Biographical Dictionary of Women’s Movements and Feminisms

Biographical Dictionary of Women’s Movements and Feminisms: Central, Eastern, and South Eastern Europe, 19th and 20th Centuries

Copyright Date: 2006
Edition: NED - New edition, 1
Pages: 698
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Biographical Dictionary of Women’s Movements and Feminisms
    Book Description:

    Contains 150 expertly-researched biographical portraits (with pictures) of women and men who were active in, or part of, women's movements and feminisms in 22 countries in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries. Thus it challenges the widely-held belief that there was no feminism in this part of Europe. The biographical portraits not only show that feminists existed here, but also that they were widespread and diverse, and included Romanian princesses, Serbian philosophers and peasants, Latvian and Slovakian novelists, Albanian teachers, Hungarian Catholic social workers, Austrian factory workers, Bulgarian feminist scientists and socialist feminists, Russian radicals and philanthropists, Turkish republican leftist political activists and nationalists, internationally recognized Greek feminist leaders, and so on-women, and some men, from all walks of life. Their stories together constitute a rich tapestry of feminist activity, rejecting the notion that either there was no feminism here, or that it was 'imported from the West.' Women in every society and in every generation protest gender injustice, and any suggestion to the contrary is a denial of the intelligence and human agency of countless women and men, including those featured in this Biographical Dictionary. The biographies not only provide a window onto the historical background of contemporary feminism (thus giving present-day women's movements the 'historical support' that they need and are entitled to), in some cases they demonstrate explicitly the historical continuities between feminisms past and present.

    eISBN: 978-615-5053-72-6
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-ix)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xii)
    Francisca de Haan, Krassimira Daskalova and Anna Loutfi
  4. Advisory Board Members (Country Coordinators)
    (pp. xiii-xiii)
  5. Often Used Abbreviations and Symbols Used in the Lists of Sources
    (pp. xiv-xiv)
  6. Maps
    (pp. xv-xxi)
  7. Introduction
    (pp. 1-15)

    This book describes the lives, works and aspirations of more than 150 women and men who were active in, or part of, women’s movements and feminisms in 22 countries in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe. In doing so, it challenges the widely held belief that there was no feminism in this part of Europe. Taken together, the biographical portraits not only show that feminists (we will come back to this term) existed here, but also that they were widespread and diverse, and included Romanian princesses, Serbian philosophers and peasants, Latvian and Slovakian novelists, Albanian teachers, Hungarian Christian social workers...

  8. Subjects per Country
    (pp. 16-20)
  9. ALİYE, Fatma (1862–1936)
    (pp. 21-24)
    Serpil Çakır

    Fatma Aliye was born on 26 October 1862 into a mansion in Istanbul. Her father, Ahmet Cevdet Pasha (1822–1895), was an influential bureaucrat of the Ottoman State, a lawyer and a historian. Her mother was Adviye Rabia Hanım. Fatma had a brother, Ali Sedat, and a sister, Emine Semiye (1864–1944), also a prominent figure in her time, though less so than Fatma.

    A Member of the Ottoman Parliament, Fatma Aliye’s father was appointed Governor of Egypt when Fatma was three years old and the family spent the years 1866 to 1868 in Aleppo. When she was thirteen, her...

  10. APPONYI, Countess, Mrs Count Albert Apponyi, born Countess Clotilde, Klotild Dietrichstein-Mensdorff-Pouilly (1867–1942)
    (pp. 25-29)
    Susan Zimmermann and Claudia Papp

    Countess Dietrichstein-Mensdorff-Pouilly was born on 23 December 1867 in Vienna, the daughter of Catholic parents: Count Alexander Mensdorff-Pouilly, later also Prince of Dietrichstein zu Nikolsburg, high-ranking member of the Austrian military and statesman (1813–1871), and Countess Alexandrine (Den Priskau) Dietrichstein zu Nikolsburg. Countess Clotilde had two older brothers: Hugo (1858–1920) and Albert (1861–?). As a young woman, she was awarded the title of Dame of the Star-Cross Order to the imperial court in Vienna. In 1897, she married the politician Count Albert Apponyi (1846–1933), who was more than twenty years her senior and then (later even...

  11. ARIAN, Praskov’ia Naumovna Belenkaia (1864/5–1949)
    (pp. 30-32)
    Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild

    Praskov’ia Naumovna Belenkaia was born on 12 April 1864 or 1865 (her Moscow archive lists her date of birth as 1865 but the autobiographical statement in her St Petersburg archive lists it as 1864), to a Jewish family in St Petersburg, probably of the merchant class since Jewish residence in the Imperial capital was strictly limited.

    Admitted to the physics and mathematics section of the St Petersburg Vysshie Zhenskie (Bestuzhevskie) Kursy (Bestuzhev Higher Women’s Courses), Belenkaia completed the third graduating class of the Courses in 1884. She never took her final exam–perhaps due to her political activities; the Courses...

  12. ARMAND, Inessa-Elizaveta Fiodorovna (1874–1920)
    (pp. 33-36)
    Natalia Pushkareva

    Inessa Armand was born Inessa Steffen in Paris on 26 April 1874, the illegitimate child of Theodore Steffen, a British opera singer, and Nathalie Vil’d, a French actress. She grew up speaking French and English and later learned Russian, German and Polish. After her father died in 1889, she moved to Russia to stay with relatives. In 1893, she married Alexander Evgen’evich Armand (died 1943), whose family were wealthy manufacturers of French origin. By 1903, Inessa Armand had given birth to four children (Alexander, Varvara, Inna and Vladimir). In 1902, she left her husband; in 1903, she married his younger...

  13. ASPAZIJA (Elza Rozenberga, in marriage Pliekšāne) (1865–1943)
    (pp. 37-40)
    Irina Novikova

    Elza Rozenberga was born on 16 March 1865 at the farmstead Zaļenieku Daukšas. Her parents were the landowner Dāvis Rozenbergs-Rozenvalds and his wife Grieta. Elza had two brothers, Kristaps and Zamuēls, and one sister, Dora. The pen-name ‘Aspazija’ came from Elza’s fascination with the Austrian writer Robert Hammerling’s cultural-historical novel Aspasia (1876) about the great Aspasia of Miletus. The young Elza Rozenberga was attracted to Aspasia’s exceptional life and accomplishments, as well as to her knowledge, which had influenced great thinkers such as Plato, Pericles and Socrates. Ironically for the future life of Elza Rozenberga, Aspasia’s work survived only through...

  14. ATANASIJEVIĆ, Ksenija (1894–1981)
    (pp. 41-43)
    Iva Nenić

    Ksenija Atanasijević was born on 5 February 1894 in Belgrade. Her mother died during childbirth, a tragedy affecting Ksenija’s life in later years. Her father, from a well-off family, was the director of the State Hospital in Belgrade. He passed away when she was just twelve, an event swiftly followed by the death of her brother in World War I. Ksenija Atanasijević was then brought up by her stepmother, Sofija Kondić, an educated woman who taught at the Viša ženska škola (Women’s College) in Belgrade.

    During her high school years, Atanasijević was influenced by a philosophy professor, Nada Stoiljković; it...

  15. BACHMANN, Ingeborg (1926–1973)
    (pp. 44-47)
    Caitríona Leahy

    Ingeborg Bachmann was born in Klagenfurt in the Austrian state of Carinthia on 25 June 1926. Her mother, Olga Bachmann, born Haas (1901–1998), came originally from Heidenreichstein in Lower Austria, where her family owned a knitwear factory. Her father, Matthias Bachmann (data unknown), came from a Protestant farming family in Obervellach in Carinthia and trained as a primary school teacher in Klagenfurt. He was headmaster of a school in Klagenfurt for many years and served in both World Wars as an officer. Ingeborg Bachmann had two younger siblings: a sister Isolde, born in 1928, and a brother Heinz, born...

  16. BAIULESCU, Maria (1860–1941)
    (pp. 48-50)
    Tanya Dunlap

    Daughter of Orthodox Archpriest (Protopop) Bartolomeu (1831–1909) and Elena Baiulescu, Maria Baiulescu grew up in an intellectual family in the relatively prosperous region of Brasov and received an exceptionally good education for a Romanian woman at the time. After graduating from the Girls French Institute and the German Secondary School in Brasov, Baiulescu began her writing career as a translator. She published some early articles under the pseudonym of Sulfina. She later used her own name and published widely in Transylvanian newspapers and in the Enciclopedia română (Romanian Encyclopedia). Her topics included poetry, prose and commentaries on society and...

  17. BELOVIĆ-BERNADZIKOWSKA, Jelica (1870–1946)
    (pp. 51-53)
    Jelica Zdero

    Jelica Belović was born in Osijek, Croatia on 25 February 1870, into an ethnically mixed middle-class family of teachers. Josip, her Croatian-born father of Montenegrin descent, taught at the Osijek gymnasium. Her Croatian-born mother Katerina (born Fragner) was of German descent and tutored young children in order to make ends meet, following the untimely death of her husband in 1875. At home, Jelica and her younger siblings, Gabriela and Josip, spoke French, German, Italian and Serbo-Croatian. By her own admission she was a precocious, highly-strung child. According to Belović this often got her into trouble with her mother, who favored...

  18. BENICZKY, Hermin (Mrs Pál Veres) (1815–1895)
    (pp. 54-57)
    Anna Loutfi

    On 13 December 1815, Hermin Beniczky was born in Losonc, Nógrád County (today Lučenec, central Slovakia) and baptized in the local Lutheran church. Hermin Beniczky’s father, Pál Beniczky (died 1816), was a Nógrád landowner from a high ranking Protestant family. Her mother, Karolina Sturmann (died 1831), was from a wealthy entrepreneurial family; Hermin’s maternal grandfather, Márton Sturmann, was well known for his philanthropy and dedication to national causes and to Protestantism.

    Most sources agree that Hermin was the second of three girls. After the death of Pál Beniczky, she and her two sisters (Maria and Lotti), her mother and her...

  19. BISCHITZ, Johanna (born Hani Fischer, later Johanna Hevesi Bischitz) (1827–1898)
    (pp. 58-61)
    Julia Richers

    Johanna Bischitz was born Hani Fischer in the Hungarian town of Tata (Komárom County) in 1827, the third of ten children of Moritz (Mór) Fischer (1799–1880), director and owner of the world-famous ‘Herend’ porcelain factory, and Mária Salzer (1799–1886), of whom little is known. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848/49, Hani (Johanna) cared for the wounded Hungarian soldiers her father had accommodated in his house. Due to his internationally renowned financial success, Fischer was ennobled in 1867 and added the Hungarian name ‘Farkasházi’ to his own family name. In October 1852, Johanna married the widower David Bischitz (1811–...

  20. BLAGOEVA, Vela (1858–1921)
    (pp. 62-65)
    Krassimira Daskalova

    On 29 September 1858, Vela Blagoeva was born Victoria Atanasova Zhivkova in Turnovo, an old town at the foot of the Balkan mountains, the last capital of the Bulgarian medieval kingdom, a prosperous economic and cultural center during the nineteenth-century Bulgarian national revival, and home to Vela’s upper middle-class family. Her parents, the trader Atanas Zhivkov and housewife Neda Spiridonova, had two daughters and two sons. Her brothers, Georgi Zhivkov (1844–1899) and Nikola Zhivkov (1847–1901), were well-known public figures in the new Bulgarian state: Georgi was a politician; Nikola was a teacher and man of letters. In later...

  21. BOJADJIEVA NASTEVA-RUSINSKA, Kostadina (1880–1932)
    (pp. 66-69)
    Vera Veskovic-Vangeli

    Kostadina Bojadjieva was born in Ohrid in 1880, the only child of Eftim Nastev Bojadjiev, a wealthy Orthodox Christian merchant from Ohrid. Her mother probably died very young (no data on her exists). Kostadina completed her primary education in Ohrid and her secondary education in Bulgaria, teaching at a primary school for boys and girls in Ohrid from around the turn of the century.

    In the late nineteenth century, an intellectual elite developed in Macedonia in which female teachers played an important role. Teaching was the most socially acceptable profession for women, especially if they were single. Many young female...

  22. BORTKEVIČIENĖ, Felicija (1873–1945)
    (pp. 70-75)
    Dr. Virginija Jurėnienė

    Felicija Bortkevičienė was born Felicija Povickaitė on 1 September 1873 on the Linkaučiai Estate in Panevėžys County (in the district of Krekenava), into a noble family. Her parents, evicted from the estate by the Russian government for their part in the rebellion of 1863, moved to Ukmergė city. Progressive Polish and Russian intellectuals would often gather in the Povickiai house. Felicija’s mother, Antanina-Ona Liutkevičienė-Povickienė (1850–1922), and father, Povickis (personal data unknown), had two daughters and a son. Antanina-Ona Povickienė spoke Polish but passed her knowledge of the Lithuanian language not only to her own children, but also the children...

  23. BOTEZ, Calypso (1880–?)
    (pp. 76-79)
    Maria Bucur

    Born in 1880, in the Moldovan city of Bacău, Calypso Botez completed a course of study in history and philosophy at the University of Iaşi, going on to become Principal of the Lyceum for girls in Galaţi. There she married a prominent local lawyer, Corneliu Botez, an active supporter of women’s rights. During World War I, Calypso Botez was President of the Red Cross in Galaţi. In 1918, she helped found the Asociaţia pentru emanciparea civilă şi politică a femeilor române (AECPFR, Association for the Civil and Political Emancipation of Romanian Women) in Iaşi, remaining a leader of this organization...

