The Frontiers of Europe

The Frontiers of Europe: A Transatlantic Problem?

Copyright Date: 2011
Pages: 303
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  • Book Info
    The Frontiers of Europe
    Book Description:

    As the European Union tries to increase both its visibility and its impact on the world stage, it cannot overlook the fact that until now enlargement has formed its most successful foreign policy. But is the EU's enlargement strategy still relevant today? Have the economic crisis and the speculative attack on the euro made the enlargement policy more uncertain?

    InThe Frontiers of Europe, an international cast of leading experts and policymakers examine the EU's prospective borders from new perspectives. Indeed, the frontiers of Europe are as much a matter of values and the EU's international credibility as they are a matter of geographic definition. The contributors highlight the considerable yet different interests of the United States and Russia in the EU's enlargement strategy, paying special attention to the likely effects on the future of U.S.-EU relations.

    This comprehensive volume focuses not only on the European Union's outward expansion, but also on the internal dynamics within EU states and those states' abilities to deal with pressing issues such as terrorism, immigration, internal crime, and energy security. The EU must prioritize stability in both its enlargement strategy and its relations with the broader international neighborhood. The book raises a note of caution, however: as governance challenges increase, the EU's attention increasingly draws inward, thus diminishing its soft power.

    The Frontiers of Europeis important reading for anyone trying to understand the current geopolitical landscape of Europe and what it means for the rest of the world.

    eISBN: 978-0-8157-2156-7
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. ix-xiv)

    The enlargement strategy and the frontiers of Europe are essential to the future of Europe. Over the years, the debate on the frontiers of Europe has gone hand in hand with the development of the European Union (EU) integration process. Enlargement remains an open issue that deeply affects the external role of the EU and its relations with other key international stakeholders, in particular the United States and Russia. In this context, I argue that the idea of geographic limits based on conventional criteria is not a suitable guide for the enlargement process. Instead, the EU should continue to offer...

  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  5. 1 Introduction: Defining the Frontiers of Europe from a Transatlantic Perspective
    (pp. 1-8)

    The 2004–07 “Big Bang” enlargement of the European Union to in clude ten Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) as well as Cyprus and Malta was accompanied by a feeling of relief in Brussels. This moment marked the consolidation of the “new” frontiers of Europe, a continent no longer divided by the Iron Curtain of the cold war period. However, the post-enlargement euphoria was short lived. In hindsight, the enlargement of the European Union (EU) to the east did not so much settle the issue of Europe’s frontiers as open a Pandora’s box of questions about where the final...

  6. 2 A Brief History of EU Enlargements
    (pp. 9-22)

    The European Economic Community and the European Union (EEC/EU) have together witnessed four waves of enlargement, in 1971, 1981–87, 1995, and 2004–07. Each one had different motivations and implications both domestically and internationally. In three of them the United States had some role, for good or bad. The purpose of this chapter is to draw a picture of the process in order to understand challenges and implications of each of them. The main argument of this chapter is that, so far, EEC/EU en-largement—not to mention the very creation of the Communities—has been perceived as in the...

  7. PART ONE The State of EU Negotiations and Enlargement Perspectives

    • 3 EU Enlargement Policy: From Success to Fatigue
      (pp. 25-34)

      Enlargement has been one of the most successful policies of the European Union, as shown by the spectacular progress in the increase of the number of member states. Since the first enlargement in the early 1970s until now, membership has increased from the original six countries to twenty-seven, and from 200 million to almost 500 million EU citizens.

      The fifth enlargement of 2004 and 2007 was by far the most politically significant, both for the number of new members and for its historical importance, and will be remembered as the reunification of Europe. The accession negotiations helped to create common...

    • 4 EU Enlargement: Benefits and Obstacles
      (pp. 35-44)

      From the beginning of the European project, the treaties have always been very clear: any European country that meets the necessary criteria should be eligible to join the club. That seems a sensible policy that I believe the EU should retain.

      This argument raises three immediate questions, however. First, what is a European country? Second, who should set the criteria for membership and evaluate whether they have been met? And third, even if these first two questions are answered successfully, do eligibility to join and fulfillment of the criteria lead automatically to membership?

      The first question—what is a European...

    • 5 The European Neighborhood Policy: Geopolitics or Value Export?
      (pp. 45-66)

      With the accession of the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to the European Union in 2004, the EU acquired new neighbors to the east. The European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) was formulated as a way of coping with these new neighbors, as an alternative to additional enlargement. It signaled a new and innovative external policy based on offering a privileged relationship to specific third countries. “Neighborhood” forcefully entered the language of the EU’s foreign policy. In addition to meaning “those next door,” the concept of neighbors and a neighborhood carried certain geopolitical connotations. “Neighborhood” can be synonymous with the “near...

