The Rebirth of Europe

The Rebirth of Europe

Copyright Date: 2002
Edition: 2
Pages: 352
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  • Book Info
    The Rebirth of Europe
    Book Description:

    This revised and updated paperback edition covers the introduction of the euro, the fall of Milosevic, and the impact of September 11 in European integration. The rejuvenation of Europe as a totalitarian century ends and a global century begins is a remarkable story. This book brings together the three dynamics of Europe's position at this extraordinary moment: European monetary union, the deepening of intra-EU cooperation, and the widening of the EU and NATO to take in central European members. It looks at the broad political and policy implications of EMU and shows how the United States views this integration. Elizabeth Pond, a longtime observer of events in Europe and Russia, sees these developments as the beginning of a new postnational European system that is replacing the centuries-old nation-state system. She shows how belligerence and anarchy have faded away on the European continent as compulsory cold war cooperation becomes a habit and as French-German reconciliation becomes the pattern for reconciliation between other old enemies. She follows NATO's transformation into a reluctant peacemaker in Bosnia and the United States' decision to remain a European power. She describes the leap of faith needed to create European monetary union and charts the magnetic attraction of both NATO and the EU in shaping the democratic, economic, and social revolutions in central Europe. She warns about the strains that will face the transatlantic relationship when the euro is on a par with the dollar as a reserve currency. And she concludes by agreeing with former Polish foreign minister Wladyslaw Barteszewski that we are witnessing, after the original birth of European consciousness a millennium ago, the rebirth of Europe.

    eISBN: 978-0-8157-9883-5
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-xiv)
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  5. Glossary of Abbreviations and Terms
    (pp. xvii-xxii)
  6. CHAPTER ONE Images of Europe
    (pp. 1-19)

    Heartland Europe is finally escaping from its past slaughter and division. Francis Fukuyama’s thesis that liberalism’s victory over absolutism means the end of history is demonstrably true for this part of the globe.¹ To be sure, optimism is tempered by all the contrary scenarios of the disaster that looms if the European enterprise does not go forward. No Frenchman struggling to adapt to the post–cold war primacy of a united Germany—and to the Bundesbank’s no-inflation credo—would interpret his lot as rosy. And every upstanding German, horrified by the accusation that he or she might actually be a...

  7. CHAPTER TWO Prologue I: The Fall of the Wall
    (pp. 20-34)

    In the beginning was the cold war. Or so it must have seemed to the generation of leaders who governed in the 1980s. U.S. president George H. W. Bush had come of age as the youngest combat pilot in the U.S. Navy in World War II and become a congressman in 1967, at the height of the Vietnam War. Chancellor Helmut Kohl had lost a brother in Hitler’s war, had pulled corpses out of bombed buildings as a teenager, and never forgot the chocolate distributed by GIs in occupied Germany. Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev had attended university after Stalin’s death,...

  8. CHAPTER THREE Prologue II: Maastricht
    (pp. 35-50)

    Pooled sovereignty was not the first thought of those who witnessed the extraordinary night of November 9, 1989, in Berlin. Maybe bananas were, if you were one of the tropical fruit–starved East Berliners streaming through the accidentally opened Berlin Wall into the West’s cornucopia.¹ Perhaps alarm was your primary reaction, if you were the commandant in the British sector and had no idea what provocations a desperate Stasi secret police might resort to, or what flare-up of tempers might spark an incident. Or perhaps it all seemed like “insanity,” if you shared the unanimous slang judgment of events of...

  9. CHAPTER FOUR Post–Cold War NATO
    (pp. 51-76)

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization emerged from the cold war with glory and perplexity. Its deterrence had produced the longest peace on the European continent in history, and it had never fired a shot in anger.¹ Yet it appeared to many to have put itself out of business, now that Moscow’s troops had retreated a thousand miles to the east and the democratic Germans had regained unity and full sovereignty. Especially after the Warsaw Pact dissolved in 1990, the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, and the Russian successor to the Soviet army completed its withdrawal from Germany in 1994, NATO...