  24. BUDZIŃSKA-TYLICKA, Justyna (1867–1936)
    (pp. 80-84)
    Katarzyna Sierakowska

    Justyna Budzińska was born on 12 September 1867 in Suwałki (in numerous sources an incorrect place of birth is given: Łomża), to a family of many children. Her mother’s name was Jadwiga (no other data available). Her father, Alfons, a veterinary surgeon, was deported to Siberia for his involvement in the 1863 January Uprising against Russian occupation. Justyna was sent to a girls’ boarding school in Warsaw. Her family situation was complicated: her father had died and she was forced to earn her own living. Nonetheless, she managed to complete her education at the school, pass her high school final...

  25. BUJWIDOWA, Kazimiera (1867–1932)
    (pp. 85-88)
    Dr. Dobrochna Kałwa

    Kazimiera Bujwidowa (born Klimontowicz) was born on 16 October 1867 in Warsaw. She was the only child of Ludwika (nee Szczęśniewska) and Kazimierz Klimontowicz, the latter from a lower noble family of Lithuanian origin. Although her parents were not married, her father gave her his name and supported her financially. After the death of Kazimiera’s mother, Kazimiera was placed in the custody of her aunt, Karolina Petronela Klimontowicz, who had participated in the January 1863 Uprising against Russian rule. Kazimiera Klimontowicz attended Justyna Budzińska’s private boarding school for girls in Warsaw, going on to qualify as a private tutor after...

  26. CANTACUZINO, Princess Alexandrina (1876–1944)
    (pp. 89-94)
    Roxana Cheşchebec

    Alexandrina (Didina) Cantacuzino (born Pallady) was born on 20 September 1876 in Ciocăneşti (Ilfov county, near Bucharest), a village on her family’s estate. Both her parents were from old boyar families. Alexandrina’s father, Theodor Pallady (1853–1916), was a career officer—a member of a Moldavian boyar family first documented in the twelfth century. In 1874, he married Alexandrina Kreţulescu (1848–1881), an heiress from a well-known, wealthy Wallachian boyar family. Together they had four children but only Alexandrina survived infancy. After her mother’s death, Alexandrina was adopted by an aunt and raised by the Ghica family, another famous boyar...

  27. CHEKHOVA, Mariia Aleksandrovna Argamakova (1866–1934)
    (pp. 95-98)
    Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild

    Mariia Chekhova was born Mariia Argamakova on 18 January 1866, into a gentry family in St Petersburg. Both her maternal and paternal grandfathers were teachers, as was her father, Aleksandr Pavlovich Argamakov, who taught at St Petersburg’s First Military Gimnazium (high school). Mariia had a younger sister Sophia (married name Kemnits), born in 1869. Her mother, Ekaterina Ivanovna Mertsalova, died in 1872.

    In 1877, Mariia’s father remarried. Mariia had a difficult relationship with her stepmother (Serafima Alekseevna Popova) and when Aleksandr Pavlovich took a job in Irkutsk in 1880, Mariia happily moved in with her maternal grandmother, remaining there for...

  28. ÇOBA, Shaqe (Marie) (1875–1954)
    (pp. 99-101)
    Zenepe Dibra

    Shaqe (Marie) Çoba was born in Shkodra in 1875 to the distinguished Shiroka family, traditionally active in the social life of the city. Her father’s name was Zef Shiroka. She had one brother, Loro, and one sister whose name, like that of her mother, is unknown. Shaqe Shiroka’s nephews and grandchildren—namely Filip Shiroka and his son Angjelini (an architect in Beirut), as well as Ejlli, Zefi, Dr. Frederiku, Emili and Tonini Shiroka—became well known for their social activities. Shaqe Shiroka’s intelligence was noted from an early age. She attended the elementary school in Shkodra, an ancient town in...

  29. DASZYŃSKA-GOLIŃSKA, Zofia (1866–1934)
    (pp. 102-105)
    Grzegorz Krzywiec

    Zofia Daszyńska-Golińska (nee Poznańska) was born in Warsaw on 6 August 1866, to an impoverished landowning family. Her parents, Damian Poznański—an agronomist and estate administrator—and Aniela born Puternicka (no further data), created an atmosphere conducive to intellectual development at home (where Zofia, her sister Wanda and brother Michał were all educated). In 1878, having graduated from a state grammar school for girls in Warsaw (finishing the last two years of secondary education in Lublin), Zofia Poznańska became a private tutor. In 1885, she took up studies in political economy and economic history at the University of Zurich, which...

  30. DEJANOVIĆ (Dejanovich), Draga (born Dimitrijević) (1840–1871)
    (pp. 106-108)
    Ivana Pantelić

    Draga Dimitrijević was born on 18 August 1840 in Stara Kanjiža (Habsburg Monarchy, now in Serbia). Her parents were Živojin and Sofija Dimitrijević. As the daughter of a well-to-do lawyer, Draga received an education in her native town and, later, at the Vinčikov Institute in Timisoara (today in Romania). Due to her poor health (she had problems with her eyes), Draga’s education was interrupted. Together with her family, she moved from Stara Kanjiža to Bečej, where she married the young schoolmaster Mihajlo Dejanović against her father’s will. Soon afterwards, she resumed her education in Pest (Hungary), where she met a...

  31. DERVİŞ, Suat (Saadet Baraner) (1905–1972)
    (pp. 109-113)
    Fatmagül Berktay

    Suat Derviş was born in 1905 (1904 according to some sources), to an aristocratic family in Istanbul. Her father, gynecologist İsmail Derviş (?–1932), was a professor at the Medical Faculty of Istanbul University and the son of chemist Müşir Derviş Pasha and his second wife, Şevkidil. Suat Derviş’ mother was Hesna Hanım, a daughter of Kamil Bey (1830–1876) from the entourage of Sultan Abdülaziz and a former slave girl from the Palace of the Sultan known as Perensaz. [NB: In the Ottoman era there were neither surnames nor official birth records. The ‘paterfamilias’ would occasionally record names of...

  32. DESPOT, Blaženka (1930–2001)
    (pp. 114-117)
    Gordana Bosanac

    Blaženka Despot (nee Lovrić) was born on 9 January 1930 in Zagreb (then the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, today Croatia), to a typical middle-class Zagreb family—the eldest child of Dr Stjepan and Melanija Lovrić. Her father held a Ph.D. in law and for many years was the director of a hospital in Zagreb. Her mother was a piano teacher. Together with her younger brother Zlatko, the young Blaženka was brought up and educated in a family that had enjoyed middle-class status over several generations. Upon graduation from high school in 1948, she married a doctor, Pavle Gugić, and soon gave...

  33. DJIONAT, Elena (1888–?)
    (pp. 118-119)
    Maria Bucur

    Born in 1888 in the village of Bozieni, at that time part of the Russian Empire, Djionat pursued a career in medicine at the University of Odessa but only completed two years of study. She became a teacher and went on to become Principal at the Princess Elena Primary School in Chişhinău in 1919, after Bessarabia became part of Romania. She retained this position until 1935.

    In addition to pursuing her career as an educator of young girls, Djionat also became active in the feminist movement. She had her first encounter with feminist ideas in 1907 but up until 1919,...

  34. EDİB ADIVAR, Halide (1884–1964)
    (pp. 120-123)
    Ayşe Durakbaşa

    Halide Edib was born in Istanbul in 1884 and brought up in an Ottoman mansion house, for the most part by her grandmother (a member of the Mevlevi sufi order). Her mother, Fatma Bedirfem Hanım, died of tuberculosis when Halide was a child. Her father, Edib Bey, a secretary of Sultan Abdülhamid II (1842–1918), greatly admired the principles of the English education system and tried to have Halide educated accordingly.

    Halide attended the American College for Girls, a missionary school in Istanbul (becoming one of its first few Muslim graduates). She also received home tutorials in the Islamic sciences,...

  35. ENGELGARDT, Anna (1838–1903)
    (pp. 124-126)
    Igor’ Shkol’nikov

    Anna Engelgardt (nee Makarova) was born on 2 June 1838 in the village of Aleksandrovka in the Kostroma province of the Russian Empire. Her father, Nikolai Makarov (1810–1890), was a member of the gentry and owned a small estate. In addition to being a famous Russian lexicographer—author of several dictionaries—he was also a writer, composer and actor. Anna’s mother, Alexandra Makarova (nee Boltina, data unknown), died when Anna was six years old.

    In 1845, wishing to give his daughter a comprehensive education, Nikolai Makarov sent Anna to the Catherine Institute in Moscow (the only Russian educational institution...

  36. EZERA, Regīna (born Šamreto) (1930–2002)
    (pp. 127-130)
    Sandra Meshkova

    Regīna Šamreto was born on 20 December 1930, into a working-class family in Riga. Her father, Robert Šamreto, was a carpenter. Her mother, Lūcija Šamreto, was a housewife who had been educated at Riga Polish gymnasium and trained as a nurse after World War II. Regina’s family members lived in a small flat in a working-class district of Riga. They included Regīna’s grandmother, who had lost four children, and Felicija, one of her three surviving daughters. Regīna’s maternal family came originally from Latgale in southeastern Latvia, a region characterized by ethnic pluralism, Catholicism (as opposed to Protestantism in other regions)...

  37. FICKERT, Auguste (1855–1910)
    (pp. 131-134)
    Hanna Hacker

    Auguste Fickert (also known as Gusti) was born on 25 May 1855 in Vienna. Her mother, Louise Fickert (born Luhde, died 1907), was a housewife; her father, Wilhelm Fickert (d. 1881), was a foreman at the Court and State printers. They had two daughters (Auguste and Marianne) and two sons (Emil and Willy). Two of Auguste Fickert’s siblings were later to become involved in her projects: Marianne Fickert committed herself to the Allgemeiner Österreichischer Frauenverein (General Austrian Women’s Association) for many years and, after Auguste Fickert’s death, her younger brother Emil Fickert (1870–1957, bank director) held a leading position...

  38. FILOSOFOVA, Anna Pavlovna, born Diaghileva (1837–1912)
    (pp. 135-139)
    Marianna Muravyeva

    Anna Pavlovna Diaghileva was born on 5 April 1837 into a wealthy and long-standing noble family in St Petersburg. Her father, Pavel Dmitrievich Diaghilev (1808–1883), was a successful official at the Ministry of Finance who retired in 1850 and started his own distillery business at his family estate in Perm. Around 1855, he became obsessively religious and Anna’s mother, his wife Anna Ivanovna (born Sul’meneva) (1818–1888), took over the family business. The eldest of nine children (she had five brothers and three sisters), Anna Diaghileva received her education at home (as was customary in Russian noble families) and...

  39. FRUMKIN, Esther (real name Malka Lifschitz, Esfir’ Frumkina in Russian, known as Esther Frumkin in English) (1880–1943)
    (pp. 140-143)
    Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild

    Throughout her notorious—often celebrated—career, Esther Frumkin led a life full of paradoxes. Criticized for opposing the study and popularization of Yiddish at a 1908 conference in Czernowitz (in Ukrainian Bukovina, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire), she later embraced the Bolshevik Revolution and lobbied for Yiddish as the revolutionary language of Jews. She led virulent anti-religious campaigns in the 1920s as the leader of the Communist Party’s Jewish Section, only to be cast aside as party policies shifted. The granddaughter of rabbis, she passionately attacked rabbinical authority. A gifted linguist and advocate for Yiddish, she helped undermine the...

  40. GALDIKIENĖ, Magdalena (1891–1979)
    (pp. 144-147)
    Karčiauskaitė Indrė

    Magdalena Galdikienė (maiden name Draugelytė) was born on 26 September 1891 in the village of Bardauskai, in Vilkaviškis County. Her father, Petras Draugelis (1849–1914), was a primary school teacher who illegally distributed Lithuanian books (Lithuanian Latin script books were prohibited by the tsarist regime from 1864 to 1904). Her mother (little data available) gave birth to twelve children of which only seven reached adulthood. Magdalena was one of the younger siblings, influenced not only by her parents, but also by her older brothers and her sister, Apolonija Draugelyte-Cemarkiene.

    Magdalena attended the girls’ gymnasium in Marijampole. She graduated in 1910,...

  41. GÁRDOS, Mária (Mariska Gárdos, Mrs György Pintér, likely born M. Grünfeld) (1885–1973)
    (pp. 148-152)
    Susan Zimmermann

    Mariska Gárdos was born on 1 May 1885 (one source claims 1 October 1884), in Nagyberény, Hungary, south of Lake Balaton. She was one of many children, yet only three of her siblings reached adulthood: her much younger sister Frida (born mid-1890s—died in a Soviet prison around 1926) and her elder sister and brother Giza and Sándor (data unknown). Her father, originally a tailor’s assistant, moved to Budapest with his family in 1886, where he became a casual worker and canvas repairer in the Óbuda Dockyard Factory. Mariska’s mother worked hard to maintain her large family. In the interwar...

  42. GEŐCZE, Sarolta (1862–1928)
    (pp. 153-157)
    Anna Loutfi

    Sarolta Geőcze was born on 27 December 1862, in Bacska (Zemplén County, named Bačka in 1920; today in Slovakia), into a middle-class, intellectual, Catholic family. Her mother, Erzsébet Bertha (died 1869), was from the small town of Felsőőr (today Oberwart, Austria). Her father, Bertalan Geőcze (dates of birth and death unknown), was a lawyer with a practice in Zemplén County. Sarolta Geőcze had siblings including a sister, Berta (later Mrs László Krötzer). Nothing is known of the others.

    Some sources state that it was 1882 when Geőcze entered the Állami Elemi Tanítónőképző (State Institute for the Instruction of Women Primary...

