with the political developments and challenges that Kosovo has been facing after declaring its independence on 17 February 2008. I shall start by explaining the changing status of the international presence in Kosovo after the declaration of independence and subsequently define the most influential actors on the Kosovar political...

    • CHAPTER 8 The Serbs of Kosovo
      (pp. 175-198)
      Florian Bieber

      No single community has had such significance in the dissolution of Yugoslavia and yet found itself as marginalized and instrumentalized as the Serbs of Kosovo. Today Serbs in Kosovo live in isolated communities and with uneasiness over Kosovo’s independence. Kosovo Serbs are deeply divided between those living in settlements in central and southeastern Kosovo that are increasingly integrating into Kosovo institutions—but less so into society—and around a third of Serbs in four northern municipalities geographically contiguous to Serbia with few ties to the rest of Kosovo.

      The nationalist grievances that Serbs in Kosovo articulated were the ground on...

    • CHAPTER 9 “Our men will not have amnesia”: Civic Engagement, Emancipation, and Transformations of the Gendered Public in Kosovo
      (pp. 199-220)
      Nita Luci and Linda Gusia

      This chapter looks at changing gender relations in Kosovo as part of shifting public articulations of the emancipation of Albanian women and their civic and political engagement. Women’s emancipation, as discourse and practice, has continued to be engaged in the politics of national identity and state-building in Kosovo, producing spaces for action through a tenuous relationship between the constitution of narratives of modernity and those of re-traditionalization. Post-war peacebuilding mechanisms promise empowerment, but simultaneously create new gendered economic, political, and social spaces as well as practices that help reinstate patriarchy. We ask: how have gender relations figured in and shaped...

    • CHAPTER 10 Solving the Issue of Northern Kosovo and Regional Cooperation
      (pp. 221-234)
      Dušan Janjić

      In this chapter, “Northern Kosovo” refers to three municipalities with an ethnic Serb majority, located to the north of the Ibar River—Zubin Potok, Leposavić, and Zvečan, together with Northern Mitrovica. Population estimates vary between 55,000 and 65,000.¹ Northern Kosovo is an area within the divided states (Kosovo and Serbia)² and the ethnically divided society of Kosovo. In the past and today, the observable characteristic of Kosovo is that Serbs and Albanians have lived in “parallel societies,” next to each other, rather than together (the number of mixed marriages and similar relationships is very low).

      With Slobodan Milošević’s rise to...

  9. III. Values and Value Transformation
    • CHAPTER 11 Kosova 1912–2000 in the History Textbooks of Kosova and Serbia
      (pp. 237-272)
      Shkëlzen Gashi

      This chapter aims to focus on the approach to events in Kosova over the period of nearly a century (1912–2000) in the primary and high school textbooks of Kosova and Serbia. The Kosovar textbooks are published by the Libri Shkollor publishing house, those of Serbia by Zavod za udžbenike. The history textbooks of the two countries, approved by the respective ministries of education, are a key source for this chapter. The descriptions given in these historiographies are compared, with the similarities and differences between them drawn out. International authors such as Noel Malcolm, Stephen Schwartz, Tim Judah, and Howard...

    • CHAPTER 12 Civic Values in Kosovo within a European Perspective
      (pp. 273-294)
      Kristen Ringdal

      Most other chapters in this book are devoted to various aspects of Kosovar society and its recent history. This chapter, however, widens the perspective and aims to describe the contemporary civic values of the people of Kosovo within a European perspective. The analysis will be based on data from the fourth wave of the European Values Study (EVS) fielded in 2008. The EVS has administered surveys of beliefs, values, and attitudes of Europeans every nine years since the start in 1981. The fourth wave includes surveys with identical questions in 47 European countries and regions. In total more than 70,000...

    • CHAPTER 13 Differences in Values between and among Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo
      (pp. 295-322)
      Albert Simkus and Shemsi Krasniqi

      A fundamental feature of the nature of values in a society is the degree of diversity in values versus unanimity in values. In this chapter, we explore the degree to which there are social divisions in attitudes towards values in Kosovar society, how great these divisions may be, which kinds of group divisions are most important in explaining differences in attitudes, and how group differences differ depending on the dimensions of values involved. Naturally, we are interested in overall Albanian–Serb differences in the population of Kosovo.¹ Possibilities for cooperation and integration between these two major ethnic groups should be...

    • CHAPTER 14 Political Support in Kosovo
      (pp. 323-342)
      Karin Dyrstad

      For democracy to take roots, it depends on at least some degree of political support from the citizens. A clear lack of support indicates that the political system does not work well. The general research literature on political trust suggests that institutional performance is a key determinant of political confidence.² In new democracies, people compare the current political institutions with the previous ones. Thus, more than in mature democracies, support for democracy and political institutions comes to depend on how well these perform.³ Assuming that popular support, both for the principle of democracy and its specific institutions, is necessary for...

  10. IV. Conclusion
    • CHAPTER 15 Kosovo as an International Problem
      (pp. 345-364)
      Anton Bebler

      Since antiquity Kosovo has changed many foreign overlords and until 2008 has had no record of independent statehood. Every change of its masters reflected or expressed a wider international problem involving, at least, two and simultaneously up to two dozen states. Kosovo has been many times dismembered, carved up, and joined with parts of neighboring lands, divided into several occupation zones, occupied by foreign powers, partly or totally annexed—by the Romans, Bulgarians, Byzantines, Serbs, Ottomans, Montenegrins, Serbs again, Austro-Hungarians, Bulgarians, Serbs, and Montenegrins again, Germans, Italians, Bulgarians again, Serbs, and Montenegrins, and NATO allies. In Chapter 2, Roberto Morozzo...

    • CHAPTER 16 Can Dialogue Make a Difference? The Experience of the Nansen Dialogue Network
      (pp. 365-394)
      Steinar Bryn

      The main argument in this chapter is that the focus of international peacebuilding, which has been created to build strong institutions to secure the functionality of the state, is not sufficient when it neglects dialogue and reconciliation between the citizens of the same state. The wars in the Western Balkans in the 1990s left many communities ethnically segregated. In a segregated society, people grow up with reduced knowledge and experience of each other. This lack of knowledge and understanding weakens representative democracy in these societies.

      In the case of Kosovo the generations of Serbs and Albanians coming of age are...

    • CHAPTER 17 The Roots of Instability and the Prerequisites of Stability in Kosovo: A Conclusion
      (pp. 395-406)
      Sabrina P. Ramet and Albert Simkus

      Kosovo, Europe’s youngest state, had a difficult birth. Originally included in the emergent Albanian state more than a century ago, it was overrun by the Serbian army in October 1912 and, for most of the next century, was ruled by Belgrade, in spite of its majority Albanian population. Nonetheless, although Belgrade imposed its rule in disregard of the wishes of the local population, it was not the difference in ethnicity which rendered Kosovo unstable in the decades thereafter. Rather, it was the fact that, with the exception of the years 1968–87, Belgrade tended to treat the Albanians of Kosovo...

  11. Notes on Contributors
    (pp. 407-416)
  12. Further Reading
    (pp. 417-422)
  13. Index
    (pp. 423-450)
  14. Back Matter
    (pp. 451-451)