Ideologies and National Identities (PDF)  

Ideologies and National Identities (PDF)  

Copyright Date: 2004
Pages: 321
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  • Book Info
    Ideologies and National Identities (PDF)  
    Book Description:

    Twentieth-century Southeastern Europe endured three, separate decades of international and civil war, and was marred in forced migration and wrenching systematic changes. This book is the result of a year-long project by the Open Society Institute to examine and reappraise this tumultuous century. A cohort of young scholars with backgrounds in history, anthropology, political science, and comparative literature were brought together for this undertaking. The studies invite attention to fascism, socialism, and liberalism as well as nationalism and Communism. While most chapters deal with war and confrontation, they focus rather on the remembrance of such conflicts in shaping today's ideology and national identity.

    eISBN: 978-615-5053-85-6
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-x)
    John R. Lampe
    (pp. 1-14)
    John R. Lampe

    “Only connect,” advised the English writer E. M. Forster in a famous phrase, leaving the reader to decide who or what should be connected. Readers seeing “Southeastern Europe” in our title may be tempted to expect that our cohort of younger authors, most of them from the region, will be connecting the burgeoning European and American study of social identity with the uniquely confrontational ethnic nationalism that is often assumed to set this region apart from Europe as “the Balkans.” Prior to the twentieth century, of course, there are other reasons to differentiate this region, isolated by its upland geography...

    (pp. 15-18)
  6. CHAPTER 1 CHARISMA, RELIGION, AND IDEOLOGY: Romania’s Interwar Legion of the Archangel Michael
    (pp. 19-53)
    Constantin Iordachi

    The Legion of the Archangel Michael has been generally considered an unusual “variety of fascism” mostly because of its mysticism and religious ritualism.¹ Building on Max Weber’s theory of charismatic legitimacy and on its numerous reformulations since it was first put forward by the leading German founder of modern sociology, this chapter aims at reinterpreting the Legion as a reactive regional movement of change based on the violent counterculture of a radical segment of the “new generation.” It argues that Legionary ideology combined, in a heterogeneous but powerful synthesis, three main strategies of political mobilization: namely, a charismatic type of...

  7. CHAPTER 2 “WE WERE DEFENDING THE STATE”: Nationalism, Myth, and Memory in Twentieth-Century Croatia
    (pp. 54-81)
    Mark Biondich

    Since the collapse of Communism in 1989, Central and Southeast Europeans have experienced a “revival of memory” and been involved in a painstaking revision of their national pasts.¹ This is both understandable and necessary, given the Communist domination of historical “truth” since the 1940s. New historical interpretations, often of a markedly nationalist hue, have formed a new orthodoxy. The transition from ideological, party-sponsored history to a more dispassionate and professional history has not been simple or uniformly successful in the region. The demystification of the past on a popular level has been even harder to achieve. What was once uncritically...

  8. CHAPTER 3 YOUNG, RELIGIOUS, AND RADICAL: The Croat Catholic Youth Organizations, 1922–1945
    (pp. 82-109)
    Sandra Prlenda

    This often quoted call to religious youth marks the beginning of what is known as the Croatian Catholic movement. It led to several political and social projects organized by Catholic intellectuals and priests from the turn of the century until the Second World War.¹ They all shared in the belief that rapid social change was endangering the Catholic faith and the church in their position as the supreme arbiter in society. In addition to priests, the majority of these groups included lay intellectuals and students whose activities ranged from editing newspapers and magazines and participating in public polemics with liberals...

  9. CHAPTER 4 COMMON HEROES, DIVIDED CLAIMS: IMRO Between Macedonia and Bulgaria
    (pp. 110-130)
    James Frusetta

    Who owns history? In the romantic, primordialist tradition of most national histories there is an assumption that historical events, institutions and individuals “belong” to a nation as part of its history. Modernity-based theories of nationalism on the other hand stress a modern “invention” of national identity based on interpretations and representations of the past: nations define themselves by what they claim for their national history. Both traditions intersect at the importance placed on the historical symbols used to define national identity and national history. National heroes, literature, folklore, events and the sites of events in the past—these are some...