  43. GJIKA, Elena (Elena Ghica, pen-name DORA D’ISTRIA) (1828?–1888?)
    (pp. 158-161)
    Zenepe Dibra

    Elena Gjika was probably born on 28 February 1828. While some of her biographers give Bucharest or Constanta (a city on the Black Sea, currently in Romania) as her birthplace, in the first volume of her book Les femmes en Orient, published in Zurich in 1859, Elena includes a letter to one of her friends in which she writes: “I was born on the shores of South Albania, not far from the Suli mountains, in the city of Parga, whose misfortunes, after the fall of Napoleon, concerned the whole of Europe. My dear Parga, which for centuries had not seen...

  44. GLÜCKLICH, Vilma (1872–1927)
    (pp. 162-165)
    Susan Zimmermann

    Vilma Glücklich was born on 9 August 1872, in Vágujhely (Nové Mesto, today Slovakia) into a Jewish family, the youngest of four children (including a brother named Emil). Her father was a high school teacher, her mother from an educated family. Vilma grew up in Budapest. After completing lower-level secondary school, Vilma combined high school with teacher training and in this way received her final exam certificate (maturita or abitur: a necessary condition for entering formal academic education). In addition to Hungarian, Vilma Glücklich spoke German, Italian, English and French fluently.

    From 1893, Glücklich worked as an upper-level secondary school...

  45. GREGOROVÁ, Hana (1885–1958)
    (pp. 166-168)
    Etela Farkašová

    Hana Gregorová was born Anna Božena Lilgová on 30 January 1885, to a middle-class family in the town of Turčiansky Svätý Martin (T. Sv. Martin) in northern Slovakia, at that time a center of national culture. Her father Jan Lilge (d. 1900) was a dyer. Her mother Maria, born Jamnická (1849–1926) was a housewife. Anna Lilgová had five siblings. Her sister Ľudmila Thurzová (born Lilgová) (1881–1971) was a famous herbalist, co-author of Malý atlas liečivých rastlín (Small atlas of herbs, 1936). Her brother Ivan Lilge (1886–1918) was a writer, translator and publicist. Anna attended primary school in...

  46. GUREVICH, Liubov’ Iakovlevna (1866–1940)
    (pp. 169-172)
    Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild

    Liubov’ Gurevich was born in St Petersburg on 20 October 1866. She grew up in a progressive urban intellectual household with a mixed social background. Her mother, Liubov’ Ivanovna Il’ina, was of the gentry class. The sister of the writer Ekaterina Tsekina-Zhukovskaia, she encouraged her daughter to take an interest in literature. Her father, Iakov Gurevich (1843–1906), was of Jewish parentage but had converted to Russian Orthodoxy. A lecturer in history at St Petersburg University, as well as at the Bestuzhev Higher Women’s Courses, he also edited the liberal Russian pedagogical journal Russkaia Shkola (Russian school).

    In a short...

  47. HAINISCH, Marianne (1839–1936)
    (pp. 173-177)
    Birgitta Bader-Zaar

    Marianne Hainisch (nee Perger) was born on 25 March 1839 in Baden, a summer resort close to Vienna. Her father Josef Perger (1806–1886), a merchant, owned a metal plant and a cotton mill in Hirtenberg, Lower Austria. Marianne Hainisch’s memories of her mother Maria (1820–1903), with whom she had a close relationship and who influenced her views on the significance of the mother for the family, are insightful. Education was all-important for Maria Perger, who taught her children herself (Marianne had two brothers and three sisters), in addition to employing tutors. In 1857, Marianne Perger married Michael Hainisch...

  48. HORÁKOVÁ, Milada (1901–1950)
    (pp. 178-181)
    Dana Musilová

    Milada Horáková, maiden name Králová, was born in Prague on 25 December 1901, to a middle-class, patriotic Czech family. Her parents, Čeněk Král (1869–1955) and Anna Králová, maiden name Velíšková (1875–1933), had four children (Marta, Milada, Jiří and Věra). Her father was a pencil factory owner in České Budějovice; her mother took care of the children at home, as was customary in middle-class families at that time. In 1913, tragedy struck the family when Marta and Jiří died of scarlet fever. This sad event had an impact on Milada´s later life; from that moment she felt that practical...

  49. IVANOVA, Dimitrana (1881–1960)
    (pp. 182-184)
    Krassimira Daskalova

    Dimitrana Ivanova (born Petrova) was born on 1 February 1881 into a middle-class family in the town of Rousse, a prosperous commercial and business center with a cosmopolitan outlook located on the river Danube. Her parents, the craftsman and trader Petur Drumev and Stanka pop Todorova (about whom nothing further is known), had three children. After graduating from the girls’ high school in Rousse in 1896, Dimitrana studied philosophy at the University of Zurich, Switzerland (Sofia University, the only Bulgarian university at the time, did not accept women). With only the final examination to complete, she had to return to...

  50. JARNEVIĆ, Dragojla (1812–1875)
    (pp. 185-188)
    Sandra Prlenda

    Dragojla Jarnević was born on 4 January 1812, in the prosperous merchant town of Karlovac (also known in German as Karlstadt), a military center fifty km southwest of Zagreb, close to the Habsburg military border. She was baptized in the Catholic Church as Carolina and also had a nickname, Lina, but following the rise of the Illyrian movement and the vogue for ‘Croatizing’ personal names, she later used the Croatian version of her name, Dragojla.

    Her father, Janko Jarnević (1753–1819), was a hardware tradesman from a bourgeois family—a man of strong patriotic sentiments. When he died, he left...

  51. JESENSKÁ, Milena (1896–1944)
    (pp. 189-191)
    Alena Wagnerová

    Milena Jesenská was born on 10 August 1896 in Prague. Her father, Jan Jesenský, a professor of dentistry at the Faculty of Medicine of Charles University, was one of the top professionals in his field and also a prominent member of Czech society in Prague. Milena Jesenská’s childhood and youth were marked both by the illness of her mother (also Milena, born Hejzlarová), who was for a long time bedridden, and by the usurpatory and unbalanced love of her father. Milena was enrolled in the “Minerva” Czech high school for girls, attended by the first generation of emancipated and educated...

  52. JOVANOVIĆ, Biljana (1953–1996)
    (pp. 192-194)
    Jasmina Lukić

    Biljana Jovanović was born in Belgrade on 28 January 1953. Her father, Batrić Jovanović, was a politician and her mother, Olga Jovanović, a journalist. She had a brother named Pavle Jovanović and a sister named Ana Jovanović. The family lived in Belgrade, where Biljana Jovanović attended gymnasium, changing schools several times and graduating in 1972. In that year, she enrolled as a student at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade, where she graduated from the Department of Philosophy.

    Even as a student, Jovanović was already engaged in literary life. Her first book was a collection of poetry entitled Čuvar...

  53. JURIĆ, Marija (1873–1957)
    (pp. 195-199)
    Slavica Jakobović Fribec

    Marija Jurić, known by her pseudonym ‘Zagorka,’ was born on 2 March 1873 on the Negovac estate near the city of Križevci. She was given the name Marianna and baptized in a Roman Catholic Church on 3 March 1873. Her mother, Josipa Domin, and father, Ivan Jurić (data unknown), were wealthy and had three children besides Marija: two sons (names and data unknown) and a daughter, Dragica (1879–1896), who died of tuberculosis.

    Marija Jurić spent her childhood in the Zagorje region of Croatia, where her father owned the Golubovec estate (near the city of Varaždin) and managed Šanjugovo, the...

  54. KÄER-KINGISEPP, Elise (1901–1989)
    (pp. 200-203)
    Sirje Tamul

    Elise Käer was born on 3 October 1901 in the vicinity of Tartu (in Metsaküla, Estonia) the first of the two daughters of farmers Gustav Käer (1861–1932) and Liisa (born Rosin) Käer (1878–1977). [Elise’s sister Helene Käer (born 1906), married name Helene Sultson, is a musician living in Montreal, Canada.] The family moved to Tartu and Elise studied at the Second elementary school there and later, at the elite Girls’ Gymnasium (high school), named after A. S. Pushkin and established in 1899. In 1918, after German military forces had occupied Tartu, the Pushkin Gymnasium was evacuated to Russia....

  55. KAIJA, Ivande (born Antonija Millere-Meldere, married name Antonija Lukina) (1876–1941)
    (pp. 204-206)
    Sandra Meshkova

    Ivande Kaija (Antonija Millere-Meldere) was born on 12 October 1876 in Jumpravmuiža, to middle-class parents. Her father, Miķelis, Millers-Melders, was originally a tradesman. He made a fortune and became a proprietor and landlord in Riga, where, in 1879, the family settled in the pleasant suburban district of Torņakalns. Her mother, Matilde Millere-Meldere (born Flintman), was a housewife. The family lost three children but three daughters survived. In 1881, Antonija entered Torņakalns Elementary school; later, she studied at the Riga Lomonosov Women’s Gymnasium. In 1895, she travelled to the Caucasus before spending a couple of years in Switzerland and Germany, where...

  56. KAL’MANOVICH, Anna Andreevna (dates of birth and death unknown)
    (pp. 207-209)
    Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild

    Anna Andreevna Kal’manovich (personal and family data unknown) had a public career which by the 1905 Russian Revolution had moved from philanthropy in the 1890s to radical feminism. In 1893, she founded the Saratovskoe Evreiskoe Popechitel’stvo o Bol’nykh (Saratov Hebrew Society for the Care of the Sick), remaining its President until 1904. She also founded a children’s committee and served as liaison to the local society for poor relief before becoming immersed in feminist activities. She gave her first public speech—a report on the 1904 Berlin Congress of the International Council of Women, originally written for Mariia Pokrovskaia’s Zhenskii...

  57. KALNIŅA, Klāra (born Veilande) (1874–1964)
    (pp. 210-212)
    Irina Novikova

    Anna-Luize Klāra Veilande was born in Vanci on 24 February 1874, into a family of farmers. She became interested in women’s emancipation and rights early on while a student at the Doroteja (four-grade) school for girls in Jelgava, which she attended from 1887 to 1890. The language of instruction at the school was German; the teachers of the Baltic German elite did not support the education of Latvians but sought to cultivate “Germanness,” as Klāra Veilande put it, writing of herself that “I, on the other hand, was intent on emphasizing that I was Latvian.” Regarding the instruction of women...

  58. KÁNYA (Kanya), Emilia; Mrs Mór Szegfi(1830–1905)
    (pp. 213-216)
    Éva Bicskei

    Emilia Kánya was born on 10 November 1830 into a highly educated middle-class family in Pest-Ofen, Hungary. Little is known about her family background and early years. Her mother was Zsuzsanna Buro (no data); her father, Pál Kánya (1794–1876), was a teacher, later the director of a local Protestant secondary school and parish notary. Emilia received the same education as her father’s students and was taught French, English, music and drawing.

    In 1847, after an unhappy experience in love at the age of seventeen, she married Gottfried Feldinger, the son of a rich businessman. The couple moved to Temesvár...

  59. KARACS, Teréz (1808–1892)
    (pp. 217-221)
    Éva Bicskei

    Teréz Karacs was born on 18 Apirl 1808 in Pest-Ofen, Hungary. Her family was highly educated and Protestant, of modest means. Her father, Ferenc Karacs (1770–1838), was an engineer and qualified engraver of maps and illustrations. Her mother, Éva Takács (1779–1845), was a publicist and active participant in debates over the role of women in society in the 1820s.

    From 1814 to 1819, Teréz attended the Protestant elementary school for boys and girls in Pest, missing one year due to illness. As the second of six children (three died in early childhood, two elder and one younger), she...

  60. KARAMICHAILOVA, Elissaveta Ivanova (Kara-Michailova, Elizabeth) (1897–1968)
    (pp. 222-225)
    Georgeta Nazarska

    Elissaveta Karamichailova was born on 22 August 1897 in Vienna, one of the three children of the Bulgarian surgeon Ivan Karamichailov (1866–1961) and Mary Slade, an English pianist born in Oxfordshire. The cultural atmosphere in the family was augmented by the presence of Ivan’s sister, Elena Karamichailova, the first Bulgarian post-impressionist painter (who studied in Germany). Elissaveta Karamichailova was also greatly influenced by her father, who was descended from an old merchant family from Shoumen and believed in national and Enlightenment ideals. He financed the education of his two sisters and three children and, instead of making a career...

  61. KARAVELOV, Lyuben Stoychev (1834–1879)
    (pp. 226-229)
    Georgeta Nazarska

    Lyuben Karavelov was born in 1834 in the mountainous village of Koprivshtitsa, to Stoycho Karavelov, a well off trader, and Nedelya Doganova, a woman from a rich and educated family. Slightly literate, the parents educated the four boys of their seven children. Lyuben, the first-born, studied at the local monastery school and at the primary and middle schools of Koprivshtitsa and Plovdiv.

    After the Crimean War, Russia continued its offensive with regard to ‘the Eastern Question’ by peaceful means. Lyuben Karavelov made use of scholarships established by the Russian Slavophils (right-wing Russian political groups supporting expansion of the Great Russian...

  62. KARAVELOVA, Ekaterina (1860–1947)
    (pp. 230-234)
    Reneta Roshkeva

    Ekaterina Karavelova (nee Peneva) was born on 21 October 1860 into a lower middle-class family in Rouschuk (now Rousse), then one of the biggest towns in the European part of the Ottoman Empire and the center of Tuna vilaet, an administrative unit. She was the youngest of the four children of Stoyanka and Veliko Penev, who had three girls (Anastasiya, Mariola and Ekaterina) and one boy (Athanas). Her father died very young. In June 1870, Ekaterina left for Russia with her aunt, Kiryaki Nikolaki Minkova (her father’s sister and mother of Todor Minkov, founder of a Southern Slav boarding house...

