The Inauguration of “Organized Political Warfare”

The Inauguration of “Organized Political Warfare”: The Cold War Organizations Sponsored by the National Committee for a Free Europe / Free Europe Committee

Edited by Katalin Kádár Lynn
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 610
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  • Book Info
    The Inauguration of “Organized Political Warfare”
    Book Description:

    The essays in this book discuss the Bulgarian, Czechoslovak, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian and Baltic States national committees, which were formed to lead the propaganda battle against the growth of world-wide communism, and which represented the U.S.-based exile leadership of those satellite nations. The primary sources of this research were the archival records of the two radio divisions, acquired by the Hoover Institution Archives at Stanford University in 2000.

    eISBN: 978-0-9859433-1-8
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. [i]-[iv])
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. [v]-[viii])
  3. Preface
    (pp. 1-6)
  4. I At War While at Peace: United States Cold War Policy and the National Committee for a Free Europe, Inc.
    (pp. 7-70)
    Katalin Kádár Lynn

    Sixty-eight years after the end of World War II, it seems fitting to begin to examine more thoroughly the other, more unconventional war, the psychological war for “men’s minds” that shortly was to follow the armi stice. Termed the “Cold War”, it was fought with great intensity by all sides while the world was at “peace”. It pitted the Soviet Union and the world wide Communist movement against the forces of democracy led by the United States in a propaganda war that lasted the better part of four decades. This Cold War between the two world superpowers was at the...

  5. II History of the Council of Free Czechoslovakia
    (pp. 71-120)
    Francis D. Raška

    After the Communist takeover of the Czechoslovak government in February 1948, a large group of non-Communist Czechoslovak politicians sought exile in the West. A large proportion of them left their home land out of a justified fear of Communist persecution. In fact, some of the non-Communist politicians in Czechoslovakia had already been arrested in February 1948 but were released following the personal inter vention of President Edvard Beneš. Most of those who escaped initially found refuge in the western zones of Germany, and others in Austria. As time progressed, significant groups of exiles formed in Britain, France and the United...

  6. III The History of the Romanian National Committee: 1947–1975
    (pp. 121-198)
    Marius Petraru

    After the fall of the Iron Curtain and of the Communist regime in Romania, most historians focused their attention on the history of Communism and on the Ceauşescu regime, but Romanian historiography has never addressed the subject of the Romanian government in exile after 1947. This issue continues to be taboo not only in Romanian modern historiography but abroad as well. In the United States there have been only a few articles about this subject in journals published by the American Romanian Academy of Arts and Sciences, where many of the members or contributors were direct witnesses to some of...

  7. IV The Baltic Freedom Committees: Politics and Policies of an Exile Community
    (pp. 199-236)
    Jonathan H. L’Hommedieu

    When describing one of the methods of engaging in psychological warfare against the Soviet Union in 1948, the director of the State Department’s Policy Planning Staff, George F. Kennan, proposed that the United States should support the establishment of “liberation commit tees” that would serve as “foci of national hope” for political refugees, “provide inspiration” for popular resistance within the Soviet Union, and “serve as a potential nucleus for all-out liberation movements in the event of war.”¹ Within the context of National Security Council directive 10/2, these proposed liberation committees were to be overt operations guided by trusted American institution...

  8. V The Hungarian National Council / Hungarian National Committee Magyar Nemzeti Bizottmány / Magyar Nemzeti Bizottság 1947–1972
    (pp. 237-308)
    Katalin Kádár Lynn

    All of the national councils or émigré political groups that emerged in the West after their homelands were folded into the Soviet sphere of influence and became Soviet Satellites at the conclusion of World War II reflected the unique political history and circumstances of their respective nations. In this the Hungarians were no exception. Being on the losing side in World War I resulted in the loss of 71% of their territory, which housed over 66% of their population, including 3.4 million ethnic Magyars. Subsequently, Hungarian inter-war politics and policy were driven by a single goal: revision of the detested...