  10. CHAPTER 5 HOW TO USE A CLASSIC: Petar Petrović Njegoš in the Twentieth Century
    (pp. 131-153)
    Andrew B. Wachtel

    It is a truth self-evident that an East European nation in search of its identity must have a national literature and a national poet. Following the model proposed originally by Herder in the early nineteenth century, East European nation-builders have generally conceived their fellows in terms of linguistic communities, and in most cases cultural self-definition preceded and was a precondition for the achievement of political independence. That is to say, language created nations, rather than the other way around. Poets like Sándor Petôfi in Hungary, Adam Mickiewicz in Poland, and Alexander Pushkin in Russia were and still are prized by...

    (pp. 154-179)
    Ildiko Erdei

    “We are carrying youth, enthusiasm and strength through this once lifeless neighborhood … echoes the loud refrain from the ‘lower school’ (Serbian part) in Starčevo, a small village in Vojvodina. They are following Tito’s Torch of Youth and hurrying to meet the Pioneers of the ‘upper school,’ in a Croatian part of the village, to join their warm greetings and sincere wishes for a long life for our beloved Comrade Tito. Men and women merrily greet them on their way, leaning out of their windows and in front of their houses, cheering them on with a smile.”¹ Although this was...

    (pp. 180-210)
    Maja Brkljačić

    When he started translating the story of Tito’s life and work into a series of epic poems, Milorad P. Mandić, a thirty-nine-year-old Montenegrin and tractor driver by profession, already had considerable experience in the field. He had published three books on various episodes from the Second World War. In two more describing new achievements in science and technology, he was especially fascinated with and dwelled long on the Soviet “space heroes” Yuri Gagarin and German Titov. These two men with the red star on their foreheads were like “heroes on the battlefield” who conquered the Universe.¹ The decision to tackle...

    (pp. 211-234)
    Rossitza Guentcheva

    This chapter is about the perception of sounds in socialist Bulgaria. Either wanted or unwanted, sounds are an intrinsic part of the everyday life of people, and, for the present case, of Bulgarians in the socialist society of the period 1944–1989. I explore the fragile threshold between sounds and noise and attempt to explain why certain sounds qualified as appropriate for the ears of the socialist citizen. The inquiry will also address the fate of undesirable sounds disgraced as noise, and the Bulgarian Communist Party’s (BCP) ideological rationale for sanctioning the soundscape.¹ Inasmuch as sounds belong to the domain...

  14. CHAPTER 9 GREATER ALBANIA: The Albanian State and the Question of Kosovo, 1912–2001
    (pp. 235-253)
    Robert C. Austin

    The goal of this chapter is to examine Albania’s official relationship with Kosovo in the twentieth century. Its intention is not to address “grass roots” attitudes towards Kosovo before the 1990s but simply state policy. We should remember that for the overwhelming majority of the period in question, Albania’s population had virtually no stake in the political process. In the interwar period an illiterate and impoverished peasantry were subject to the authoritarian regime of King Zog. In the Communist period Albanians confronted the most oppressive form of Stalinism. Nevertheless, despite the earlier inability to affect official policy, popular attitudes may...

  15. CHAPTER 10 STRUGGLING WITH YUGOSLAVISM: Dilemmas of Interwar Serb Political Thought
    (pp. 254-276)
    Marko Bulatović

    In December 1918, following the four-year tragedy of the First World War, crown-prince and regent of Serbia Aleksandar Karadjordjević solemnly proclaimed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.¹ The new kingdom—usually referred to as Yugoslavia from its very inception—would join a long array of newly founded states. At the same time, the profoundly restructured political map of Europe no longer had a place for four great empires—the Ottoman, Russian, German, and Austrian-Hungarian. Alongside the great quartet, however, were some lesser absentees. The small Kingdom of Serbia, which had credentials as first an autonomous and then a sovereign...

    (pp. 277-302)
    Dejan Jović

    This chapter focuses on the construction of official identity in postwar Yugoslavia (1945–1991). More specifically, it analyses the construction by the Yugoslav political elite of a political frontier¹ between “Us” and “Others.” In states led by Communist parties, the political elite has perceived itself primarily as an intellectual elite. After all, the Communist party was supposed to play the role of an enlightened vanguard,² which represented not reality as it is, but a vision of the future as it ought to be. In Yugoslavia, the party increasingly saw itself as a scientific institute, a vision-formulator—a guiding rather than...

    (pp. 303-304)
  18. INDEX
    (pp. 305-309)
  19. Back Matter
    (pp. 310-310)