  63. KARIMA, Anna (born Anna Todorova Velkova) (1871–1949)
    (pp. 235-240)
    Krassimira Daskalova

    ‘Anna Karima’ was the pseudonym of Anna Todorova Velkova (whose married name, from 1888 to 1903, was Janko Sakuzova). Other pseudonyms were ‘Vega,’ ‘Mamin,’ and ‘Samurov.’ She was born in 1871 in Berdjansk (Russia), the daughter of Stepanida Mouzhichenko, a Ukrainian woman whose sensitivity to patriarchy and gender power relations Karima adopted, and Todor Velkov, a Bulgarian emigrant who settled in Izmail (Russia) to trade in wheat, after having participated as a volunteer in the Crimean War (1853–1856). Mouzichenko and Velkov had six children: three girls and three boys.

    After the establishment of the autonomous Bulgarian state in 1878,...

  64. KAŠIKOVIĆ, Stoja (c.1865–?)
    (pp. 241-243)
    Jelica Zdero

    Very little is known of Stoja Kašiković’s early childhood. She was born Stoja Zdjelarević in 1865 in Bosanski Novi, Bosnia, though the precise day and month of her birth are unknown. It is likely that she was orphaned at an early age because she did not know either of her birth parents’ names, only that she had been born to Bosnian Serbs and that her father had been a merchant. She had one brother named Simo, who eventually moved to Kovač in Slavonia to work as a blacksmith.

    Stoja Zdjelarević began her education in 1879, one year after Bosnia-Herzegovina became...

  65. KOBRYNSKA, Natalia (born Ozarkevych) (1851–1920)
    (pp. 244-247)
    Martha Bohachevsky-Chomiak

    Natalia Ozarkevych was born on 8 June 1851 in Beleluia, in the Halychyna Province of the Habsburg Monarchy (Galicia), to the Reverend Ivan Ozarkevych (1826–1903) and Teofilia Okunevska. She was the eldest of five children. At her death, the territory of her birth was being contested among Poles, Ukrainians and Russians. Kobrynska identified with Ukrainians, who sometimes still used the older name Rusyn or (in the Latinized version) Ruthenians. Galician Ukrainians recognized a kinship with Ukrainians then living in the Russian Empire but denied being Russian and bitterly resisted Polonization. Ukrainian democratic forces in Halychyna were trying to wrest...

  66. KOBYLIANSKA, Olha (Kobylians’ka, Ol’ha) (1863–1942)
    (pp. 248-252)
    Teresa Polowy

    Olha Kobylianska was born on 25 November 1863 in the town of Gura-Gumora in southern Bukovyna, a beautiful, mountainous and ethnically diverse region, then part of the Austro-Hungarian (Habsburg) Empire. Today, Bukovyna is located in Ukraine proper: it shares international borders with Romania and Moldova to the south and east, is bounded regionally to the west and north by Carpathian Ukraine and Galicia (western Ukraine) and by central Ukraine in the east—all lands formerly under Russian, Polish, or Austrian rule. Her mother, Maria Kobylianska (1837–1906), and her father, Iulian Kobyliansky (1827–1912), had seven children: Maksymilian (1858–1922),...

  67. KOLLONTAI, Alexandra (1872–1952)
    (pp. 253-257)
    Natalia Gafizova

    Alexandra Kollontai (nee Domontovich) was born on 1 April 1872 in St Petersburg, to a wealthy family, though her father and mother came from different social classes. Her father, Mikhail Domontovich (1830–1902), was a nobleman and officer whose family lineage went back to the thirteenth century. Her mother, Alexandra Domontovich (born Masalina; first married name Mravinskaya), was the daughter of a tradesman from Finland. Later, she became involved in founding the first girls’ high school in Sofia. In order to marry Mikhail Domontovich, Alexandra’s mother had to apply for a divorce, having had three children from her previous marriage....

  68. KONOVA, Kina (1872–1952)
    (pp. 258-261)
    Reneta Roshkeva and Krassimira Daskalova

    Kina Konova was born as Kina Moutafova in September 1872 in the small town of Sevlievo. She had two brothers: Sava (1864–1943) and Hristo (1872–1942) (one of them a teacher, the other a well-known bookseller and printer in Sevlievo, both socialists).

    Kina Moutafova finished middle school in her native town and in 1889, graduated from the girls’ high school in Gabrovo, where she led the female high school-students’ organization. From 1889 to 1890, she worked as a teacher and became one of the founders (1889) of the socialist organization, Prijatelska druzhinka. Zhenski klon (Society of Friends. Women’s branch)...

  69. KRÁSNOHORSKÁ, Eliška (born Alžběta Pechová) (1847–1926)
    (pp. 262-266)
    Libuše Heczková

    Krásnohorská was born Alžběta Pechová in Prague on 18 November 1847, to craftsman Ondřej Pech (1802–1849?), who died when she was two years old, and Dora Vodvářková, who supported the talents of her five children, particularly their musical interests. Alžběta was the fourth child. Since her older brothers took care of her education and taught her at home, she acquired a somewhat broader education than was usual for a woman at that time. Nevertheless, in her memoirs Copřinesla léta (What the years brought to me, 1928), Krásnohorská expressed regret over not having had a solid, formal education.

    Her family...

  70. KRONVALDE (born Roloff), Karolīne Liznete (1836–1913)
    (pp. 267-268)
    Irina Novikova

    Very little is known of Karolīne Kronvalde’s life and work, apart from the fact that she was the wife of Atis Kronvalds (1837–1875), a prominent leader of the Latvian nationalist movement in the 1870s. Much has been published on his life and work, yet very little has been published on his wife, Karolîne Kronvalde, one of the first spokeswomen for women’s rights in Latvia.

    Karolīne Kronvalde was born Karolīne Roloff on 2 April 1836, in Legramzda, Kurzeme. Her father was a doctor and her mother was an educated Polish woman. Karolīne was largely responsible for her own education; as...

  71. KRUPSKAIA, Nadezhda Konstantinovna (1869–1939)
    (pp. 269-273)
    Norma C. Noonan

    Nadezhda Krupskaia (Krupskaya) was born in Petersburg on 14 (26) February 1869. Her father was descended from the Polish nobility. Her grandfather fought with the Russian army in the War of 1812 and then settled in the Gubernia (province) of Kazan. Her father was well-educated and for a time served as a regional bureaucrat in a Polish province, but lost his position when Nadezhda was a child. Although her father was later cleared of the charges against him, Nadezhda never forgot the injustice. Her mother, Elizaveta Tistrova, was poor but descended from nobility. Educated in St Petersburg at the Pavlovsky...

  72. KUCZALSKA-REINSCHMIT (Reinschmidt), Paulina Jadwiga (1859–1921)
    (pp. 274-277)
    Grzegorz Krzywiec

    Paulina Kuczalska-Reinschmit was born on 15 January 1859 in Warsaw, into a noble family. She grew up in the country, on estates in the Ukraine (Kośkowice in Volhynia and Bereźniaki). After the death of her father (date unknown), she moved to Warsaw with her mother and sister Helena (1854–1927, a pioneer of women’s physical education). Here, the family settled and the girls received secondary education at a private girls’ boarding school. From an early age, Paulina was raised in a patriotic spirit under the strong influence of her mother, Ewelina Porczyńska born Jastrzębiec (data unknown), who belonged to Narcyza...

  73. KUSKOVA, Ekaterina Dmitrievna (born Esipova) (1869–1958)
    (pp. 278-281)
    Barbara T. Norton

    Ekaterina Dmitrievna Esipova was born on 8 December 1869 in the provincial Southern Ural capital of Ufa, the first of two children in her family. Her father, Dmitrii Petrovich Esipov (probably a member of Russia’s untitled nobility; date of birth unknown), taught language and literature in the local secondary school and was subsequently an excise tax collector until his suicide in the mid-1880s. Her mother, Liudmila Mikhailovna Esipova (date of birth unknown), a Tatar whom Ekaterina resembled physically, died of tuberculosis in 1884. In 1885, Ekaterina graduated with highest distinction from the Mariinskii secondary school for girls in Saratov, a...

  74. KVEDER, Zofka (first married name, Kveder-Jelovšek; second married name, Kveder-Demetrović) (1878–1926)
    (pp. 282-285)
    Katja Mihurko Poniž

    Zofka Kveder was born on 22 April 1878 in Ljubljana (Slovenia), the first child of assistant railway conductor Janez Kveder (1846–1908) and Neža Kveder, born Legat (1851–1915). She spent her childhood in the country after her father—restless by nature and prone to changing jobs—decided to leave Ljubljana. Two sons were later born to the Kveders: Alojzij (1882–1932) and Viktor (1884–1939). After Zofka had finished her four-year village elementary schooling (in 1888), her father sent her to Ljubljana to a convent school. She stayed there until she was fifteen, when she returned to her parents...

  75. LEICHTER, Käthe (1895–1942)
    (pp. 286-289)
    Gabriella Hauch

    Käthe Leichter was born Marianne Katharina Pick on 20 August 1895 in Vienna, into a bourgeois–liberal, intellectual and assimilated Jewish family familiar with enlightenment ideals of liberty, equality and social justice. Her parents were the attorney Dr. Josef Pick (1849–1926), who came from a northern Bohemian textile factory family, and Charlotte Rubinstein (1872–1939), the multilingual daughter of a Bucharest banking family. They were married in 1893 and had two daughters. Käthe was the second girl and not the longed for son, as she says in her autobiographical scripts. She attended the Viennese Beamtentöchter-Lyceum from 1906 until 1912...

  76. LJOČIĆ (Ljotchich)-Milošević, Draga (1855–1926)
    (pp. 290-292)
    Ivana Pantelić

    Draga Ljočić was born in Šabac (Serbia) on 25 February 1855. She graduated from the Lyceum of Belgrade and was the first Serbian woman to be admitted (in 1872) to the Zurich Medical School. At that time her brother Đjura Ljočić, a prominent socialist and editor of the journal Radenik (The worker, 1871–1872), had already graduated (1870) in technical engineering from the same university. While in Zurich, Draga Ljočić became influenced by Russian women nihilists (e.g. Sophia Bardina, Sophia Perovskaya and the Subbotina sisters), who shaped her feminism. Her education was interrupted by the Serbian–Turkish Wars of 1876–...

  77. MALINOVA, Julia (also Julie Malinoff) (1869–1953)
    (pp. 293-295)
    Krassimira Daskalova

    Julia Malinova was born Jakovlevna Scheider, of Russian Jewish parents. She received her university education in France and Switzerland, where she became attracted to contemporary liberal ideas. No data exists regarding her parents or the life she led before moving to Bulgaria. She came to Sofia at the invitation of the family of professor Mykhailo Drahomanov (1841–1895), a Ukrainian historian who taught at Sofia University from 1889 until his death (See also Olena Pchilka and Lesia Ukrainka)). She converted to Orthodoxy (Anna Karima was her godmother) before marrying Alexander Malinov (1867–1938). Malinov was a lawyer, leader of the...

  78. MALINSKA-ḰOSTAROVA GEORGI, Veselinka (1917–1988)
    (pp. 296-300)
    Vera Vesković-Vangeli

    Veselinka Malinska’s father, Georgi Kole Malinski (1878–1951), was born in Kumanovo and also lived in Tetovo (Macedonia), Vienna and Paris (in the latter two cities between 1913 and 1918). A merchant, photographer and social activist, he was an innovative, broad-minded and free-spirited man, the first Esperantist in the Balkans (1897), as well as the founder (1898) and President of the first merchant society in the Macedonian part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1900, he opened the first bookstore in Kumanovo, later opening a photography shop (1922). He participated in the Ilinden uprising against Ottoman rule (1901–1903) and remained...

  79. MARÓTHY-ŠOLTÉSOVÁ, Elena (1855–1939)
    (pp. 301-305)
    Jana Cviková

    Elena Maróthy was born on 6 January 1855 in Krupina (upper Hungary, Austria-Hungary; today Slovakia), to Protestant pastor and poet Daniel Maróthy (1825–1878) and Karolína Maróthy, born Hudecová (1834–1857). Shortly after the family moved to Ľuboreč (in the district of Novohrad), Elena’s mother died. An unusually strong relationship developed between Elena and her father, who in 1858 married Lujza Bauerová (1839–1879). The initially warm relationship between stepmother and daughter changed after the births of Elena’s stepbrother and stepsister. As an adult, Maróthy-Šoltésová bitterly recollected how her stepmother had forced her to do so much housework that she...

  80. MASARYKOVÁ GARRIGUE, Charlotta (1850–1923)
    (pp. 306-310)
    Anna Nedvědová

    Charlotta Garrigue was born in Brooklyn, New York on 20 November 1850. Her father, Rudolf Garrigue (1822–1891), was of Huguenot descent, born in Kodan (Denmark). While working for the publisher Brockhouse in Leipzig as a young man, he had been sent to the United States to carry out market research there and had remained in New York, becoming a bookseller and later on, a chief executive in an insurance company (Germania). Charlotta’s mother, Charlotte Lydia Garrigue (1825–1891), born Whiting, was from a family that had come to America from England in the seventeenth century. The family was very...

  81. MAŠIOTIENĖ, Ona (1883–1949)
    (pp. 311-315)
    Indrė Karčiauskaitė

    Ona Mašiotienė born Ona Brazauskaitė (or Brzezowska; Brazauskaitė is the Lithuanian version of the latter and this is how she always referred to herself) was born on 29 January 1883, into a noble family from Šlavėnai (in the parish of Anykščiai, today northern Lithuania), one of eight children. Her father, Gustaw Brzezowski (1841–1906), was involved in the 1863 Uprising against Russian rule, wounded and later imprisoned. In prison, he met Jadwiga Michailowska (1845–1915), the daughter of one of his inmates, Enrik Michailowski, who had been sentenced to death. The young woman was to become his wife and the...