  8. PART TWO Immigration, Terrorism, Internal Security:: Related or Unrelated Phenomena?

    • 6 One Frontier, Many Boundaries? European Union Migration Policies
      (pp. 69-82)

      When it comes to migration, the European Union’s restrictive policies have earned it an (in)famous reputation as “Fortress Europe.” Although the EU does not yet have the equivalent of the U.S.-Mexico border wall, it has designed “invisible walls”—restrictive policies ranging from border control to visas and readmission agreements—aimed at controlling the entry of all foreign nationals to its territory.¹

      This chapter discusses the competencies the EU has gained in the field of migration and asylum policies because of the member states’ (security) concerns. It argues that the primary lens through which migration is addressed at the EU level...

    • 7 Terrorism and Immigration in the European Union: Strangers in the Night?
      (pp. 83-97)

      This discussion of immigration, terrorism, and internal security from a European Union (EU) perspective addresses three broad themes: the nature of the terrorism threat faced by the EU; the challenges for the EU in responding to this threat; and the changes and opportunities presented by the Lisbon Treaty for EU counterterrorism efforts.

      The EU member states are faced with different forms of political violence, such as the separatist terrorism of Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), but also domestic threats from extreme rightwing or left-wing parties, as well as animal rights extremists. However, terrorism inspired by...

    • 8 European Union Enlargement, Violent Radicalization, and Terrorism
      (pp. 98-106)

      The security implications of an EU enlargement involving Turkey, in particular, are very complex and, by definition, overwhelmed with political implications. Some people would do anything for such an expansion. Others see Turkey’s entry into the EU as a “clash of civilizations,” or put more bluntly, the latest step toward the Islamization of Europe.

      An EU enlargement can be based on a specific timetable and done to varying degrees (new members might participate in the “Schengen area” or not, adopt the euro or not, and so on). Radicalization is also a highly variable concept, ranging from nonintegrationist organizations to those...

    • 9 Immigration and Security in Europe: A Look at the Italian Case
      (pp. 107-124)

      Between immigration and security there are many links, principally between immigration and crime, terrorism, and urban conflict. But other links, which partly interact with these, concern crime and terrorism and crime and urban conflict.

      Links between immigration and crime exist in every country, but they are particularly strong in Italy, owing to shortcomings in policing and law en - forcement, inefficiencies and delays in the judicial system, and the longstanding underestimation of the problem by many politicians. Moreover, in Italy immigration is largely due to push factors in the countries of origin rather than to pull factors in the countries...

  9. PART THREE Energy Policies:: Between Environmental and Power Politics

    • 10 The Challenge of the European Union’s Energy Policy and Regulation
      (pp. 127-143)

      Energy policy and regulation are closely intertwined. This chapter briefly outlines the energy issues of major concern in the global arena, energy supply and climate change. It then examines these issues from a European perspective in relation to EU energy policy and the single energy market, the internal and external frontiers, the energy supply bridges to Europe, and energy innovation. It concludes with a discussion of the role of regulation and regulators of energy policy within and outside Europe.

      Energy security has been an issue of major international concern over much of the past decade as oil production in the...

    • 11 Translating Energy Strategy into Policy with EU Enlargement
      (pp. 144-148)

      There is a wide consensus that the European Union’s fifth enlargement, the one that brought in an additional ten member states in 2004, and another two in 2007, has made Europe not only bigger but also stronger, more dynamic, and culturally wider, bringing huge economic benefits to everyone.

      Does this very positive judgment also apply to the energy sector? In this sector, the outcome of the enlargement is more questionable. None of the new member countries produces significant energy, and the EU energy balance did not improve after the fifth enlargement.

      In the long negotiation that preceded the accession of...

  10. PART FOUR The New Frontiers of Economic Development for Europe

    • 12 Development Policy in a Changing Europe: More Donors, New Challenges
      (pp. 151-165)

      Development policy has been one of the most dynamic policy areas in the European Union since the turn of the twenty-first century. On the one hand, the emphasis has been on poverty eradication and on making foreign aid more efficient. On the other hand, the incorporation of new issues such as security, migration, and trade liberalization into the development agenda has reflected the EU’s priorities. And new in the 2000s is the attempt to promote a common European vision of international development, with the understanding that a single voice enhances the EU’s visibility and impact in international debates as well...