  9. VI Imre Kovács and Cold War Émigré Politics in the United States (1947–1980)
    (pp. 309-322)
    Tibor Frank

    Born in 1913, author, journalist, political scientist, and politician Imre Kovács was of peasant stock and early on entered populist politics in interwar Hungary.¹ In 1947 he left Hungary to spend the rest of his life in exile and in exile politics.

    Published in 1937, his celebratedA néma forradalom[The Silent Revolution] interpreted the social situation in Hungary as a revolution that had failed to erupt.² The book is an ingeneous and highly original blend of chapters on Hungarian history, sociology, agrarian socialism, emigration, poverty, and even on religious sects. Published as part of the seriesSzolgálat és írás...

  10. VII The Schism within the Polish Delegation to the Assembly of Captive European Nations 1954–1972
    (pp. 323-362)
    Anna Mazurkiewicz

    Divisions, disagreements, bitter arguments among émigrés are as old as the history of emigration itself. Stefan Korboñski, the most influential Polish representative in the Assembly of Captive European Nations (ACEN), pointed out in the third volume of his memoirs: “Essentially, emigration is a quarrel itself; it is a disagreement with the everyday reality of the home country, which is the mother of all emigration.”² John F. Leich, who worked for over a decade for the Exile Relations Division of the National Committee for a Free Europe (NCFE), wrote in his recollections: “Political exile is asui generiscondition, with its...

  11. VIII Democracy in Exile: The Bulgarian National Committee and G.M. Dimitrov
    (pp. 363-396)
    Maria Kokoncheva

    Often, Eastern Europeans are hesitant to examine their Cold War history. Not only because it is still too personal for many but also because, in large part, we feel we have not yet written that piece of our history, and therefore it doesn’t really belong to us. During that time, on the western side of the Iron Curtain, each of the captive nations of Europe had a parallel history, one created by the people who opposed and fled in order to keep working for the cause of their nations and in the hope that change will come. This chapter will...

  12. IX The Relationship Between the Assembly of Captive European Nations and the Free Europe Committee in the Context of U.S. Foreign Policy, 1950–1960
    (pp. 397-438)
    Anna Mazurkiewicz

    Established in 1954, the Assembly of Captive European Nations (ACEN) was a U.S.-based organization of exiled East European leaders from Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland and Romania.¹ According to its members, the ACEN functioned as a quasi-East European parliament, or a lobby of exiled politicians who strived to maintain the case of liberation of Eastern Europe from the Soviet yoke on the agenda of international relations. The formal structure of this organization included a Plenary Assembly, chairman, General Committee, secretary general and working committees.² Its activities included coordination of exile voices on Cold War developments and their...

  13. X The Free Europe University in Exile Inc. and the Collège de l’Europe libre (1951–1958)
    (pp. 439-514)
    Veronika Durin-Hornyik

    This essay briefly presents the history of the NCFE’s educational corporation called The Free Europe University in Exile Inc. (FEUE Inc.), based in New York, and its joint entity, the Collège de l’Europe libre (CEL), which operated in Strasbourg-Robertsau, France. Its aim is to provide an introduction to the NCFE’s institution of higher learning, which during the height of the Cold War between the two world superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, gave grants to Central and Eastern European youths residing in Western countries. These grants allowed them to complete at Western European universities studies which had been...

  14. XI The Cold War Activities of the Hungarian National Sports Federation
    (pp. 515-546)
    Toby C. Rider

    We may never know the full extent of the Free Europe Committee’s (FEC) activities during its nearly two decades in operation.² The history of Radio Free Europe is considerable enough on its own, not counting the range of other groups that were touched in some way by one of the CIA’s most famous conduits. The men who established the FEC, and those that later administered it, were possessed by a profound purpose to defeat the Soviet Union by mobilizing whatever resources that could be put at their disposal. As part of a broad mandate of psychological warfare, supplying émigré organizations...

  15. Biographies
    (pp. 547-552)
  16. Photo Gallery
    (pp. 553-584)
  17. Index
    (pp. 585-604)
  18. Back Matter
    (pp. 605-605)