  82. MATEJCZUK, Vera (first married name, Maslouskaya; second married name, Karczeuskaya) (1896–1981)
    (pp. 316-318)
    Aleh Hardzienka

    Vera Matejczuk was born on 24 March 1896 in Suprasl (now in Poland, then a Northwestern Province of the Russian Empire), into a poor peasant family—one of twelve children. She spent her childhood in the village of Aharodniczki, near Suprasl, where she attended an elementary school but could not continue her education for economic reasons. Later she wrote: “I read any book I could get my hands on, but I was most fascinated by the lives and struggles of outstanding individuals who had fought for the rights of the poor and the victimized. And while reading these books I...

  83. MAYREDER, Rosa (1858–1938)
    (pp. 319-323)
    Edith Leisch-Prost

    Rosa Mayreder (nee Obermayer) was born in Vienna on 30 November 1858, and grew up in a family of thirteen children. Her father, Franz Obermayer (1811–1893), was the owner of the famous Winterbierhaus in Vienna. He embodied contemporary values, a mixture of patriarchal authority and liberal middle-class views. Magdalena Bösch, Obermayer’s first wife, died after giving birth to her eighth child. His second wife, Maria Engel (1840–1929), the mother of Rosa, bore Obermayer five more children. Since Obermayer was a Protestant and both wives Catholics, the boys were raised in the religion of their father, the girls in...

  84. MĘCZKOWSKA, Teodora (1870–1954)
    (pp. 324-327)
    Jolanta Sikorska-Kulesza

    Teodora Maria Męczkowska (nee Oppman) was born on 5 September 1870 in Łowicz, a small town in the Polish Kingdom (under Russian partition). Her father, Jan Adolf Oppman, was the pastor of an Evangelical church; her mother, Teodora born Berlińska, was a teacher. In 1888, Teodora graduated from high school in Warsaw. Two years later, she left for Switzerland. From 1892 to 1896, she studied at the Faculty of Natural and Physical Sciences at the University of Geneva, gaining a Bachelier des Sciences Physique et Naturelles (B.A. in the natural sciences).

    In 1895, Teodora married Wacław Męczkowski (1863–1922), a...

  85. MEISSNER, Elena (1867?–1940?)
    (pp. 328-330)
    Maria Bucur

    Born Elena Buznea in the Moldavian city of Huşi in 1867(?), Meissner was one of the first female students to attend the University of Iaşi in the mid-1880s, where she graduated in literature. In 1905, she married Constantin Meissner (1854–1942), a prominent political personality and General Secretary to the Ministry of Arts and Public Education prior to World War I. After the war, Constantin Meissner became a member of several short-lived political parties, including the center-right People’s Party led by the World War I hero, Marshal Alexandru Averescu.

    Elena Meissner first worked as a teacher in IaŞi, later becoming...

  86. MELLER, Mrs Artur, Eugénia Miskolczy (1872–1944)
    (pp. 331-335)
    Claudia Papp and Susan Zimmermann

    Mrs Artur Meller was born Eugénia Miskolczy on 14 January 1872, into a Jewish family in Budapest, the capital (then undergoing unification) of Hungary. Her parents, who had married in 1870, were Adolf Miskolczy (Miskolci), a manufacturer (born 1839), and Laura Weisz (1849–1883), who died when her daughter Eugénia was just eleven years old. Eugénia had an older brother and a younger sister, both of whom died in early childhood, as well as another sister, born in 1879. In the early 1890s, Eugénia Miskolczy married Artur Meller (born 1859), an inspector for the Hungarian National Bank. They had four...

  87. MEVLAN CİVELEK, Ulviye (1893–1964)
    (pp. 336-339)
    Serpil Çakır

    Ulviye Mevlan was a pioneering feminist in Ottoman society of the early 1900s, a time when social and political structures were undergoing important changes. Born in 1893, in Göreme, she was brought to the harem of the Ottoman Palace at the age of six where, like all the new incoming girls, she received her first education. Her family was Circassian, exiled from Caucasia by the Russians. Her father, Mahmut Yediç, was a farmer; her mother’s name was Safiye Hanım. At the age of thirteen Ulviye, in compliance with the rules of the Palace, was given in marriage to an elderly...

  88. MILČINOVIĆ, Adela (1878–1968)
    (pp. 340-343)
    Slavica Jakobović Fribec

    Adela Milčinović (born Kamenić) was born on 14 January 1878 in the city of Sisak, the largest of the Croatian river ports, located along the rivers Sava and Kupa. Adela was the illegitimate daughter of Ludmila Kamenić (data unknown). After graduating from the girls’ high school in Sisak (ca. 1892), she qualified as a teacher in Zagreb at the Sisters of Charity Convent in 1896 (this being the only way for a woman to receive teacher training until the passing of a new education law in 1888. In 1899, she married Andrija Milčinović (born 1877), a teacher and philosophy student...

  89. MIROVICH, pseudonym for Zinaida Sergeevna Ivanova (1865–1913)
    (pp. 344-347)
    Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild

    Zinaida Ivanova, who was born in 1865, grew up in Moscow, the daughter of a Moscow Superintendent of Schools. Further information about her parents is not available. Like many other feminist activists, she was part of the newly emerging but small female intelligentsia. She took advantage of newly available higher education opportunities for women, graduating from Moscow’s Guerrier Higher Courses for Women (which provided women with a liberal education) in 1897. Soon after graduation, she married and began to participate in the activities of the Moskovskaia Kommissiia po Organizatsii Domashnego Chteniia (Moscow Commission on the Organization of Home Reading), also...

  90. MORACZEWSKA, Zofia (1873–1958)
    (pp. 348-351)
    Joanna Dufrat

    Zofia Moraczewska (nee Gostkowska) was born on 4 July 1873 in Czerniowce, Bukovina (then in the Austro-Hungarian Empire), into an intellectual family. Her father, Roman Gostkowski (1837–1912), was a professor at the Technical University of Lviv; her mother, Wanda born Dylewska (?–1912), was a housewife. They had four children, two of which (both boys) died in their early youth.

    Zofia spent her first years at home in Lviv. At the age of twelve, she entered Wiktoria Niedziałkowska’s school for girls. The educational atmosphere there had a considerable impact on Zofia’s views, arousing her patriotic feelings, a passion for...

  91. MOSZCZEŃSKA, Iza (Izabela Moszczeńska-Rzepecka) (1864–1941)
    (pp. 352-355)
    Magdalena Gawin

    Iza Moszczeńska was born on 28 October 1864, into a noble family from Great Poland (the historical name for the Polish territories then incorporated into the Prussian State under the so-called Prussian partition). She was born on the family estate of Rzeczyca, the daughter of Alfons Moszczeński (1816–1890) and his second wife Eufemia, born Krukowiecka (b. ca. 1838). Iza Moszczeńska had three sisters and one brother: Zofia (b. ca. 1860), Anna (ca. 1865–ca. 1878), Cesia (b. 1866) and Jan (b. 1870).

    Like many female members of the Polish intelligentsia unable to afford an expensive education abroad, Moszczeńska studied...

  92. MUHİTTİN, Nezihe (1889–1958)
    (pp. 356-359)
    Serpil Çakır

    Nezihe Muhittin was born in 1889 in Istanbul. Her mother was Zehra Hanım (the daughter of Ali Şevket Pasha; the name of Zehra Hanım’s mother is unknown). Nezihe’s father, Muhittin Bey, was a state prosecutor. Nezihe Muhittin attended the French Missionary School and her early ambition was to become a teacher. Even though she was not a graduate of the Öğretmen Okulu (Teacher Training College), she appealed to the Ministry of Education, succeeded in passing the entrance exam and began teaching the natural sciences at a secondary school for girls in Istanbul. In 1909, she wrote her first novel, Şebab-i...

  93. NĂDEJDE, Sofia (1856–1946)
    (pp. 360-362)
    Ştefania Mihăilescu

    Sofia Băncilă was born in 1856 in the city of Botoşani (northern Moldavia), at that time a Russian protectorate still formally under Ottoman suzerainty. Her family were răzeşi (free peasants); her parents were Vasile Băncilă Gheorghiu and Puheria-Profira Neculce (data unknown). In 1874, at the age of just eighteen, Sofia married Ion (Ioan) Nădejde (1854–1928), a well-known socialist, lawyer, writer and, between 1893 and 1899, one of the leaders of the Partidul Socialist Democrat al Muncitorilor din România (Socialist Democratic Party of Workers in Romania). The couple moved to Iaşi, the largest city in northern Moldavia, where they lived...

  94. NEGRUZZI, Ella (1876–1948)
    (pp. 363-365)
    Maria Bucur

    Born in Hermeziu, a village in the province of Moldavia (in the young Romanian Kingdom), Ella Negruzzi was the daughter of the writer Leon Negruzzi. Details of her mother are unknown. Intellectually prominent members of her family include her uncle, Iacob Negruzzi, a professor at the University of Iaşi and twice President of the Romanian Academy (1910–13 and 1923–26). After her father passed away prematurely, Iacob Negruzzi took charge of both Ella’s education and that of her brother, Mihai (who later became an army general). Ella Negruzzi was briefly married to, and later divorced Nicolae Beldiman.

    Given this...

  95. NĚMCOVÁ, Božena (born Barbora Panklová) (1820?–1862)
    (pp. 366-369)
    Jiřina Šmejkalová

    Although there have been some attempts to prove her noble origins, most sources agree that Barbora Panklová was born out of wedlock in Vienna on 5 February 1820 (?), to Marie Magdalena Terezie Novotná (1797–1863), a fifteen-year-old Czech servant, and Johann Baptist Pankel (1794–1850), an Austrian coachman. She was the first of their twelve children. The Pankl family soon moved to Ratibořice, an estate in north-east Bohemia belonging to Countess Zaháňská, for whom both Barbora’s parents worked. Barbora was raised in a humble rural environment. Her grandmother Magdaléna Novotná, who inspired her literary masterpiece Babička (The grandmother, 1855),...

  96. NINKOVIĆ (Ninkovich), Milica (Todorović, Todorovich) (1854–1881)
    (pp. 370-371)
    Ivana Pantelić

    Milica Ninković was born on 30 January 1854 in Novi Sad (then southern Hungary, now in Serbia), where her father Petar Ninković was a headmaster and teacher at the Serb High School. Since the University of Zurich was the first European university to admit female students, many well-to-do girls from southern Hungary entered its faculties. Together with her sister Anka (1855–1923), Milica studied at the School of Pedagogy from September 1872 to 1874.

    During her Zurich years, Milica Ninković was influenced by socialism and feminism. Switzerland was then a center for the European socialist network and the leading place...

  97. NOVÁKOVÁ (born Lanhausová), Teréza (1853–1912)
    (pp. 372-375)
    Libuše Heczková

    Teréza Lanhausová was born on 31 December 1853, into a wealthy middle-class Czech–German family from Prague (her mother, Ernestina, was German). Along with her sister Marie, she attended the famous private Amerling school for girls, where she acquired the basic knowledge of foreign languages that she would later develop through additional private education. In 1876, she married Josef Novák (1847–1907), a liberal secondary school teacher. Five of her six children died young; only her son Arne reached adulthood to become a significant historian of Czech literature (whose work was also translated into English).

    In 1876, her husband received...

  98. ORZESZKOWA, Eliza (1841–1910)
    (pp. 376-380)
    Iwona Wiśniewska

    Eliza (real name Elżbieta) Orzeszkowa, nee Pawłowska (second married name Nahorska) was born on 6 June 1841 into a well-off noble family on the family estate of Milkowszczyzna (approx. forty km from Grodno; located in territory annexed to the Russian empire, but not part of the Polish Kingdom established in 1815). She was the youngest daughter of Benedykt Pawłowski (1788–1843) and his second wife, Franciszka born Kamieńska (ca. 1814–1878). Eliza’s father, a lawyer by profession and Chairman of the district court of Grodno, was a man of high intellectual culture, a freethinker and a Freemason. Eliza and her...

  99. OVADYA, Haim Estreya (1922–1944)
    (pp. 381-384)
    Vera Vesković-Vangeli

    Born in Bitola on 25 December 1922, into a very poor family (no data regarding her parents exists), Estreya Ovadya was a member of the Bitola Ženska Internacionalna Cionisticka Organizacija (ZICO, Women’s International Zionist Organization/WIZO) which, in accordance with Jewish traditions, provided impoverished girls with dowries and/or opportunities for education, thereby enabling them to support themselves.

    In 1934, an antifascist and women’s rights activist, Julia Batino (born in Bitola 1914–died in Jasenovac concentration camp, Croatia 1942) was made President of the Bitola ZICO. The organization became actively involved in the progressive women’s movement in Yugoslavia and Batino herself directed...

  100. ÖZTUNALI, Nurser (1947–1999)
    (pp. 385-388)
    Sevgi Uçan Çubukçu

    Nurser Öztunalı was born on 4 February 1947 in Mersin, the eldest daughter of a middle-class family from Istanbul. Her father, Hilmi Öztunalı (1924–1990), was a customs officer; her mother, Semiha (b. 1927; maiden name Balcı), a housewife. Nurser Öztunalı had two sisters: Gülser (1952), a feminist academic and Eser (1956), an export manager. Gülser is currently a professor in the Department of Public Administration at Akdeniz University and an activist in the Turkish feminist movement (a volunteer with the Purple Roof Foundation). Öztunalı lived in Istanbul from the age of three and graduated from the Fatih Kız Lisesi...