    • 13 The Euro Crisis and the New Economic Governance
      (pp. 166-184)

      After three years of financial crisis, a great recession, and a year of turmoil over sovereign debt in Europe, in 2011 the euro area faces its largest challenge since its creation. It is now trying to establish a new basis for the future. The optimism of mid-2009 about the beneficial effect of the euro in protecting its members from sudden destabilizing currency fluctuations has been replaced by doubts about the viability of the project and the search for a new equilibrium. In mid-2009, when the global financial crisis was showing signs of abating and the recession began to relent, the...

    • 14 European Union–China Relations in Light of Possible Future EU Enlargements
      (pp. 185-196)

      “Chinese top leaders spend at most a few hours a week thinking about foreign policy, and of that amount of time only a fraction is devoted to international players other than the United States or those located at China’s borders.”¹ This may appear to be a truism, but in a system where—despite a recent proliferation of the actors vying to influence Beijing’s posture in world affairs—the opaque Politburo Standing Committee retains the ultimate decision-making power as the highest body of the Communist Party of China (CPC),² it is a rather consequential fact for Europe. The European Union, in...

  11. PART FIVE A New Security Architecture?

    • 15 A Saturated Alliance? Assessing the Prospects for Further NATO Enlargement
      (pp. 199-208)

      The enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), executed in three rounds in 1999, 2004, and 2009, marks the biggest geopolitical shift in Europe since the end of the cold war.¹ And while the intended effects of that enlargement—increasing stability and supporting democracy in the transforming societies of the former Eastern Bloc—materialized brilliantly, the side effects of these enlargements were largely unexpected. What were these side effects?

      First, enlargement fundamentally changed the geopolitical function of the alliance. Having previously been an exclusively military coalition with a defensive posture aimed at a singular threat posed by the Warsaw...

    • 16 Imperatives of Constructing a New Security System in the Euro-Atlantic Region: The Russian Perspective
      (pp. 209-218)

      The European Union and its member states are too focused on themselves. They have many critical internal problems, but they are not fully aware of what is going on around them. They do not fully realize how alarming and explosive the situation in the world is becoming.

      The European Union and its member states rashly take for granted the reports their think tanks produce to the effect that it’s business as usual. They believe that the security structures they have created are reliable because they are self-sufficient, and that all the other countries, including the Russian Federation, are quite ready...

    • 17 The EU Concept of Security from a U.S. Perspective
      (pp. 219-226)

      From 1945 to 1989—and despite periodic tensions, crises, and opportunities—the division of Europe was for all practical purposes frozen in place by the Iron Curtain. Even in the earliest years of the cold war, however, the United States strongly encouraged European integration—to build a bulwark against Soviet communism, to foster economic growth to overcome the legacy of World War II, and to create a new culture in which cooperation, rather than rivalry, would become the norm. Post-Nazi West Germany would thus be anchored peacefully in a modern Europe.

      Though it was less often stated, an implicit assumption...

  12. PART SIX Democracy Promotion and the Rule of Law

    • 18 The Rise and Stall of Democratic Enlargement
      (pp. 229-247)

      The boundaries of the European Union today are by and large also the boundaries of consolidated liberal democracy on the continent and in its surrounding frontiers. With the happy but small exceptions of Iceland, Israel, Norway, and Switzerland, an EU of twenty-eight member states resides in proximity to a vast and varied medley of weak states (Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Iraq, Kosovo, Lebanon, Moldova); pseudo-democracies (Georgia, Macedonia, Turkey, Ukraine); competitive authoritarian states (Armenia, Egypt, Kazakhstan, Morocco, Russia); as well as many of the world’s most closed and repressive regimes (Algeria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Jordan, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, and Uzbekistan).¹


    • 19 European–Latin American Relations in the Twenty-First Century
      (pp. 248-271)

      The future of relations between the European Union and Latin America—after an expected important enlargement in the decade 2010–20—will depend on the confluence of at least four factors necessary to accomplish a considerable change (positive or negative) from the current inertia. Two of these factors depend on the role of Latin American governments and the regional integration system they are developing. The other two factors depend on events in Europe and its vicinity.

      While the Latin American factors are based on the will and success of Latin American entities to develop an institutional framework for regional integration,...

    • 20 Conclusion: The European Union Should Again Be “Open for Business”
      (pp. 272-280)

      This book has shown that EU enlargement—and the EU’s relations with its neighborhood—has never been an issue of exclusive European concern. As Federiga Bindi and Kurt Volker explain in their respective chapters, the very creation of the European institutions and the EU’s successive waves of enlargement have been transatlantic issues because the United States has always viewed enlargement as a stabilization tool in Europe and therefore a matter of national interest. This will also be the case if the EU is to expand to the countries of the Western Balkans. Beyond that, the situation may change, depending on...

  13. Contributors
    (pp. 281-286)
  14. Index
    (pp. 287-303)
  15. Back Matter
    (pp. 304-304)