  10. CHAPTER FIVE Present at the Second Creation: European Monetary Union
    (pp. 77-104)

    If NATO lurched into strategic evolution as it was confronted by the Bosnia and Kosovo crises, the European Union marched into strategic evolution by provoking crisis—then extricating itself. At this game the Germans excelled. It was an unusual method of agenda management, especially for risk-averse Teutons. It was, however, the only approach possible for EU activists if they were to steer, and not just be buffeted by, the whirlwind of post–cold war change.¹

    Certainly, in the two years after Maastricht Europe exuded crisis. “Europe is failing to prosper,” sadly concluded an editorial in theFinancial Times.² “Euro-gloom” was...

  11. CHAPTER SIX Present at the Rebirth: Poland and Central Europe
    (pp. 105-134)

    To the east, the central European states that suddenly escaped Moscow’s domination in the 1990s were playing catch-up, reclaiming a (western) European heritage and pursuing their impossible simultaneous political, economic, and social revolutions.¹ Their goal in every case was to win admission to both NATO and the European Union. And in order to qualify for one of the most complex and sophisticated polities in the world, that of the EU, they had to cram into a few years the kind of institution-building and formation of social trust that western Europeans had taken a leisurely two centuries to develop.

    To be...

  12. CHAPTER SEVEN Absent at the Rebirth: The Eastern Slavs
    (pp. 135-157)

    Just how far east does “Europe” go? Next door to the western Slavs in Poland, are the eastern Slavs also escaping from history in a westward direction? After the Russian financial crash of August 1998 the answer to that question was an easy no, as a matter of self-selection.¹ As of 2002, after economic recovery and the tentative choice by President Vladimir Putin to throw his lot in with the West in fighting terrorism, the answer has to be a confused maybe. This chapter examines, first, the initial no, and then, the turnaround in economic reforms under President Putin.


  13. CHAPTER EIGHT EU “Domestic” Policy
    (pp. 158-192)

    The forces that impelled Europe’s unprecedented integration in the second half of the twentieth century were the deterrent horror of Auschwitz, the gulag, and the bomb; economic reconstruction; the magnetic attraction of a long peace and attendant prosperity; a globalized interdependence that has made statelets even as large as Germany far too small to cope alone with pollution and capital flows; German remorse and nightmares; and, in central Europe, a yearning for what is perceived as Western “normality.”

    Would these dynamics still prevail once Europe entered the twenty-first century, with the overarching Soviet threat and the post–cold war fluidity...

  14. CHAPTER NINE EU Foreign Policy
    (pp. 193-226)

    For Americans, September 11, 2001, was an existential provocation. The instant murder of 3,000 civilians and felling of the World Trade Center’s twin towers disabused them of their firm conviction that the world’s sole superpower was invulnerable. In addition, it gave the lie to the prevalent assumption that the twenty-first century’s autonomous globalized markets largely obviated the need for activist politics and diplomacy.

    For Europeans, too, that suicidal al-Qaida mission sparked existential angst, not only because their own open cities and civilization itself seemed threatened, but also because global U.S. leadership was suddenly at risk. The Europeans’ immediate solidarity arose...

  15. CHAPTER TEN Epilogue
    (pp. 227-230)

    The original scorched memory of Hitler and Stalin and the craving for obverse reconciliation no longer drive the process of European integration as they once did. Nor do the tectonic upheavals that followed the end of the cold-war epoch.

    Nor, after sixteen tumultuous years, is Helmut Kohl there to steer Europe into the third millennium. In retrospect, after Kohl so thoroughly discredited himself and his party by blatantly violating campaign funding laws, it is tempting to diminish the role that the longest-serving German chancellor in the twentieth century played in shaping post–cold war Europe. Yet the accomplishments of this...

  16. Notes
    (pp. 231-289)
  17. Suggestions for Further Reading
    (pp. 290-305)
  18. Interviewees (Partial List)
    (pp. 306-320)
  19. Index
    (pp. 321-329)