  101. PAJK, Pavlina (born Doljak) (1854–1901)
    (pp. 389-391)
    Marta Verginella

    Pavlina Doljak was born on 9 April 1854 in Pavia (Italy), where her father Josip Doljak (from Grgar near Gorizia) was a judge and (after 1848) a member of the Viennese Parliament. Her mother, Pavlina Milharčič, was the daughter of a school inspector and teacher from Gorizia who prior to her marriage had been a lady-in-waiting. She died in 1857 in Milano, following the birth of her fourth child, a daughter called Teodolina. Two years later, Josip Doljak, his son Teodor and three daughters Pavlina, Henrieta, and Teodolina (1857–?), moved to Trieste, where Josip died in 1861.

    After the...

  102. PANTELEEVA, Serafima (1846–1918)
    (pp. 392-396)
    Natalia Tikhonov

    Serafima Latkina was born in 1846 in St Petersburg and brought up in a relatively well-to-do Russian Orthodox family. Her father, Vasilii Latkin (1812–1867), grew up in Ust’-Sysol’sk, a small town located in a remote northern province of European Russia and made his fortune as a result of a successful expedition to gold fields in Siberia. Serafima fondly remembered her father in her memoirs. Nothing is known about her mother. The lives of her siblings were also closely connected to the Siberian gold industry: her brother Nikolai Latkin (1832–1904) pursued the same line of business as his father...

  103. PAPIĆ, Žarana (1949–2002)
    (pp. 397-401)
    Vanda Perović

    Žarana Papić (called Žarka by her family) was born on 4 July 1949 in Sarajevo, Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia. She was brought up in a family that actively resisted fascism and nationalism and fought for freedom and social justice. Her parents were Milena, born Šotrić (1921–2002) and Radovan Papić (1910–1983). Her father was a high ranking Communist Party official and his position secured the family a higher standard of living and privileged social status. In 1955, her family moved from Sarajevo to Belgrade, where she graduated (in 1968) from the Fifth Belgrade gymnasium as the best student...

  104. PARREN, Callirhoe (born Siganou) (1859–1940)
    (pp. 402-407)
    Angelika Psarra and Eleni Fournaraki

    Callirhoe Parren was undoubtedly the first to introduce feminism to Greece, or rather a ‘moderate’ feminism (according to the poet Kostis Palamas); one which could adapt to the existing structures of Greek society at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. Her rich, varied and untiring work in journalism and writing, as well as in the fields of education, philanthropy and social reform, her acquaintance with the intellectual ‘elite’ of the Greek capital, and the (often passionate) persistence with which she fought for her ideas established her as a leading public figure of her time and...

  105. PASHKEVICH, Alaiza; pen-name ‘TSIOTKA’ (‘Auntie’ in Belarussian) (1876–1916)
    (pp. 408-410)
    Elena Gapova

    Alaiza Pashkevich was born on 3 July 1876 into a wealthy peasant (Catholic) family on the Peszczyn estate in western Belarus (the Belarussian–Lithuanian ethnic and linguistic territories), in the Northwestern Province of the Russian Empire. She was one of the six children of Styapan/Stephan and Hanna Pashkevich. For one year, Alaiza was taught at home by a female pedagogy student, who served as a vivid example of the new educational and professional opportunities that were becoming available to women. In 1894, at the age of eighteen, Alaiza Pashkevich entered the fourth grade of the seventh-grade private school for girls...

  106. PAVLYCHKO (PAVL’YCHKO), Solom’iya (Solom’ea, Solom’iia) Dm’ytrivna (1958–1999)
    (pp. 411-415)
    Viktoriya M. Topalova

    Solom’iya Pavlychko was born in Lviv (Ukraine). Her parents were Dmytro Pavlychko (b. 1929), Ukrainian poet and influential figure in the Ukrainian movement for independence, and Bohdana Pavlychko, a doctor. Pavlychko spent most of her adult life in Kiev, where she studied English and French at the Taras Shevchenko Kiev State University from 1975 to 1985. After the completion of her doctoral studies, she began her professional career as a literary translator at the Institute of Literature, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev. The range of Pavlychko’s activities and initiatives make her a significant public figure in Ukraine: the translator of...

  107. PCHILKA, Olena (real name Olha Petrivna Kosach, born Drahomanova) (1849–1930)
    (pp. 416-419)
    Natalia V. Monakhova

    Olena Pchilka (pseudonym of Olha Petrivna Kosach, born Drahomanova) was born in Hadiach (in the region of Poltava) on 29 July 1849, to a landed noble family steeped in liberal and intellectual traditions. Her father, Petro Yakymovych Drahomanov (1802–1866), was a graduate of the St Petersburg Law Academy who also wrote, published and translated short stories and poetry. Her mother, Yelizaveta Ivanivna Drahomanova (born Tsiatska, 1821–1895), was semi-literate (she could read but could only sign her name), yet it was she who introduced Ukrainian folklore to the Drahomanov family and instilled a love for its richness in her...

  108. PEJNOVIĆ, Kata (1899–1966)
    (pp. 420-423)
    Maja Brkljačić

    Kata Pejnović (nee Bogić) was born on 21 March 1899, to a peasant family in the village of Smiljan in Lika, a poor rural region of Croatia with an ethnically mixed population consisting of Serbs and Croats. Her father, Dmitar Bogić, worked for the Austro-Hungarian police, retiring early to continue farming. Her mother, Jelena Bogić, was a self-taught dressmaker, whose small earnings, assisted by Dmitar’s retirement income, supported a large family: Kata, her three brothers and two sisters. (Archival data suggests that Jelena may have had nine children instead of six, but this cannot be confirmed with any certainty.) Since...

  109. PERIN-GRADENSTEIN, Karoline Freifrau von (1806–1888)
    (pp. 424-426)
    Gabriella Hauch

    Karoline Freifrau von Perin-Gradenstein (nee von Pasqualati) was born on 12 February 1806 in Vienna, into an intellectual and artistic family. Her father, Joseph Andreas Freiher von Pasqualati (1784–1864), was a pomologist and wholesale trader in fruit and vegetables, whose family originally came from Trieste; her mother was Eleonore Fritsch (d. 1811). Karoline received an education typical for a girl of her social class. In 1830, she married Christian Freiherr von Perin-Gradenstein, a court secretary from a family of artistic patrons. The couple loved music and kept a salon. They had four children, one of which died in infancy....

  110. PETKEVIČAITĖ, Gabrielė (1861–1943)
    (pp. 427-431)
    Rima Praspaliauskienė

    Gabrielė Petkevičaitė was born on 18 March 1861, into a Catholic gentry family on the Puziniškės family estate in the Panevežys district in northern Lithuania. The family estate of Puziniškės was a local cultural center that attracted many activists of the Lithuanian national movement. During the 1863–1864 uprising against Russian domination, Petkevičaitė’s parents sheltered rebels. Her father, Jonas Petkevičius (1828–?), was a doctor in the provincial Joniškis hospital and her mother, Malvina Chodakauskaitė-Petkevičienė (data unknown), organized social work and helped nurse poor patients and arrange support for their families. Gabrielė apparently inherited her parents’ sense of altruism and...

  111. PĪPIŅA, Berta (1883–1942)
    (pp. 432-435)
    Elizabete Picukane

    Berta Pīpiņa (born Ziemele) was born on 28 September 1883, in the parish of Code (Latvia). Her father, Jekabs Ziemelis, was an innkeeper and also a farmer, as was her mother Liza (born Kula). Berta Ziemele attended the state school in the parish of Misa and later, the Bekeris girls’ ‘preliminary gymnasium’ in the town of Bauska, which offered the first four grades of gymnasium proper. In 1901, she became a teacher and taught in Charkov (Ukraine). From 1904 to 1908, she studied speech therapy for disabled children at the clinic of Dr. Liebman in Berlin (Germany), later traveling to...

  112. PLAMĺNKOVÁ, Františka F. (1875–1942)
    (pp. 436-440)
    Soňa Hendrychová

    Františka Plamínková was born on 5 February 1875 in Prague, a descendant of farmers and weavers in Podkrkonoší, a district in the north of Bohemia. Her mother was Marie Plamínková, born Gruberová; her father, František Plamínek, had attended a craft school in Prague and started his own shoemaking business when very young. Františka had two older sisters: Růžena and Marie. As a girl, Františka enjoyed school and spending time in her father’s workshop, where people discussed politics, narrated stories and read aloud (reading aloud, fiction as well as non-fiction, was a relatively common pursuit among middle-class families). After qualifying in...

  113. PLAVEVA, Rosa (born Varnalieva) (1878–1970)
    (pp. 441-443)
    Vera Vesković-Vangeli

    Rosa Varnalieva was born in 1878 in Veles, to parents Agna (her mother, who lived to be 103) and Atanas Varnaliev. The Orthodox Christian Varnaliev family had four children: Rosa, Kata, Petar and Ilija, all of whom became active in the town’s socialist movement. The Varnalievs were well-off merchants, one of the wealthiest families in Veles, and owned a big estate. The young Rosa finished a (then prestigious) vocational school, the Radničhka Škola (in Veles), and became a seamstress.

    In 1900, Rosa Varnalieva joined the Socijalistička organizacija (Socialist Organization), founded in 1894 by Vasil Glavinov (1869–1929). Socialism attracted her...

  114. PODJAVORINSKÁ, Ľudmila (pseudonym), born Ľudmila Riznerová (1872–1951)
    (pp. 444-446)
    Andrea Šalingová

    Ľudmila Riznerová was born on 26 April 1872 in a village called Bzince pod Javorinou. Her mother (name unknown) and father (Karol Rizner, a teacher) had ten children, of which Ľudmila was the eighth. Serious illness affecting her eyes and bodily strength contributed to L’udmila’s introverted and meditative nature as a child. She continued to suffer from ill health throughout her life.

    Ľudmila attended the elementary school where her father was a teacher, at a time when women had few educational opportunities. The only way to acquire further education was through self-education and the cultural influence of one’s environment. Podjavorinská...

  115. POPP, Adelheid (1869–1939)
    (pp. 447-449)
    Regina Köpl

    Adelheid Popp (nee Dworschak) was born on 11 February 1869, into a poor Viennese working-class family. She was the youngest of five children to survive out of fifteen. Her father (data unknown) was an impoverished weaver and a physically abusive alcoholic. Violence and poverty were an integral part of Adelheid’s early childhood. Her father died when she was six years old, leaving the family in even greater poverty. After only three years of formal education, Adelheid had to leave school at the age of ten in order to support her family. Following short engagements as a domestic worker and seamstress’...

  116. POSKA-GRÜNTHAL, Vera (Veera) (1898–1986)
    (pp. 450-453)
    Sirje Tamul

    Vera Poska was born in Tallinn on 25 March 1898, into the family of Jaan Poska (1866–1920) and Constance Poska, born Ekström (1876–1922). Her father was a lawyer, Mayor of Tallinn (1917–1920), Estonian Prime Minister (1918), Minister of Foreign Affairs (1919) and Minister of Justice (1920). The Poskas belonged to the Orthodox Church and had six daughters and two sons [in order of seniority: Jüri, Niina, Jaan, Anna, Helena, Xenia (Ksenia), Tatjana and Vera]. Xenia studied medicine (1915–1918) at the St Petersburg Women’s Medical Institute, and at the Universities of Paris (1919–1921) and Tartu (1921–...

  117. The QIRIAZI Sisters, Sevasti (1870–1949) and Parashqevi (1880–1970)
    (pp. 454-458)
    Zenepe Dibra

    Sevasti (Dako) Qiriazi was born in February 1870 in Manastir (Monastir in English, a city in southern Albania), one of the ten children of Dhimiter Qiriazi and his wife Maria. Sevasti finished Greek elementary school and later, American high school in Manastir, finally going on to study at the American College of Istanbul in 1888. After graduating with excellent good results in June 1891, she returned to Albania. To combat the high rate of illiteracy among Albanian women (around ninety percent), she opened the first Albanian school for girls in Korçë (October 1891) with the support of her brother Gjerasim...

  118. RACIN, Kočo (Konstantin Solev) (1908–1943)
    (pp. 459-462)
    Jasna Koteska and Ivana Velinovska

    Konstantin Solev was born on 22 December 1908, into an extremely poor Orthodox Christian family from Veles. His mother Maria was a housewife and his father, Apostol Solev, a pottery-maker. He was their first child. He had three brothers: Aleksandar, Nikola, and a third one whose name is unknown. Konstantin Solev never married and did not have children. He completed four grades of primary school in Veles and one year of what was then high school in the same town. Then, because of the poor financial situation of his family, he left school to join his father in the pottery...

  119. REUSS IANCULESCU, Eugenia de (1866–1938)
    (pp. 463-466)
    Raluca Maria Popa

    Eugenia de Reuss Ianculescu was born on 11 March 1866 in Igeşti, Bucovina (then part of the Habsburg Empire), on the estate of the Reuss-Mirza family. She was the daughter of Maria Dinotto-Gusti and Alexandru de Reuss-Mirza, the latter descended from the aristocratic Reuss-Mirza family, which had established itself in Moldova in the fifteenth century. Eugenia received her primary education at the Central School in Iaşi (Moldova), where she became a teacher for a while. She was trained in classics and the arts and traveled frequently to France and Italy, where she was a member of the Hellenic and Latin...

  120. REZLEROVÁ-ŠVARCOVÁ (also written SCHWARTZOVÁ ), Barbora (1890–1941)
    (pp. 467-469)
    Jana Juránová

    Barbora Švarcová (born Rezlerová; she used both names) was born on 7 July 1890 in Bleibach (Bavaria, Germany). Her father, Josef Rezler, was a textile worker who had come to Bleibach from Bohemia with Barbora’s mother, Jozefína Rezlerová (born Horová). Barbora Rezlerová’s father was one of the founders of the Social Democratic Party in Bohemia. When he returned to Bohemia from Germany with his wife and five children, the family settled in the town of Košín, near Prague.

