Kalmykia in Russia's Past and Present National Policies and Administrative System

Kalmykia in Russia's Past and Present National Policies and Administrative System

Konstantin N. Maksimov
Copyright Date: 2008
Edition: NED - New edition, 1
Pages: 464
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    Kalmykia in Russia's Past and Present National Policies and Administrative System
    Book Description:

    Kalmykia is a constituent of the Russian Federation that shaped and has been developing within Russia for several centuries. Kalmykia was incorporated into the Russian state in the early second half of the 17 th century, it was officially recognized by the Russian authorities and constituted as an ethno-political entity in the form of feudal khanate with the status of a virtually autonomous unit. The Kalmyk Khanate’s status as a largely self-ruling area within the Russian Empire gradually transformed into the status of a regular administrative territory under the Astrakhan governor. It received the status of a Republic from Stalin. Maksimov examines issues of interrelations between the Kalmyk people and Russia before and after the Kalmyks’ accession to the Russian state. Analyzes the Soviet national policy and to the destiny of Kalmykia under the communist regime. The legal status of this republic and its development under the new Russian federalism are discussed in great details.

    eISBN: 978-615-5211-49-2
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-xiv)

    The Russian Federation is one of the world’s largest multiethnic states, whose internal structure includes various entities. Its political division is based on territorial, ethnic, and territorial-ethnic principles. The Russian Federation is not a result of unionization of its members by virtue of agreement or treaty. It is rather a historically formed federal state, whose federal principles were established as constitutional with consent and approval of the federation’s constituent members. Therefore, Russia can be justifiably regarded as a historically established constitutional federation that has undergone several phases in its development.

    The Russian state was formed on a multiethnic basis, by...

  4. CHAPTER 1 Russia’s Policy Towards Kalmyks (Late 16th–mid-17th Centuries)
    (pp. 1-54)

    The process of establishing a centralized Russian state, which was formed as a multinational state on a multiethnic basis, was over in the second half of the 16th century. While before the middle of the 16th century the Russian state was joined by the Karelians, Komi, Khanty, Meshchera, Mordovians, Udmurts, and other peoples, in the second half of the 16th century the territory of the state was expanded to incorporate the conquered Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberian Khanates. The entire territory of Bashkiria became a part of Russia; the Chat, Baraba, and Terena Tatars naturalized in Russia voluntarily in the late...

  5. CHAPTER 2 The Kalmyk Khanate as a Part of Russia (mid-17th–Second Half of 18th Centuries)
    (pp. 55-120)

    The objective factors of Kalmyks’ social, political, state, and economic development finally resulted in the formation of the national state in the form of a khanate within Russia. Sharing the opinion expressed by M.L. Kichikov, we can say that the actual acknowledgment and formation of the Kalmyk Khanate took place in 1664 when the tsarist administration presented taisha Monchak with the state authority symbols—a silver gold plated mace decorated with jasper, as well as a banner with the Russian state emblem in the middle (a double eagle and a horseman striking a serpent) combined with a crescent, an oriental...

  6. CHAPTER 3 Kalmykia’s Status in the Russian Empire (Late 18th–Early 20th Centuries)
    (pp. 121-198)

    When a substantial part of Kalmyks left for Dzungaria in late 1771, the political map of the Kalmyk steppe underwent fundamental changes. The abolishment of the Kalmyk Khanate meant the liquidation of the Kalmyk national statehood, and—to use contemporary terms—cancellation of Kalmykia’s status of a constituent member of Russia. Kalmykia became a part of the Astrakhan guberniya and was under the Astrakhan governor’s control. Uluses ceased to be independent and separate domains headed by their noyons, becoming uyezds instead. Endowed with administrative power, police officers appointed by the governor were in charge of maintaining order in uluses. Kalmykia...

  7. CHAPTER 4 The Kalmyk Soviet Autonomous Oblast in the Years of Socialism Building (1917–1935)
    (pp. 199-270)

    The October Revolution of 1917 and Soviet power opened a new page in the history of Kalmykia and its statehood. Modern history turned out to be complicated and controversial—with both positive and negative aspects. It was directly related to the nationalities policy of Bolsheviks, which involved departures from their program and ideology when it came to the practical implementation of these.

    When the Soviet power was established in the Astrakhan guberniya in January 1918 and its state authorities were formed, the new Astrakhan administration recognized the Kalmyk steppe as a special administrative and territorial entity that was a part...

  8. CHAPTER 5 The Kalmyk Soviet Autonomous Republic Under Totalitarianism and During the Stagnation Period
    (pp. 271-346)

    By the early 1930s, the bureaucratic centralization induced by the party was drawing to an end. Only formal elements of federalism remained from the federal state, and Stalin’s repressive policy was actively imposed. However, the process of the Soviet national and state building and resolution of national problems were vigorously simulated. The issue related to transforming Kalmykia—that had been a national–state entity up to the period in question—into an autonomous national entity was now addressed under directives from the center.

    The Kalmyk Oblast’s Executive Committee prepared and held a session to regulate the legal issues of Kalmykia’s...

  9. CHAPTER 6 Kalmykia Within the New Russian Federal System
    (pp. 347-426)

    As the crisis of the Soviet system aggravated, social and interethnic controversies also intensified. In the late 1980s, the CPSU made some attempts to address these disturbing processes. Having discussed the issues related to interethnic relations, the 19th party conference, which was held on June 28–July 1, 1988, drafted an action program in this sphere. The conference’s resolution read in particular that “the achievements in solving the national question were perceived [in the USSR] as absolute and the national relations were regarded as unproblematic. The needs of particular national republics and autonomous entities [republics, oblasts, and districts] as well...

  10. Conclusion
    (pp. 427-430)

    A group of Oirats (Kalmyks), which moved to the north-west toward Russia from the Dzungaria whose territorial unity had disrupted, eventually constituted the backbone population group in a newly developing form of the Kalmyk statehood that was typical of the feudal division period. This is why the Kalmyk Khanate can be considered a typical example of an Oirat khanate of the feudal division period. By the middle of the 17th century, the formation of the Kalmyk ethno-political entity in the form of a feudal khanate was over in the Volga region. The nearly simultaneous formation of other Oirat khanates in...

  11. Index of Proper Names
    (pp. 431-440)
  12. [Illustrations]
    (pp. None)
  13. Back Matter
    (pp. None)