    Like her parents and siblings, Rezlerová was a textile worker. In all probability, she moved to Prague during World War I, where...

  121. RUDNYTSKA, Milena (1892–1979)
    (pp. 470-474)
    Tatiana Zhurzhenko

    Milena Rudnytska was born on 15 July 1892 in Zborov, a small town in eastern Galicia (today in Ukraine), at that time part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. At the end of the nineteenth century, the political situation in this eastern and economically backward province of the Habsburg Empire had been determined by a lasting conflict between Poles and Ukrainians. Roman Catholic Poles had traditionally dominated cultural and political life in Galicia and turned favorable conditions under the Austro-Hungarian constitutional monarchy (which guaranteed the cultural rights of minorities) to their own advantage: namely the integration of the Polish nation. Greek Catholic...

  122. RUMBO, Urani (1895–1936)
    (pp. 475-478)
    Zenepe Dibra

    Urani Rumbo was born in December 1895 in Stegopuli, a southern Albanian village in Gjirokastër. She had two brothers, Kornili and Thanasi, and a sister, Emilia. Her father, Spiro Rumbo, was a teacher and her mother, Athinaja, a housewife. Urani completed six grades of elementary education at the school where her father was a teacher, in the village of Filat (in the region of Çamëri, now in Greece). One of the school’s best students, talented in literature and poetry, Urani soon familiarized herself with the works of Albanian folklorists (such as Spiro Dine and Thimi Mitko) and writers (Naum Veqilharxhi...

  123. SCHLESINGER, Therese (1863–1940)
    (pp. 479-483)
    Gabriella Hauch

    Therese Schlesinger (born Eckstein) was born on 6 June 1863 in Vienna, into an upper middle-class, liberal, factory-owning family of Jewish descent. Her father, Albert Eckstein, was a chemist from Lieben near Prague. Her mother, Amalie Wehle, was born in Prague. They married in 1860 and had six daughters and four sons. Therese was the third child. The couple’s house was open to a variety of intellectual personalities and the family defined itself within the 1848 revolutionary tradition. Friedrich, Emma and Gustav Eckstein (Therese’s siblings) all became public figures: Emma, a feminist (like Therese), was one of the first patients...

  124. SCHWIMMER, Róza (Bédy-Schwimmer, Bédi-Schwimmer, Rózsa, Rosika) (1877–1948)
    (pp. 484-490)
    Susan Zimmermann and Borbala Major

    Róza Schwimmer was born on 11 September 1877 in Budapest, into an upper middle-class Jewish family. Her mother, born Bertha Katscher (1856–1927), and her father, agricultural trader Max Schwimmer (born between 1843 and 1845–d.1922), married in 1877. Róza, who had a younger brother Béla (1878–?) and a younger sister Franciska (1880–1955), grew up in Temesvár (today Timisoara, Romania) and Szabadka (today Subotica, Yugoslavia). After her father’s business went bankrupt, the whole family moved to Budapest in 1897 but never recovered from financial difficulties. In addition to four years of secondary schooling, Róza received substantial language training...

  125. SEKULIĆ, Isidora (1877–1958)
    (pp. 491-493)
    Iva Nenić

    Isidora Sekulić was born on 16 February 1877 in Mošorin, Vojvodina (then part of Austro-Hungary, today in Serbia). Isidora’s mother Ljubica Sekulić, her father Danilo Sekulić, and brother Predrag Sekulić (b. 1874), all died of tuberculosis within seventeen years of one another (in 1883, 1900 and 1881 respectively), leaving young Isidora with no close relatives. She was educated in Novi Sad, Sombor and Pest, completing the College for Ladies in Novi Sad, later the Srpska Preparandija (Serbian Academy) in Sombor. In 1894, she traveled to Pest (Hungary) to pursue a diploma in a scientific field of study, which she obtained...

  126. SERTEL, Sabiha (born Nazmi) (1895–1968)
    (pp. 494-497)
    İnci Özkan Kerestecioğlu

    Sabiha Sertel was born Sabiha Nazmi (?) in 1895 in Selanik (Thessaloniki). She was the sixth and last child in the family of customs official Nazmi (1851–1920) and housewife Atiye (1872–1945). The city in which she was born and raised had an impact on her intellectual formation by virtue of being a center of social opposition, containing cultural plurality and western lifestyles. Her family is associated with a certain religious community known as Dönme (converted). This was a Jewish sect which, having been expelled from Spain, settled in the Ottoman Empire in the fifteenth century and converted to...

  127. SHABANOVA, Anna (1848–1932)
    (pp. 498-502)
    Natalia Novikova

    Anna Nikolaevna Shabanova was born in 1848, to a noble but not particularly wealthy family from the Smolenskaia guberniia (oblast or region of Smolenskaia). Detailed information on her relatives is lacking, except for the fact that during the reforms of the 1860s, her family was financially ruined [according to the 1897 Spisok Dvoryanskih Rodov, Vnesennyh v Rodoslovnye Dvoryanskie Knigi Smolenskoi Gubernii (List of noble genealogies for the region of Smolenskaya), the family had lost all its real estate]. Anna Shabanova thus had to earn her own living from an early age (at fifteen). Having received a good education at home,...

  128. SHAPIR, Ol’ga Andreevna (born Kislaikova) (1850–1916)
    (pp. 503-506)
    Irina Yukina

    Ol’ga Kislaikova was born in Oranienbaum, near St Petersburg, on 10 (22) September 1850, the youngest of nine children. Her father, Andrei Petrovich Kislaikov, was a military official at the command post in Oranienbaum. Her mother, Louisa Abramovna Kislaikova (data unknown), was a gentry woman of German and Swedish origin. In 1865, Ol’ga Kislaikova completed the Alexandrovskaia gymnasia (high school) in St Petersburg, receiving a gold medal for her outstanding academic achievements. Like many educated young women in the 1860s and 1870s, Kislaikova became acquainted with writers and journalists and attended public lectures, including the Vladimirskie Courses (these free courses...

  129. SHCHEPKINA, Ekaterina Nikolaevna (1854–1938)
    (pp. 507-509)
    Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild

    Ekaterina Nikolaevna Shchepkina was born in 1854, into an old Moscow gentry family which, in her generation, included many scholars and academics. Among her siblings and cousins were several noted historians and linguists, including her younger brother Evgenii N. Shchepkin (1860–1920), also an historian. Shchepkina attended the Guerrier courses in Moscow and then the Bestuzhev Higher Women’s Courses in St Petersburg. As a protégé of the Director, the historian K. N. Bestuzhev-Riumin, she met some of the leading male intellectuals of the day, including Fiodor Dostoevskii and Vladimir Solov’ev. Later (1895–1896 and 1898–1899), Shchepkina taught history at...

  130. SHISHKINA-IAVEIN, Poliksena Nestorovna (1875–1947)
    (pp. 510-513)
    Irina Yukina

    Poliksena Shishkina was born in Nikolaev in April 1875. Her father, Nestor Shishkin, was a musical military conductor and took part in the Russian–Turkish war (1875–1878). Her mother (data unknown) was from a family of Ukrainian gentry. Poliksena had six brothers, all of whom received higher education: Nikolai (an engineer); Sergei; Zakhar; Grigorii; Vasilii (a military officer) and a sixth (name unknown).

    In 1900, while studying at the St Petersburg Women’s Medical Institute, Poliksena Shishkina married Georgi Iulievich Iavein (1863–1920), a professor at the Medical-Surgical Academy in St Petersburg. They had two children: a daughter Alla (1902)...

  131. SKENDEROVA, Staka (1831–1891)
    (pp. 514-516)
    Jelica Zdero

    Staka Skenderova was born in 1831 into a lower middle-class family, of which little is known. The family moved from Prijepolje in Herzegovina to Sarajevo in Bosnia proper. Skenderova’s father Pero was a merchant who died early in Staka’s childhood. Almost nothing is known of her mother Mara, sister Savka and brother Ilija, except that they died in Sarajevo in 1889, 1888 and 1866 respectively. From the start, Staka was rare among the girls of her generation. She is said to have been raised like a boy; she socialized with men and often dressed like a man. She was also...

  132. SKLEVICKY, Lydia (1952–1990)
    (pp. 517-520)
    Biljana Kašić

    Lydia Sklevicky was born on 7 May 1952 in Zagreb, the only child of Lea and Sergej Sklevicky. The Sklevickys were a middle-class family of central European origin, with roots in the nineteenth-century Russian diaspora. Lydia Sklevicky was given a rigorous ‘European’ education and studied European languages. Upon finishing high school, she enrolled at the Filozofski fakultet (Faculty of Philosophy), University of Zagreb, where she graduated in 1976 with a double major in sociology and ethnology. She was subsequently taken on as an assistant at the then Institut za historiju radničkog pokreta Hrvatske (Institute for the History of the Workers’...

  133. SLACHTA, Margit (1884–1974)
    (pp. 521-525)
    Margit Balogh and Ilona Mona

    Margit Slachta was born on 18 September 1884, in the city of Kassa (today Košice, Slovakia), in the ‘northern highlands’ (Felvidék) of Hungary. Her parents—Kálmán Slachta (1857–1936), descendent of a respectable nobleman of Polish origin, and Borbála Saárossy of Sáros (1855–1936), daughter of a landlord—married in 1882. Margit was the second of six girls; her five sisters were: Mária Antónia (1883–1935), Borbála (1886–1887), Irén (1888–1970), Borbála (1891–1961) and Erzsébet (1896–1988). In 1907, her father, a carefree man who spurned religious devotion, became the general manager of the Kassa Savings Bank but...

  134. STASOVA, Nadezhda Vasil’evna (1822–1895)
    (pp. 526-529)
    Marianna Muravyeva

    Nadezhda Vasil’evna Stasova was born on 12 June 1822, to the famous court architect Vasilii Stasov (1769–1848), a favorite of Tsar Alexander I, and Mariia Abramovna Suchkova (1796–1831), the daughter of a lieutenant of the Semenovsky Guard Regiment. Nadezhda was the fifth child of eight. Two of her three younger brothers were well known: one a literary critic (Vladimir, 1824–1906); the other a liberal lawyer (Dmitry, 1828–1918; the father of Communist Party member and friend of Lenin and Boris, Elena Stasova). She also had two elder brothers (Nikolai and Alexander) and an elder sister (Sophia, 1821–...

  135. ŠTEBI, Alojzija (Lojzka) (1883–1956)
    (pp. 530-533)
    Marta Verginella

    Alojzija Štebi was born on 24 March 1883 in Ljubljana. Her father Anton Štebi was a haulier. Nothing is known about her mother Marija (born Kunstel). Alojzija Štebi went to a girls’ school and graduated from teacher-training college in Ljubljana in 1903. In that year, she was employed as a supply teacher in Tinje, Carinthia. A year later, she became a regular teacher in Tržič, then in Radovljica, Mavčice and Kokra. Her socialist ideas and activities brought her into constant conflict with the school authorities and on 23 September 1914, she resigned from her teaching position and became the editor...

  136. STERN, Szeréna, Mrs Pollák (1894–1966)
    (pp. 534-538)
    Claudia Papp and Erika Varsányi

    Szeréna Stern was born on 15 June 1894 in Nagyatád, south-west of Hungary’s Lake Balaton, into a very poor Jewish family. Her mother’s maiden name was Rózsa Herstein and Szeréna had at least one younger sister, but nothing else is known of her family. Having graduated as an elementary school teacher, Szeréna Stern became a member (very likely from 1917) of the teachers’ union (in all probability the Mária Dorothea Egyesület [Mária Dorothea Association] for women teachers) and, in 1918, of the Magyarországi Szociáldemokrata Párt (MSzDP, Social Democratic Party of Hungary; from 1939 the Social Democratic Party). In 1920, she...

  137. STETINA, Ilona (Mrs Gyula Sebestyén) (1855–1932)
    (pp. 539-543)
    Anna Loutfi

    Ilona Stetina was born on 27 March 1855 to a well-off Catholic family in the eastern Hungarian town of Großwardein/Nagyvárad (today Oradea, Romania). Her father, Lipot Stetina (dates of birth and death unknown), was from landed family in western Hungary (Dunántúl). He qualified as an engineer in Vienna and returned to Hungary to serve as an army lieutenant, earning distinction for his military exploits. After the 1848/49 war, Lipot Stetina married Erzsébet Lipniczky (dates of birth and death unknown), who had been brought up by relatives in Transylvania (the Brádys of Hunyad County), and the couple had a daughter, Ilona...

  138. SUBURG, Lilli (Caroline) (1841–1923)
    (pp. 544-547)
    Sirje Tamul and Andra Lätt

    Lilli (Christian name Caroline) Suburg was born on l August 1841 in the township of Uue-Vändra, in the parish of Vändra. Her mother was Eva Suburg (born Nuut); her father, Toomas Suburg, was the keeper of the granary at the Rőusa estate. Soon after Lilli’s birth, the family moved to the Vana-Vändra estate, where Toomas Suburg began working as an overseer and her mother as a cheese-maker. Lilli’s parents earned a decent income and were soon able to lease the entire estate. The German language and way of life accompanied their prosperity.

    Lilli’s education began with governess tutorials, taken along...

  139. SVĚTLÁ, Karolína (pseudonym; born Johanna Rottová) (1830–1899)
    (pp. 548-551)
    Rajenda Chitnis

    Karolína Světlá was born Johanna Rottová on 24 February 1830, into a patrician family that lived in Prague’s ‘Old Town.’ Her father, Eustace Rott, had come to Prague from the central Bohemian town of Český Brod, from a Czech family that, despite its enforced return to Roman Catholicism after 1620, had retained sympathy for Czech Brethren Protestantism, as Světlá’s writing would later show. After an apprenticeship in a trading house, Rott opened his own stationery business. Světlá’s mother was the daughter of a Rhineland German who had come to Bohemia during the Napoleonic wars, married a Czech woman and settled...

  140. SVOLOU, Maria (born Desypri) (1892?–1976)
    (pp. 552-557)
    Dimitra Samiou

    Little is yet known about the life of Maria Svolou. Since no biography of her exists, we are only able to glimpse her career through her writings, her public activities (mentioned in periodicals, newspapers etc.), her parliamentary career, as well as through the life of her husband, of whom she was an admirer but with whose social democratic beliefs she sometimes disagreed. Parts of Svolou’s personal archives were lost when her house was plundered during World War II.

    Maria Desypri was born in Athens and lived for a couple of years in Piraeus. She was one of four daughters. When...

  141. SZELĄGOWSKA, Anna (1880–1962)
    (pp. 558-561)
    Joanna Dufrat

    Anna Szelągowska (nee Paradowska) was born in Warsaw on 20 July 1880, into a prosperous family. After graduating from a private school in 1895, she enrolled—against her parents’ wishes—in the first private high school to accept women as students: Izabella Smolikowska’s Commercial High School, from which she graduated in 1898. A few months later, her father’s death forced her to take a job in order to be able to support her mother and brothers. From 1900, she worked as an office clerk while studying philosophy and social sciences at the so-called ‘Flying University,’ an underground university for women...

  142. SZELIGA, Maria (pseudonym), also known in France and the USA as Maria Chéliga or Chéliga-Loevy (1854–1927)
    (pp. 562-566)
    Agnieszka Janiak-Jasińska

    Maria Szeliga (nee Mirecka, first married name Czarnowska; second married name Loevy) was born in 1854 into a prosperous land-owning family in Jasieniec Solecki, in the Kingdom of Poland (a partially autonomous state, later taken by Russia, established after the 1815 Vienna Congress and including areas originally annexed by Prussia and Austria). After the premature death of her father, Maria grew up in the care of her mother and received a broad education at home. At the age of sixteen, she left home for Warsaw and began working on poems and novellas which would be published by the leading socio-literary...

  143. SZNARKIEWICZ, Nadzeja (born Kaladzianka) (1897–1974)
    (pp. 567-568)
    Aleh Hardzienka

    Nadzeja Kaladzianka was born on 30 September (12 October) 1897 in Brest. Her father died when she was seven years old, after which her mother moved with her to the village of Wostrawa near Kobryn, and then to Pruhzany. In 1914, Nadzeja graduated from Pruzhany women’s gymnasium and, in 1919, after completing courses in pedagogy (the only post-secondary education course available to women in the Russian Empire), she qualified as a teacher. She had already been working as a teacher of boys and girls in Pruzhany County, in the years 1914 to 1915. By the summer of 1915, the ravages...

  144. THEODOROPOULOU, Avra (born Drakopoulou) (1880–1963)
    (pp. 569-574)
    Aleka Boutzouvi

    Avra Drakopoulou was born on 3 November 1880 into a family with strong political and intellectual traditions. Her grandfather, Carolos Drakopoulos, was a well-known fighter in the 1821 Independence Revolution and her father, Aristomenis Drakopoulos, served as Consul General of Greece in Adrianople. No data exists regarding her mother, Eleni. Her sister, Theoni Drakopoulou (1881–1973), was a well-known poet who took the pen name of ‘Myrtiotissa’ (from ‘myrtle’). Her nephew was the famous actor George Papas.

    Avra Drakopoulou finished high school and learned French, English and German. In 1900, she graduated from the Athens Conservatoire. For her achievements as...

  145. TOMŠIČ, Vida (born Bernot) (1913–1998)
    (pp. 575-579)
    Mateja Jeraj

    Born on 26 June 1913 in Ljubljana, a Slovenian town situated between the Alps and the Adriatic sea, Vida Tomšič lived a long and turbulent life, reflecting the history of the area in which she lived. Born in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the territory of her birth became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia only a few years after World War I. Her father, Ivan Bernot, was a teacher and her mother Franja, born Rozman, a housewife. Vida had three brothers and one sister. She attended primary and grammar school in Ljubljana. In 1933, she began a course of study in...

  146. TOYEN (born Marie Čermínová) (1902–1980)
    (pp. 580-583)
    Martina Pachmanová

    Toyen was born Marie Čermínová in Prague on 21 September 1902. Although little is known of her family background, it may be assumed that the relationship between her and her parents was influenced by divergent political views. Toyen sympathized with anarchism and left the family at the age of sixteen. In 1919, she was accepted to the School of Applied Arts in Prague, where she studied at the painting studio led by Emanuel Dítě, graduating in 1922. In the summer of that year, she met a young painter and writer, Jindřich Štyrský (1899–1942), on the island of Korčula in...

  147. TRUBNIKOVA, Mariia (1835–1897)
    (pp. 584-587)
    Natalia Novikova

    Mariia Vasil’evna Trubnikova, the daughter of a political exile, was born on 6 January 1835 in the eastern Siberian settlement of Petrovskii zavod (Petrov’s mill). Her father, military officer Vasilii Petrovich Ivashev (1797–1840), was from a wealthy noble family from the Simbirsk guberniia (now the oblast or province of Ulianovskaya). In 1819, Ivashev joined the secret masonic society, the Soiuz Blagodenstviia (Prosperity Union). Although he did not take part in the rebellion against the tsarist regime of 14 December 1825 (after which all members of the secret societies were named ‘Decembrists’), his name was betrayed during the subsequent inquiry...

  148. TYRKOVA-WILLIAMS, Ariadna (1869–1962)
    (pp. 588-591)
    Ol’ga Shnyrova

    Ariadna Tyrkova was born on 26 November 1869 into a noble Russian gentry family of simple means. Her mother, Sophia Karlovna Tyrkova (born Gaily, 1837), came from a modest Protestant family of Baltic Germans. Her father, the lawyer Vladimir Aleksandrovich Tyrkov (born 1835), was from a noble Russian Orthodox family of rich landowners in the province of Novgorod. The social differences between the two families seemed at first to pose an obstacle to their marriage, but, as Ariadna later wrote, her father “could not have given up such a beauty” (Tyrkova 1998, 18) and insisted on marrying Ariadna’s mother. Their...

  149. UKRAINKA, Lesia (real name Larysa Petrivna Kosach) (1871–1913)
    (pp. 592-594)
    Natalia V. Monakhova

    Lesia Ukrainka (a pseudonym of Larysa Petrivna Kosach) was born on 25 February 1871 in Novohrad-Volynsky, the second child of six. Not wanting her children to grow up in an environment dominated by the Russian language, her mother (Olena Pchilka) did not send her children to school. Instead, she provided them all (including Lesia) with a solid home education that consisted of piano lessons, private classes with professors from the Kiev gymnasium for boys (e.g. in Greek and Latin) and tuition in French and German. Later in life, Lesia also mastered English and some Slavic languages and proved to be...

  150. VANSOVÁ, Terézia (1857–1942)
    (pp. 595-598)
    Jana Cviková

    Terézia Vansová, born Medvecká, was one of twins (a boy and a girl) born in Zvolenská Slatina (Upper Hungary, Austria–Hungary; Slovakia) on 18 April 1857. Both twins were rather weak but their parents Terézia (born Langeová) and the almost thirty years older Samuel Medvecký paid little attention to the girl twin, Terézia, their seventh child. After graduating from elementary school, twelve-year-old Terézia attended the private school of K. Orfanides in Banská Bystrica and later, the private institute of T. Fábryová in Rimavská Sobota, where she obtained the fragmentary and sketchy knowledge typical for women’s education in that period, as...

  151. VIKOVÁ-KUNĚTICKÁ, Božena (1862–1934)
    (pp. 599-603)
    Irena Kreitlová and Libuše Heczková

    Božena Viková born Novotná was born on 30 July 1862 to an innkeeper and grain trader; there is no information about her mother. She studied acting under the guidance of the distinguished Czech actress Otýlie Sklenářová-Malá, giving up on this career after the National Theater burned down in 1881. In that year, she married Josef Vika, a clerk from a sugar factory, and the couple moved first to Uhříněves, later to Český Brod (towns near Prague). They had two children. In the early 1880s, Viková began publishing short stories in the journals Zábavné listy (Funny papers) and Divadelní listy (Theatrical...

  152. VODE, Angela (1892–1985)
    (pp. 604-607)
    Karmen Klavžar

    Her name has been virtually unknown in Slovenia for the last fifty years. Yet one could say that her work and her life-story (or “destiny” as she put it) not only form a significant narrative in the history of Slovenia, with its political transformations (including developments and breaks within women’s movements and organizations), they also form a part of the wider history of feminism itself.

    Born on 5 January 1892, Angela Vode was the third daughter of five children raised in a poor working-class family. Her father Anton was a railwayman (died 1904). Of her mother, Frančiška, it is only...

  153. VOINESCU, Alice Steriadi (1885–1961)
    (pp. 608-612)
    Diana Georgescu

    A remarkable intellectual, Alice Steriadi Voinescu came to the attention of the Romanian reading public with the publication of her private diary in 1997, in a post-1989 climate of heightened interest in personal testimonies. Covering the years from 1929 through 1961 (the year of her death), Voinescu’s diary attracted attention primarily for its documentation of the communist takeover and the subsequent destruction of the interwar intellectual elite. Her critical attitude towards the communist regime ensured that Voinescu enjoyed a certain standing as a valuable and credible witness of these events. Given this focus, Alice Voinescu’s commitment to the amelioration of...

  154. XENOPOL, Adela (1861–1939)
    (pp. 613-615)
    Ştefania Mihăilescu

    Adela Xenopol was born in 1861 in Iaşi (exact date of birth unknown) into a prominent intellectual family. Her older brother, Alexandru D. (1847–1920) was the first significant modern Romanian historian and a member of the ‘Junimea circle,’ whose leader, Titu Maiorescu, attacked women’s intellectual abilities during a conference held at the Athenaeum in Bucharest in May 1882, and was in turn severely lambasted in the feminist press by Sofia Nădejde. Another older brother, Nicolae, was also a publicist, lawyer and member of the National Liberal Party. Adela was strongly supported by her family in her intellectual ambitions. Like...

  155. ŻELEŃSKI, Tadeusz Kamil Marcjan (Boy) (1874–1941)
    (pp. 616-619)
    Katarzyna Pabijanek

    Boy-Żeleński’s father, Władysław Żeleński (1837–1921), was a composer from a noble family dating back to the fifteenth century. In 1873, Władysław Żeleński married Wanda Grabowska (1841–1904), who was from a middle-class family. Both families cultivated patriotic Polish traditions. In the eighteenth century, Grabowska’s family had converted from Judaism while the Żeleński family had been traditionally Calvinist (Marcjan Żeleński, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński’s grandfather, converted to Catholicism in 1828). Although Wanda Grabowska had received an outstanding education, the Żeleński family considered the marriage a mésalliance. Prior to her marriage, Grabowska had been a student and friend of Narcyza Żmichowska. In 1870,...

  156. ZLATAREVA, Vera (1905–1977)
    (pp. 620-623)
    Krassimira Daskalova

    Vera Zlatareva was born on 3 December 1905, in the small village of Goliamo Belovo, 100 kilometers east of the Bulgarian capital, Sofia. Her mother Maria (b. 1880) and her father Dimitar Zlatarevi (b. 1876) were both teachers. After finishing the local village school, Vera graduated from the middle and high schools in Plovdiv, the second largest city in the country. In 1929, she graduated from the Law Department of Sofia University where, in 1931, she would also be granted a Doctorate. In 1936, Vera Zlatareva married Mihail Genovski (1903–1996): lawyer, journalist, ideologue for the Bulgarski Zemedelski Naroden Sujuz ...

  157. ZLATOUSTOVA, Ekaterina Hristova (1881–1952)
    (pp. 624-627)
    Georgeta Nazarska

    Energetic, strong-minded, resourceful, practical and persevering—that was how Ekaterina Zlatoustova was once described by her uncle Ivan Batsarov, surgeon, head doctor of the Bulgarian army and for sixty years the most trusted friend of his niece (in private correspondence, 1902–1910). Born in Varna on 22 September 1881, Ekaterina (Katya) Zlatoustova was the first of the four children of Krustina Batsarova (1860–1942) and Hristo Zlatoustov (1858–1900), a professional officer and later (after his participation in the 1886 coup d’état against Prince Alexander von Battenberg), an entrepreneur. His early death encouraged Katya, who had adored him and was...

  158. ŻMICHOWSKA, Narcyza (1819–1876)
    (pp. 628-632)
    Grażyna Borkowska

    Narcyza (real name Kazimiera Narcyza Józefa) Żmichowska was the tenth child of Wiktoria born Kiedrzyńska (d. 1819) and Jan Żmichowski (d. 1838), a clerical worker for a salt mine at Nowe Miasto on the Pilica River (central Poland). Narcyza was born in Warsaw on 3 March 1819. Orphaned by her mother, who died on the fourth day after the childbirth, and rejected by her father, who subconsciously blamed her for the death of his beloved wife, she was brought up by her uncle and his wife, Józef Żmichowski and Tekla born Raczyńska. Her three brothers (Hiacynt, Erazm, Janusz) and five...

  159. Picture credits
    (pp. 633-637)
  160. Index of Persons, Organizations and Geographical Names
    (pp. 639-678)
  161. Back Matter
    (pp. 679-679)